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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2


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25 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 | 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2

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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 1

Which one of the following also acts as a catalyst in a bacterial cell ?

[2011]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 1

23sr RNA acts as a catalyst in a bacterial cell.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 2

Satellite DNA is useful tool in:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 2

Satellite DNA is useful in forensic science. The polymorphism of minisatellite, microsatellite and minivariant repeats is analysed for DNA finger printing, DNA profiling. It helps in the resolution of crimes, legal disputes etc.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 3

The one aspect which is not a salient feature of genetic code, is its being:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 3

Genetic code is non ambiguous. There is no ambiguity for a particular codon. A particular codon will always code for the same amino acid, where ever it is found.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 4

Select the two correct statements out of the four (a–d) given below about lac operon.

(i) Glucose or galactose may bind with the repressor and inactivate it
(ii) In the absence of lactose the repressor binds with the operator region
(iii) The z-gene codes for permease
(iv) This was elucidated by Francois Jacob and Jacque Monod

The correct statements are:

[2010]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 4

Jacob and Monod proposed the lac operon of E. coli. The lac operon contains a promoter, an operator, and three structural genes called z, y, and a, coding for the enzyme, β galactosidase, permease and transacetylase respectively. The lac regulator gene, designated as i gene, codes for repressor. In the absence of the inducer, the repressor binds to the lac operator, preventing RNA polymerase from binding to the promoter and thus transcribing the structural gene.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 5

Whose experiments cracked the DNA and discovered unequivocally that a genetic code is a ‘triplet’

[2009].

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 5

Nirenberg and Mathaei (1961) experimen-tally proved that a single amino acid is determined by a sequence of three nitrogen bases. The sequence of three nitrogen bases determining a single amino acid is called a triplet code. Nirenberg and Mathaei experiments cracked the DNA and discovered unequivocally that a genetic code is a triplet.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 6

Semi-conservative replication of DNA was first demonstrated in:

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 6

Semiconservative replication of DNA was first demonstrated in Escherichia coli. E. coli is a common type of bacteria that can get into food, like beef and vegetables. The strange thing about these bacteria is that they are not always harmful to you. E. coli normally lives inside your intestines, where it helps your body breakdown and digest the food you eat.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 7

Removal of introns and joining the exons in a defined order in a transcription unit is called:

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 7

Splicing is the removal of introns and joining the exons in a defined order in a transcription unit. In molecular biology, splicing is a modification of RNA after transcription, in which introns are removed and exons are joined.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 8

What is not true for genetic code?

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 8

The genetic code consists of 64 triplets of nucleotides. These triplets are called codons. With three exceptions, each codon encodes for one of the 20 amino acids used in the synthesis of proteins. That produces some redundancy in the code. Most of the amino acids being encoded by more than one codon. The genetic code can be expressed as either RNA codons or DNA codons.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 9

T.O. Diener discovered a:

[2009]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 9

Theodor O. Diener discovered the Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid (“PSTVd”), the first viroid ever identified, in 1971. PSTVd is a small, circular RNA molecule. Dr. Diener discovered that the pathogen causing potato spindle tuber disease is not a virus, as previously believed, but a much smaller, free RNA molecule.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 10

Haploids are more suitable for mutation studies than the diploids. This is because

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 10

Haploids describes a nucleus cell or organism with a single set of unpaired chromosomes. The haploid number is designated as X. Reproductive cells, formed as a result of meiosis are diploid. Fusion of two such cells restores the normal diploid number. Therefore, haploids are more suitable for mutation studies than the diploids. This is because all mutations, whether dominant or recessive are expressed in haploids.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 11

Which one of the following pairs of nitrogenous bases of nucleic acids, is wrongly matched with the category mentioned against it?

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 11

Purine is an organic nitrogenous base sparingly soluble in water, that gives rise to a group of biologically important derivatives, notably adenine and guanine, which occur in nucleotides and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 12

Which one of the following pairs of codons is correctly matched with their function or the signal for the particular amino acid?

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 12

GCU indicates alanine but GUU indicates valine. Stop codons are UAG, UGA and UAA AUG is the most common start codon which does for methionine. UUA indicates leucine but UCA indicates serine. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 13

In the DNA molecule

[2008]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 13

In the DNA molecule, there are two strands which run anti parallel one is 5' - 3' direction and other in 3' -5' direction, the two chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between their bases. Adenine (A), a purine of one chain his exactly opposite thymine (T), a pyramidine of the other chain. Similarly, cytosine (C), a pyrimidine lies opposite guanine (G), a purine. This allows a sort of lock & key arrangment between large sized purine & small sized pyrimidine. It is strengthened by the appearance of hydrogen bonds between the two. 

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 14

Molecular basis of organ differentiation depends on the modulation in transcription by

 [2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 14

The process of formation of protein sequence from DNA strand is called transcription which requires RNA polymerase chain. RNA  polymerase chains are of 3-types in eukaryotes
(i)  RNA polymerase-I
(ii)  RNA polymerase II
(iii) RNA polymerase-III

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 15

One gene - one enzyme relationship was established for the first time in

[2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 15

It was given by Geneticists George W. Beadle and E. L. Tatum which states that each gene in an organism controls the production of a specific enzyme. It is these enzymes that catalyze the reactions that lead to the phenotype of the organism.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 16

During transcription, RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds to a gene promoter and assumes a saddle-like structure, what is it’s DNA-binding sequence?

[2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 16

The DNA binding sequence for RNA polymerase is called TATA box.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 17

A sequential expression of a set of human genes

[2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 17

A sequential expression of a set of human genes is the DNA sequence. Because gene is the functional part of DNA sequence.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 18

The length of DNA molecule greatly exceeds the dimensions of the nucleus in eukaryotic cells. How is this DNA accommodated?

[2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 18

The nucleosome model explains the packaging of histone proteins and DNA in the chromatin material which forms the chromosome.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 19

The okazaki fragments in DNA chain growth

[2007]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 19

Okazaki fragments in DNA are linked up by the enzyme DNA ligase. Replication always ocur in 5' - 3' direction. Okazaki fragments synthesized on 3' - 5' DNA template, join to form lagging strand which grows in 3' - 5' direction.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 20

In which mode of inheritance do you expect more maternal influence among the offspring?

[2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 20

The genes of cytoplasmic characters occur outside the chromosome, in cytoplasm, they inherit their traits like chromosomal genes do. In a zygote formation the cytoplasm comes from the mother’s ova and hence the cytoplasmic characters must come from maternal side and this is the reason that cytoplasmic inheritance is also known as maternal inheritance.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 21

One gene-one enzyme hypothesis was postulated by

[2006]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 21

Beadle & Tatum postulated the theory of ‘One-gene-one-enzyme’ in which they stated that in any living cell there are number of genes present on chromosomes in a linear fashion. One single gene controls the synthesis of one particular enzyme (or protein) in the cell which is responsible for its phenotypic character.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 22

E.coli cells with a mutated z gene of the lac operon cannot grow in medium containing only lactose as the source of energy because:

[2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 22

Operons are segments of genetic material which function as regulated unit or units that can be switched on and switched off. An operon consists of one to several structural genes. (Three in lac operon) These are genes which produce mRNAs for forming polypeptides / proteins / enzymes. Z (produces enzyme β galactosidase for splitting lactose into glucose and galactose). Y (produces enzyme galactoside permease required in entry of lactose) A (produces enzyme thiogalactoside trans- acetylase).
The three structural genes of the operon produce a single polycistronic mRNA.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 23

Which one of the following makes use of RNA as a template to synthesize DNA?

[2005]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 23

Reverse transcriptase (RNA dependent DNA polymerase) is present in some retroviruses eg. HIV virus.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 24

Which of the following is true with respect to AUG?  [2004]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 24

AUG—It codes for methionine only in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, it is also an initiation codon.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 25

Telomerase is an enzyme which is a  [2003]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 2 - Question 25

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein which synthesize the rich strand of telomers in DNA. Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats ("TTAGGG" in all vertebrates) to the 3' ("three prime") end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. The telomeres contain condensed DNA material, giving stability to the chromosomes. The enzyme is a reverse transcriptase that carries its own RNA molecule, which is used as a template when it elongates telomeres, which are shortened after each replication cycle. Telomerase was discovered by Carol W. Greider in 1984.

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