31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Health & Disease - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Match List-I with List-II     [2021]

Choose the correct answer from the options given below.

Solution:
  • Bacteria like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are responsible for the disease pneumonia in humans which infects the alveoli (air filled sacs) of the lungs.
  • Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite in the large intestine of human which causes amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery).
  • Wuchereria (W. bancrofti and W. malayi), the filarial worms cause a slowly developing chronic inflammation of the organs in which they live for many years, usually the lymphatic vessels of the lower limbs and the disease is called elephantiasis or filariasis.
  • Many fungi belonging to the genera Microsporum, Trichophyton and Epidermophyton are responsible for ringworms which is one of the most common infectious diseases in man  Appearance of dry, scaly lesions on various parts of the body such as skin, nails and scalp are the main symptoms of the disease.
QUESTION: 2

Identify the wrong statement with reference to immunity:  [2020]

Solution:
  • Active immunity is slow and takes time to give its full effective response.
  • Foetus receiving some antibodies from their mother, through the placenta during pregnancy is an example of passive immunity.
  • Active immunity is the immunity in which when host is exposed to antigens either living or dead, antibodies are produced in the host body.
  • In passive immunity readymade antibodies are directly given to protect the body against foreign agents.
QUESTION: 3

Which of the following immune response is responsible for rejection of kidney graft?   [2019]

Solution:
  • Transplantation of tissue/organ often fails due to non-acceptance by the patient’s body therefore, tissue matching and blood group matching are essential before undertaking any graft/transplant.
  • When the immune system recognises the protein in the transplanted tissue or organ as foreign, it initiates cellular immunity.
  • As a result of this, there is a rejection of transplanted organs.
  • To suppress the immune response during transplantation, histocompatibility antigen and immunosuppressants play an important role.
QUESTION: 4

Antivenom injection contains preformed antibodies while polio drops that are administered into the body contain: [2016]

Solution:
  • Antivenom injection is an antiserum (preformed antibodies) which is obtained from the snake poison and it is transferred to the person with a snake bite. It is used to provide immediate immunity in case of emergency.
  • Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). Two types are used - an inactivated poliovirus (antigen) given by injection and an attenuated poliovirus (antigen) given by mouth. Oral polio vaccine contains the live attenuated pathogen which can induce an immune response in the recipient without making them ill.
  • The inactivated polio vaccines are very safe. Mild redness or pain may occur at the site of injection. Oral polio vaccines cause vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis.

So, the correct answer is 'Attenuated pathogens'.

QUESTION: 5

Which part of the tobacco plant is infected by Meloidogyne incognita? [2016]

Solution:
  • Roots of the tobacco plants are infected by Meloidogyne incognita.
  • RNAi (RNA interference) method is used to develop resistance in these plants against infection.

Meloidogyne incognita

So, the correct option is 'Root'.

QUESTION: 6

In higher vertebrates, the immune system can distinguish between self-cells and non-self. If this property is lost due to genetic abnormality and it attacks self-cells, then it leads to _________. [2016]

Solution:

Autoimmunity is a disorder of the body’s defence mechanism in which an immune response is elicited against its own tissues, which are thereby damaged or destroyed. Autoimmunity may be caused due to genetic or environmental factors.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?            [2018]

Solution:

An illness that occurs when the body tissues are attacked by its own immune system is known as autoimmune disease.

  • Psoriasis, Vitiligo and Rheumatoid arthritis are autoimmune diseases.
  • Alzheimer's is caused by brain cell death. It is a neurodegenerative disease. There is progressive brain cell death that happens over time.

Thus the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following is not a sexually transmitted disease? [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Encephalitis is a disease of inflammation of the brain. It is not transmitted sexually. Most commonly it is caused by a virus.
  • Syphilis is a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact. The disease starts as a painless sore — typically on your genitals, rectum or mouth. Syphilis spreads from person to person via skin or mucous membrane contact with these sores.
  • Trichomoniasis (or “trich”) is a very common sexually transmitted disease (STD). It is caused by infection with a protozoan parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.
  • AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease, which causes severe damage to the immune system.

HIV has been found in saliva, tears, nervous system tissue, blood, semen (including pre-seminal fluid, or "pre-cum"), vaginal fluid, and breast milk. However, only blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk have been proven to transmit the infection to others.

Transmission of the virus occurs:

  • Through sexual contact: including oral, vaginal, and anal sex.
  • Through blood: via blood transfusions (now extremely rare in the U.S) or needle sharing.
  • From mother to child: a pregnant woman can passively transmit the virus to her fetus, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby.
QUESTION: 9

HIV that causes AIDS, first starts destroying: [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • After infection, HIV starts to destroy the T cells (T-helper lymphocytes). T cells are very important for the immune system.
  • In the early stage of infection, a decline in numbers of T cells is observed.
  • When the virus enters the host cell, reverse transcriptase, which is virally encoded, converts the RNA into DNA. The DNA of the virus is integrated into the DNA of cells with the help of integrase, and thus replication begins. This is identified by a reduction in the amount of helper T cells compared to normal helper T cells.
QUESTION: 10

The active form of Entamoeba histolytica feeds upon: [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Entamoeba histolytica is a pathogenic amoeba that is well-known for infecting humans with intestinal and extraintestinal infections.
  • The trophozoites of Entamoeba secrete proteolytic enzymes which partially dissolve and loosens the mucosa, submucosa, and blood capillaries of the colon wall.
  • On entering the colon, it actively ingests intestinal tissues and RBCs. 
  • Serious damage ulceration is observed in the colon wall. This E. histolytica feeds on erythrocyte, mucosa, and submucosa of the colon which leads to amoebiasis.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following viruses is not transferred through semen of an infected male? [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • HIV: is transmitted through blood, semen, breast milk, and other body fluids.
  • Chikungunya: is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus. It is a viral disease transmitted to humans by infected mosquitoes.
  • Ebola virus: has been detected in blood and many body fluids. Body fluids include saliva, mucus, vomit, feces, sweat, tears, breast milk, urine, semen, and vaginal fluids.
  • Hepatitis B: is usually spread through blood, semen, or other body fluids from a person infected with the virus.

Hence , the correct answer is option B: Chikungunya virus.

QUESTION: 12

Match each disease with its correct type of vaccine: [2015 RS]

Solution:

(a) - (iv) Tuberculosis vaccine (BCG) has inactivated bacteria.

(b) - (iii) In the whooping cough vaccine, there are killed pathogens of Bordetella pertussis which cause whooping cough.

(c) - (ii) In DPT, diphtheria toxoid is present.

(d) - (i) Sabin polio vaccine contains inactivated virus.

Hence, the correct answer is option B.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following endoparasites of humans does show viviparity? [2015 RS]

Solution:
  • Trichinella spiralis, a nematode parasite copulates in intestine, after which males dies and females produces larvae which enters into the blood circulation to reach the muscles.

  • The production of larvae indicates vivipary. Ancylostoma, Enterobius and Ascaris are all egg laying endoparasites.

 Hence the correct option in B.

QUESTION: 14

Which one of the following immunoglobulins does constitute the largest percentage in human milk? [2015 RS]

Solution:

IgA is found in the body’s external secretion, such as milk and colostrum. Colostrum contains high levels of lgA, which gives passive immunity to the child.

Hence , the correct option is B.

QUESTION: 15

If you suspect a major deficiency of antibodies in a person, to which of the following would you look for confirmatory evidence? [2015 RS]

Solution:

Serum globulins test provides confirmatory evidence measuring the deficiency of antibodies (γ -globulin) in a person.

Hence, the correct option is C.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following diseases is caused by a protozoan? [2015 RS]

Solution:

Babesiosis is malaria like disease caused by protozoan-Babesia. Babesiosis is transmitted to humans by ticks, and it frequently coexists with other tick-borne disorders like Lyme disease. Symptoms include fever, chills, bodily aches, and loss of appetite etc. In this disease hemoglobinuric fever takes place.

Emerging Disease Issues - Babesiosis

Hence, the correct option is B.

QUESTION: 17

Which is the particular type of drug that is obtained from the plant whose one flowering branch is shown below? [2014]
I need help with Which is the particular type of drug that is obtained from  the plant whose one flowering branch is shown below?

Solution:
  • The given image shows the flowers of the Datura plant. Datura is a psychedelic plant. It contains tropane alkaloids which can cause hallucinations.
  • The drug obtained from Datura is hallucinogenic which produces dream-like state and can even cause psychosis, a condition of loss of contact with external reality.

So, the correct answer is 'Hallucinogen'.

QUESTION: 18

At which stage of HIV infection does one usually show symptoms of AIDS: [2014]

Solution:
  • In many patients, symptoms of HIV infection do not occur until stage 3 of the infection. HIV selectively destroys helper T-lymphocytes. It, therefore, causes symptoms of immunodeficiency due to a critically low number of helper T-lymphocytes.
  • Stage 3 is usually a period where the severity and frequency of these infections and neoplasms are directly related to the decline of CD4+ T cells or helper T-lymphocytes.
  • Thus, the correct answer is, 'When HIV damages a large number of helper T- Lymphocytes'.
QUESTION: 19

MALT constitutes about ________ per cent of the lymphoid tissue in the human body.

Solution:
  • Mucosa Associated Lymphoid Tissue constitutes about 50% of the lymphoid tissue in the human body. It is scattered along the mucosal lining in the human body.
  • There are three types of situations in which MALT is present: Tonsils, Appendix, & small intestine area.

Hence , the correct option is A.

QUESTION: 20

Asthma may be attributed to:

Solution:
  • Asthma may be attributed to allergic reaction of the mast cells in the lungs.
  • Asthma symptoms, which include coughing, wheezing, and chest tightness, are common in an asthma attack. Sometimes asthma is called bronchial asthma or reactive airway disease. 
  • Mast cells secrete the autacoid mediators histamine, prostaglandin (PG) D2, and leukotriene (LT) C4, which are capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, mucus secretion, and mucosal edema, all features of asthma.

So, the correct answer is 'Allergic reaction of the mast cells in the lungs'

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