Bryophytes comprise 
In bryophytes, the dominant and independent living phase of the life cycle is gametophyte. Sporophyte is always attached and dependent upon the gametophytic plant body for water supply, fixation, and part or whole nutrient requirement.
In which of the following would you place the plants having vascular tissue lacking seeds? [1999, 2000]
Pteridophytes are primitive seedless vascular plants. Bryophytes are non vascular embryophytes. Gymnosperms are seed plants in which conducting part of xylem consist of tracheids. Algae are non-vascular photosynthetic aquatics forming accessory spores for asexual reproduction.
Which of the following is true about bryophytes? 
Bryophytes are non vascular embryophytes characterized by the presence of an independent gametophyte and a parasitic sporophyte. Plant body is either thalloid or foliose. Archegonium is the flask shaped female sex organ. They bear chloroplast.
Columella is a specialised structure found in the sporangium of 
Ulothrix is a green alga. Spirogyra is a filamentous green alga. In Rhizopus the columella bears the spores for asexual reproduction
Fusion of two motile gametes which are dissimilar in size is termed as
Fusion of two motile gametes which are dissimilar in size is termed as anisogamy.
The largest ovules, largest male and female gametes and largest plants are found among
Egg of Cycas (Gymnosperms) and its nucleus are the largest in the plant kingdom. The sperms of Cycas are also the largest in the plant kingdom.
In Ferns meiosis occurs when 
Gametic meiosis is found in all animals. In sporic meiosis the sporophyte produces sporangia where meiosis occurs producing haploid spores.
One of the most important reasons why wild plants should thrive is that they are good sources of 
Wild varieties have the genes for the resistance to disease and pests.
Floridean starch is found in 
Reserve food in red algae (Rhodophyceae) is Floridean starch. In green algae (Chlorophyceae), reserve food is starch. In brown algae, reserve food is laminarin and manitol. In cyanophyceae reserve food is cyanophycean starch.
A research student collected certain alga & found its cell contained both chlorophyll-a,b,c & chlorophyll-d as well as phycoerythrin.The alga belongs to 
In green algae, the photosynthetic pigments are chlorophyll a & b, carotenes and xanthophylls. In phaeophyceae, the pigments are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c and carotenes and xanthophylls. Phycoerythrin gives red colour to Rhodophyceae.
Cycas have two cotyledons but not included in angiosperms because of 
In Cycas (gymnosperm) the seed does not occur inside a fruit but lies naked or exposed on the surface of megasporophyll.
Which of the following plants produces seeds but not flowers? 
Maize, Mint and Peepal are flowering plants or angiosperms but Pinus is a gymnosperm in which seeds are produced but flowers are not produced or seeds are not enclosed in flowers.
Which of the following is without exception in angiosperms? 
Vesselless angiosperms are Wintera, Trochodendron etc. Secondary growth is absent in some angiosperms. Angiospermic plants are autotrophic in nutrition. But some angiosperms are heterotrophic in nutrition. The 4 special modes of nutrition and their examples are: (i) Saprophytic : e.g. Neottia, Monotropa. (ii) Symbiotic – e.g. Mycorrhiza-between fungus and roots of higher plants. (iii) Parasitic – Cuscuta. (iv) Insectivorous plant – Nepenthes.
Double fertilization is characteristic of all angiosperms.
Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra is an advanced feature because it shows 
Sexual reproduction in Spirogyra occurs by conjugation involving union of two gametes. The fusing gametes are similar but one is more active and passes into the other cell. This differentiation of gametes is called physiological anisogamy.
Which one of the following pairs of plants are not seed producers? 
Pteridophytes (fern) and bryophytes (Funaria) are seedless plants. Gymnosperms (pines) and angiosperms (Ficus) are seed bearing plants.
Which one pair of examples will correctly represent the grouping Spermatophyta according to one of the schemes of classifying plants ? 
Spermatophytes are the seed plants. They are the plants bearing seeds containing a dormant embryo. It includes gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo belongs to group gymnosperms and pisum belongs to group angiosperms.
Which of the following propagates through leaf- tip? 
In mosses vegetative propagation occurs by fragmentation. Marchantia is a liverwort in which propagation also occurs by fragmentation. Walking fern Adiantum propagates through leaf tip.
Which one of the following is a living fossil?
Ginkgo biloba is called the living fossil. But Cycas revoluta a native of China and Japan common known as “Tesso” or Sago palm” is also called living fossil due to its primitive characters.
Match items in Column I with those in Column II
Select the correct answer from the following:
Peritrichous flagellation : Flagella all around e.g. Escherichia coli.
Living fossil : Organisms which have undergone very little change since they first evolved e.g. Ginkgo.
Rhizophore : Rhizophores are present in Selaginella which is a colourless, leafless, positively geotropic, elongated structure.
Smallest flowering plant : Wolffia.
Largest perennial alga : Macrocystis.
In a moss the sporophyte 
In moss main plant body is gametophyte & sporophyte is meant for spore dispersal mainly. Hence it is called that the sporophyte is partially parasitic on gametophyte.
Peat Moss is used as a packing material for sending flowers and live plants to distant places because 
Peat Moss is used wherever we require to retain water for a long because Peat Mosses are hygroscopic in nature and they absorb the moisture from the atmosphere and this moisture keep the living materials and flowers fresh for a long time.
Conifers differ from grasses in the 
Conifers (Gymnosperms) differ from grasses (angiosperms) because in gymnosperms the female gametophyte is actually endosperm which is made before fertilization. While in grasses endosperm is a tissue formed by the fertilization of second male gamete to polar nuclei. Moreover in gymnosperms the endosperm is a haploid tissue while in angiosperms it is triploid.
In the prothallus of a vascular cryptogam, the antherozoids and eggs mature a different times. As a result 
In the prothallus of a vascular cryptogams the antherozoids and eggs mature at different times which result in failurity of self-fertilization.
If you are asked to classify the various algae into distinct groups, which of the following characters you should choose? 
It will be types of pigment present in the cell like Rhodophyceae shows presence of phycoerythrin, chlorophyceae shows presence of phycocyanin in etc.
Flagellated male gametes are present in all the three of which one of the following sets? 
The male gametes of bryophytes are biflagellate, and those of pteriodophytes are multiflagellate, except Selaginella having biflagellate gametes. The male gametes of gymnosperms are non motile except those of Cycas having multiciliate gametes.