Which one of the following is a matching pair of a substrate and its particular digestive enzyme?
Fat is mainly digested by pancreatic lipase while protein is digested by enzymes in pancreatic juice, intestinal juice and stomach.
A person had to undergo a surgery in which a major portion of his pancreas was removed. Which of the following food constituents will he find especially difficult to digest ?
Pancreas help to make the medium alkaline and fats are digested in alkaline medium. Hence when the major portion of pancreas is removed, fat digestion is affected.
Which one of the following vitamins can be synthesized by bacteria inside the gut?
Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin produced in sufficient quantity by intestinal bacteria. Vitamin B1 is a water soluble vitamin, obtained partly from intestinal bacteria and partly from diet. Vitamin D is a fat soluble sterol synthesized in the skin, Vitamin C is obtained specially from citrus fruits.
The layer of cells that secrete enamel of tooth is
Osteoblast are the bone degenerating cells. Odontoblast are the special cells secreting dentine.
One of the factors required for the maturation of erythrocytes is 
Vitamin A takes parts in synthesis of retinal pigments. Vitamin C functions as antioxidant. Vitamin D is required for the absorption of calcium in the intestine.
The hormone that stimulates the stomach to secrete gastric juice is 
Enterogasterone reduces digestive activity of stomach. Renin is secreted by kidney and regulates blood pressure. Enterokinase activates trypsinogen to trypsin.
The contraction of gall bladder is due to 
Secretin released by duodenum inhibits movements in gastric intestinal tract. Enterogasterone inhibits digestive activity of stomach. Gastrin stimulates secretion of HCl.
Which one of the following is a protein deficiency disease? 
Nightblindness is caused by deficiency of vitamin A. Cirrhosis is caused by inflammation of liver cells.
The daily dietary requirement of a moderately active adult individual is approximately 
The daily dietary requirement of a moderately active adult individual is approximately 2,500 k cal.
Secretin and cholecystokinin are two hormones involved in digestion. They are secreted by 
Secretin is a digestive hormone. It is secreted by the intestinal wall in the duodenum. It is stimulated by food and the strong acid in stomach and intestine. Secretin is released into the bloodstream when hydrochloric acid passes from the stomach into the duodenum. It targets on the pancreas, secretory cells and muscles of the stomach. It is responsible for secretion of water and bicarbonate NaHCO3. It inhibits gastric motility by inhibiting the secretion of gastrin.
Cholecystokinin is a digestive hormone which is released with secretin. It is secreted by cells of the upper small intestine (duodenum). It is stimulated by food (fatty chyme and amino acids) in the duodenum. It targets on gallbladder to contract and release bile juice into the intestine. It also targets pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice. Thus, the correct answer is option A, Duodenum.
Which one of the following pairs is mismatched? 
Vitamin K is a fat soluble vitamin. It is essential for synthesis of prothrombin and other clotting factors. Deficiency of vitamin K increases clotting time resulting in prolonged bleeding.
Nutrients absorbed by the blood capillaries of intestinal villi first go into 
Hepatic portal system brings venous blood directly from digestive tract, spleen pancreas and gall bladder to liver for extraction of nutrients and other metabolites by the hepatic portal vein.
Aorta arises from the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body. Posterior vena cava opens into the right atrium bringing deoxygenated blood from the lower half of the body.
The food having fully undergone mechanical and chemical digestion inside the stomach, is called
After mastication , the food is converted into a small ball by rolling of the tongue known as bolus. Churning movement of the stomach brings about mechanical breakdown of the food into finer particles, the pulpy mass formed in stomach called chyme. In the intestine food is converted into a liquid emulsion due to completion of digestion of most of the nutrients. The liquefied food emulsion contained in small intestine is called chyle.
A person deficient in the rhodopsin should be advised to take more of 
Vitamin A is essential for the synthesis of retinal pigment, rhodopsin. Carrot and papaya are good sources of vitamin A.
A person is eating boiled potato, which food component is found in it ? 
Boiled potatoes do not contain lactose; and cellulose which is present is not digested in man as he lacks cellulase. Starch is the major food component which is present in boiled potato and is broken down into maltose and isomaltose due to' salivary amylase and is hence digested. DNA is broken down into purines, pyrimidines and sugars by pancreatic nuclease (such as DNAse).
Which one is correctly matched? 
Vitamin D - Calciferol
Vitamin B1 - Thiamine
Vitamin A - Retinol
Vitamin B2 - Riboflavin
Hydrolytic enzymes which act on low pH are called as 
Proteases catalyze breakdown of proteins and amylases act upon carbohydrates. Hydrolases catalyse hydrolysis.
Stool of a person is whitish grey coloured due to malfunction of which of the following organ?
Stool colour is due to the bile pigments biliverdine and bilirubin secreted by Liver. If stool colour is whitish grey that means secretion of biliveridin and bilirubin is not proper from the liver.
Fluoride pollution mainly affects 
Main source of Flourine: Drinking water, tea, sea food. Deficiency causes weak teeth and excess causes mottling of teeth or fluorosis.
Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched? [1994, 2003]
option ( a) Vitamin B6 - Beri Beri
Vitamin B6 deficiency is associated with diseases like weakened immune function, microcytic anemia, eletroencephalographic abnormalities, Dermatitis with cheilosis (scaling on the lips and cracks at the corners of the mouth) and glossitis, depression and confusion.
During prolonged fasting, in what sequence are the following organic compounds used up by the body ? 
Carbohydrates are basic source of energy proteins provide material for growth and development.
Which one of the following pairs is not correctly matched? 
Deficiency of pyridoxine (Vit B6) causes dermatitis, anaemia, convulsions, nausea, vomiting and mental disorders.
Duodenum has characteristic Brunner’s gland which secrete two hormones called
Secretin released by duodenal cells inhibits movement in gastrointestinal tract. Cholecystokinin stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes. Prolactin is a hormone released by anterior pituitary. Parathormone is released by parathyroid glands. Estradiol is released by ovary and progesterone is released by corpus luteum.
Which one of the following is the correct matching of a vitamin, its nature and its deficiency disease? 
Vitamins, A, D, E and K are fat soluble vitamins.
Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human, may lead to