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All questions of Cyber Security and Social Media for UPSC CSE Exam

What is the primary purpose of cyber warfare?
  • a)
    To protect a nation's critical information infrastructure.
  • b)
    To gain information superiority in a conflict.
  • c)
    To engage in politically motivated attacks.
  • d)
    To spread disinformation and manipulate public opinion.
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Arya Chauhan answered
The primary purpose of cyber warfare is to gain information superiority in a conflict. Cyber warfare refers to the use of digital technologies and techniques to conduct military operations and achieve strategic objectives. It involves the exploitation of vulnerabilities in computer systems and networks to disrupt or damage an adversary's capabilities.

Information superiority:
- One of the main objectives of cyber warfare is to gain information superiority. This means having a significant advantage in terms of intelligence and situational awareness compared to the adversary.
- By infiltrating the adversary's networks and systems, cyber attackers can access classified information, military plans, and sensitive communications.
- This information can be used to gain a better understanding of the enemy's capabilities, intentions, and vulnerabilities, allowing for more effective military operations and decision-making.

Disruption and destruction:
- Cyber warfare also aims to disrupt or destroy an adversary's critical information infrastructure. This includes systems such as communication networks, power grids, financial systems, and transportation networks.
- By targeting these infrastructure components, cyber attackers can cripple the adversary's ability to communicate, coordinate, and mobilize forces, thereby reducing their operational effectiveness.

Political motivation:
- While gaining information superiority and disrupting infrastructure are the primary objectives, cyber warfare can also be politically motivated.
- State-sponsored cyber attacks may aim to influence or manipulate public opinion, create unrest, or undermine the legitimacy of governments.
- By spreading disinformation, hackers can deceive the public, shape narratives, and sow discord within the adversary's society.

Conclusion:
In conclusion, the primary purpose of cyber warfare is to gain information superiority in a conflict. By infiltrating networks, accessing classified information, and disrupting critical infrastructure, cyber attackers seek to gain a significant advantage over their adversaries. Additionally, politically motivated attacks can be used to manipulate public opinion and sow unrest. It is essential for nations to develop robust cyber defense capabilities to protect their critical information infrastructure and minimize the impact of cyber attacks.
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Which type of cyber attack involves injecting malicious code into a website and targets the visitor's browser to steal information?
  • a)
    Ransomware attack.
  • b)
    SQL Injection attack.
  • c)
    Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attack.
  • d)
    Worm attack.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The type of cyber attack that involves injecting malicious code into a website and targets the visitor's browser to steal information is called a Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) attack. In XSS attacks, the attacker's code runs in the user's browser when they visit the compromised website, aiming to steal information directly from the visitor.

What is the primary goal of cognitive hacking in the context of cyber warfare?
  • a)
    To conduct espionage and gather intelligence.
  • b)
    To compromise a nation's critical information infrastructure.
  • c)
    To manipulate public perception and thoughts.
  • d)
    To spread disinformation campaigns.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

The primary goal of cognitive hacking in the context of cyber warfare is to manipulate public perception and thoughts. Cognitive hacking seeks to exploit psychological vulnerabilities and biases in individuals to shape their beliefs and actions, often for strategic or political purposes.

What is the main purpose of the National Cyber Regulatory, Control, and Security Authority (NCRCSA) in India?
  • a)
    To conduct offensive cyber operations.
  • b)
    To coordinate civil and military cybersecurity efforts.
  • c)
    To regulate and monitor the internet.
  • d)
    To develop cybersecurity technology.
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Valor Academy answered
The main purpose of the National Cyber Regulatory, Control, and Security Authority (NCRCSA) in India is to coordinate civil and military cybersecurity efforts. It acts as a coordinating body between civil cybersecurity agencies and military cyber warfare entities to ensure the protection of India's cyber space.

What is the key objective of the Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative launched in 2018?
  • a)
    To spread awareness about cyber threats.
  • b)
    To conduct offensive cyber operations.
  • c)
    To protect India's critical information infrastructure.
  • d)
    To develop cutting-edge cybersecurity technology.
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

Lakshya Ias answered
The key objective of the Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative launched in 2018 is to spread awareness about cyber threats. It aims to build capacity for safety measures among Chief Information Security Officers (CISOs) and frontline IT staff across all government departments in India.

What is the main goal of disinformation attacks?
  • a)
    To compromise cognitive biases.
  • b)
    To protect a nation's critical infrastructure.
  • c)
    To spread awareness about cyber threats.
  • d)
    To enhance public trust in the government.
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

The main goal of disinformation attacks is to compromise cognitive biases. Disinformation attacks manipulate the information ecosystem to create social discord, increase polarization, and influence public opinion. They use manipulated, miscontextualized, or false information to exploit the cognitive vulnerabilities of individuals, thereby shaping their thoughts and actions.

What is the main role of the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) in India?
  • a)
    To conduct offensive cyber operations.
  • b)
    To coordinate civil cybersecurity efforts.
  • c)
    To secure India's critical information infrastructure.
  • d)
    To develop cybersecurity technology.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Lakshya Ias answered
The main role of the National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) in India is to secure India's critical information infrastructure. NCIIPC operates as the nodal agency responsible for the protection and resilience of critical information infrastructure, including areas related to national security, economy, public health, and safety.

In the context of cyber warfare, what is the term for politically motivated attacks by a nation-state on another nation-state using computer or network-based methods?
  • a)
    Cybersecurity.
  • b)
    Information Warfare.
  • c)
    Cognitive hacking.
  • d)
    Disinformation.
Correct answer is option 'B'. Can you explain this answer?

Lakshya Ias answered
In the context of cyber warfare, the term for politically motivated attacks by a nation-state on another nation-state using computer or network-based methods is Information Warfare. Information Warfare encompasses operations aimed at gaining information superiority and can include both offensive and defensive cyber operations.

Which international treaty addresses Internet and computer crime (cybercrime) by harmonizing national laws and improving investigative techniques?
  • a)
    Budapest Convention on Cybercrime.
  • b)
    International Telecommunication Union (ITU).
  • c)
    Internet Governance Forum (IGF).
  • d)
    Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
Correct answer is option 'A'. Can you explain this answer?

The international treaty that addresses Internet and computer crime (cybercrime) by harmonizing national laws and improving investigative techniques is the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime. This treaty aims to enhance cooperation among nations in combating cybercrime and came into force on July 1, 2004. India is not a signatory to this convention.

What is the term for a cyberattack that aims to shut down a machine or network by flooding it with traffic or sending information to trigger a crash?
  • a)
    SQL Injection.
  • b)
    Man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack.
  • c)
    Denial of Service (DoS) attack.
  • d)
    Phishing attack.
Correct answer is option 'C'. Can you explain this answer?

Valor Academy answered
The term for a cyberattack that aims to shut down a machine or network by flooding it with traffic or sending information to trigger a crash is a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. In a DoS attack, the target is overwhelmed with a high volume of traffic or requests, rendering it inaccessible to legitimate users.

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