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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1


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25 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 | 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1

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31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 1

What is the role of RNA polymerase III in the process of transcription in eukaryotes?  [2021]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 1

The RNA polymerase I transcribes rRNAs (28S, 18S, and 5.8S), whereas the RNA polymerase III is responsible for transcription of tRNA, 5srRNA, and snRNAs (small nuclear RNAs).

Hence, the correct option is D.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 111 of topic “6.5.3 Types of RNA and the process of Transcription” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 2

Name the enzyme that facilitates opening of DNA helix during transcription.   [2020]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 2

RNA polymerase holoenzyme binds to the promoter, unwinds DNA (open complex) and forms phosphodiester links between the initiating nucleotides. DNA polymerase, DNA ligase & DNA helicase are involved in the process of replication and not transcription.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 109 and 110 of topic “6.5.3 Types of RNA and the process of Transcription” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 3

Which of the following features of genetic code does allow bacteria to produce human insulin by recombinant DNA technology?    [2019]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 3

As genetic code is nearly universal means almost all organisms (from a virus, bacteria to a tree or human being) will have amino acids coded by the same kind of codons as given in checkerboard. So, this property is utilised to produce human insulin using bacteria.

Hence, the correct option is D.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 111 of topic “6.6 GENETIC CODE” of chapter 6.
NOTE: This question is based on the basic understanding of the topic genetic code.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 4

The experimental proof for semi-conservative replication of DNA was first shown in a   [2018]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 4

Semiconservative replication of DNA was proved by the work of Matthew Meselson and Franklin Stahl (1958) using bacterium Escherichia coli. 

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 104 of topic “6.4 REPLICATION” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 5

During DNA replication, Okazaki fragments are used to elongate    [2017]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 5
  • The process in which the DNA is replicated and two copies are synthesized is called DNA replication.
  • It involves the formation of a replication fork. The two strands of the DNA helix separate and the new strands are formed on the original strands, known as the template strands.
  • The strand which is synthesized in 3'-5' direction is the leading strand and the strand which is synthesized in the opposite direction in 5'-3' is the lagging strand which contains the Okazaki fragments as its growth is discontinuous. This strand is synthesized away from the replication fork. 

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 106 of topic “6.4 REPLICATION” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 6

The association of histone H1 with a nucleosome indicates that    [2017]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 6

Histones help in packaging of DNA. In eukaryotes, DNA packaging is carried out with the help of positively charged basic proteins called histones. Histones are of five types - H1 H2A, H2B, H3 and H4. H1 is attached over the linker DNA. Histone contains a large proportion of the positively charged (basic) amino acids, lysine and arginine in their structure. DNA is negatively charged due to the phosphate groups on its backbone. The result of these opposite charges is strong attraction and therefore, high binding affinity between histones and DNA.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 99 of topic “6.1.2 Packaging of DNA Helix” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 7

Which one of the following is the starter codon? [2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 7

The start codon is the first codon of a messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript translated by a ribosome. The start codon always codes for methionine in eukaryotes and a modified Met (fMet) in prokaryotes. The most common start codon is AUG.

What does a start and stop codon do? | Socratic
Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 112 of topic “6.6 GENETIC CODE” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 8

Which of the following is NOT required for any of the techniques of DNA fingerprinting available at present? [2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 8
  • Zinc-finger analysis is used for protein analysis. The zinc finger proteins are a super family of proteins involved in numerous activities of plant growth and development.
  • Polymerase chain reaction is used to amplify DNA into large amounts.
  • Restriction enzymes are the endonucleases that make a cut at specific positions within the DNA.
  • DNA-DNA hybridisation is a technique of molecular biology which is used to measure the similarity between DNA sequences.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 122 of topic “6.10 DNA FINGERPRINTING” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 9

A complex of ribosomes attached to a single strand of RNA is known as: [2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 9

Large clusters of 10 to 100 ribosomes, actively translating protein synthesis are called polysomes. They were initially named as ergosomes in 1963. However, further research by Jonathan Warner and Alex Rich characterized polysome.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 10

Taylor conducted the experiments to prove semiconservative mode of chromosome replication on   [2016]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 10

Taylor labelled the DNA in Vicia faba root tip cells with radioactive thymidine and then cultured them in normal media to demonstrate a semi-conservative mode of chromosome replication.

Hence, the correct option is B
NCERT Reference: Page no. 106 of topic “6.4 REPLICATION” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 11

The term 'linkage' was coined by: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 11

Thomas Hunt Morgan won the Nobel Prize (1933) in physiology or medicine for the function of chromosomes in heredity. If two genes were present on the same chromosome, the probability of getting a parental combination was much higher in the next generation as compared to the non-parental combination. He termed this physical association of gene as linkage.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 12

A gene showing codominance has: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 12

In codominance both alleles are independently expressed in the heterozygote.

Example: Blood group in humans.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 13

A pleiotropic gene: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 13

A pleiotropic gene regulates multiple traits (characteristics) in an individual.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 14

Which one of the following is not applicable to RNA? [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 14

RNA is single-stranded, so it doesn’t follow chargaff’s rule.

Chargaff’s rule states that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases, that the amount of guanine (G) is equal to cytosine (C) and the amount of adenine (A) is equal to thymine (T).

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 97 of topic “6.1 THE DNA” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 15

Multiple alleles are present: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 15

Multiple alleles refer to the presence of more than two alternate forms of a gene which should be accommodated on two loci on a homologous pair. This is facilitated by the presence of more than one allele on the same locus of a chromosome provided one allele is present at a locus at a time. All alleles of a gene are situated on the same loci of chromosomes in organisms.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 16

The chromosomes in which centromere is situated close to one end are: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 16

Chromosomes are classified according to the position of the centromere:

  • If the centromere is present somewhere in between, but not exactly in the middle, of the chromosome, it is called submetacentric chromosomes.
  • Chromosomes having a centromere exactly in the middle are called metacentric.
  • Acrocentric chromosomes have the centromere located very near to its end. They appear as rod-shaped or “i “ shaped chromosomes.
  • The telocentric chromosomes have the centromere located at the end of the chromosome.


31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 17

Gene regulation governing lactose operon of E.coli that involves the lac I gene product is: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 17
  • In negative inducible operons, a regulatory repressor protein is normally bound to the operator, which prevents the transcription of the genes in the operon.
  • If an inducer molecule is present, it binds to the repressor and changes its conformation so that it is unable to bind to the operator. This allows for expression of the operon.
  • The lac operon is a negatively controlled inducible operon, where the inducer molecule is allolactose.

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 117 of topic “6.8.1 The Lac operon” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 18

The movement of a gene from one linkage group to another is called: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 18

In translocation, the movement of a gene takes place from one linkage group to another between non-homologous chromosomes.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 19

In sea urchin DNA, which is double-stranded, 17% of the bases were shown to be cytosine. The percentages of the other three bases expected to be present in this DNA are: [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 19

Chargaff's rule states:

  • Molar amount of adenine(A) = Molar amount of thymine(T)
  • Molar amount of guanine(G) = Molar amount of cytosine(C)

Hence, G is 17%, so, C = 17% and A = 33%, so, T = 33%
Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 97 of topic “6.1 THE DNA” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 20

A man with blood group 'A' marries a woman with blood group 'B'. What are all the possible blood groups of their offspring? [2015 RS]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 20

The genotype of a man with blood group A can be IAIA or IAi. Similarly woman with blood group B, the genotype can be IBIB or IBi. Hence the offspring can have all the possible blood types, i.e. A, B, AB and O.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 21

Which one of the following is wrongly matched? [2014]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 21
  • Transcription is the process of copying genetic information from one strand of the DNA into RNA.
  • Wherein the principle of complementarity guesses the process of transcription.
  • Transcription is writing information from DNA to mRNA not DNA to t-RNA.

Transcription

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 107 of topic “6.5 TRANSCRIPTION” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 22

Transformation was discovered by: [2014]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 22
  • Frederick Griffith (1928), a British Medical officer described the phenomenon of bacterial transformation.
  • He carried out an experiment with Streptococcus pneumoniae (bacterium causing pneumonia) which is used to infect mice.
  • By using S Strain (heat-killed) and R strain (live) it was concluded that R strain has been transformed by some material of S strain which makes R strain virulent and enables to synthesize smooth polysaccharide.

Fig: Griffith’s experiment on mice

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 100 of topic “6.2 THE SEARCH FOR GENETIC MATERIAL” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 23

Commonly used vectors for human genome sequencing are: [2014]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 23
  • BAC is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (F plasmid) used for transforming and cloning in bacteria ( E.coli ). 
  • Yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) are genetically engineered chromosomes derived from the DNA of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is then ligated into a bacterial plasmid.
  • By inserting large fragments of DNA, from 100–1000 kb, the inserted sequences can be cloned and physically mapped using a process called chromosome walking.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 119 of topic “6.9 HUMAN GENOME PROJECT” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 24

Which of the following important biochemical reactions in living systems is catalyzed by a ribozyme? [2013]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 24

In prokaryotes (bacteria) the 23srRNA  of the larger subunit of ribosome is the enzyme ribozyme that catalyzes peptide bond formation.

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 115 of topic “6.7 TRANSLATION” of chapter 6.

31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 25

An abnormal human baby with 'XXX' sex chromosomes was born due to  [2012]

Detailed Solution for 31 Years NEET Previous Year Questions: Molecular Basis of Inheritance - 1 - Question 25

Triple X syndrome occurs in women, who inherit three X chromosomes--their genotype is XXX. This type of syndrome is very rare and occurs due to defects in meiosis 1 and 2 during gamete formation in the mother and produces abnormal ova.

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