The technique used for estimation of minute amounts of hormones and drugs is called
Electroencephalogram is the recording of electric potentials originating from different parts of the brain in the form of waves. Fractionation is the technique of rupturing cells and separating their components especially cell organelles for studying their chemistry and functions. Electrophoresis is the technique of separation of charged solutes on the basis of their differential migration in an applied electric field.
A candidate vaccine for male contraception is based on 
Progesterone is a steroid hormone secreted by corpus luteum and causes routine temporary changes in the endometrial lining of uterus. Follicle stimulating hormone secreted by anterior pituitary lobe stimulates spermatogenesis in testes of males. Luteinizing hormone activates Leydig’s cells of testes to secrete testosterones.
Insulin differs from growth hormone in that it
Insulin is released from the pancreas it helps in conversion of glucose to fatty acids. It increases fat synthesis in adipose tissues.
The gland that regresses with age is 
Thymus gland is present in children with maximum development at puberty and thereafter it begins to shrink and atrophies with the development of sex glands.
Melatonin is produced by 
Melatonin is secreted by pineal gland present between the cerebral hemispheres. Melatonin concentration in blood follows a diurnal cycle, it rises in the evening and drops at noon. Melatonin lightens skin colour in certain animals and regulates working of gonads.
Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) is produced by 
Parathyroid gland secretes parathormone which regulates Ca2+ level in blood. Anterior lobe of pituitary secretes the following hormones growth hormone, ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH. Posterior pituitary secretes vasopressin and oxytocin.
The intermediate lobe (pars intermedium) of the pitutary gland secretes MSH which causes dispersal of pigment granules in the pigment cells which give colour to the skin
Progesterone, the component of the oral contraceptive pills, prevents pregnancy by 
Contraceptive pills have estrogen and progesterone. Progesterone suppresses ovulation and production of LH while estrogen suppresses the production of FSH.
Melanin protects us from 
Melanin is secreted from the intermediate lobe of pituitary. Melanin mainly protects the skin from harmful effects of UV-rays. People living in tropics tend to disperse more melanin in their skin – an adaptive feature.
Mainly which type of hormones control the menstrual cycle in human beings? 
Estrogens are steroid hormones secreted by growing ovarian follicles. During menstrual cycle a negative feedback prevents the over secretion of estrogen. FSH stimulates maturation of Graafian follicles. LH stimulates ovulation and development of corpus luteum.
When both ovaries are removed from rat then which hormone is decreased in blood? 
Estrogen is released from the ovarian follicles. Oxytocin is secreted by posterior pituitary and prolactin is released by anterior pituitary. Gonadotropin releasing factor is produced by hypothalamus.
Adrenaline directly affects on 
Adrenaline is a neurotransmitter that directly acts on the S A node.
The hormone adrenaline (epinephrine) is secreted by adrenal medulla. This was first hormone to be isolated in crystalline form. This hormone is primarily responsible for the alarming reactions. It increases the heart rate, breathing blood glucose level.
Acromegaly is caused by 
Deficiency of thyroxin causes cretinism in infants and myxoedema in adults. Excess of adrenalin does not cause any disorder. Acromegaly is caused by over secretion of STH or somatotrophic hormone (Growth hormone).
Which steroid is used for microbial transformation? 
Microbial transformation is a biological process in which organic compounds are modified into reversible products. These biotransformation reactions are catalysed by purified enzymes present in microbial cells or pure cullures of microorganisms. Cholesterol forms a major component of animal cell membranes liposomes (artificially created spheres surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer like a membrane). Cholesterol is used for microbial transformation (transgenics).
Which one of the following pairs correctly matches a hormone with a disease resulting from its deficiency ? 
Deficiency of parathyroid hormone causes tetany. The disease causes sustained contraction of muscles of larynx, face, hands and feet.
Chemically hormones are 
Hormones are chemical messengers formed by endocrine cells. Chemically hormones are of the following types: Amines–composed of amino group e.g.,
Amino acids – eg. thyroxine
Peptides – eg. insulin
Steroids – eg. aldosterone
Which one of the following pairs correctly matches a hormone with a disease resulting from its deficiency? 
Luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates ovulation. Deficiency of insulin causes diabetes mellitus. Deficiency of ADH or vasopressin causes diabetes insipidus. Deficiency of parathormone causes tetany. Deficiency of thyroxine causes cretinism in infants and myxoedema in adults.
Which of the following hormones is not a secretion product of human placenta ? 
Human chorionic gonadotropin is released by Anophoblast cells of the placenta. Estrogen and progesterone are also released by placental cells to maintain pregnancy. Prolactin is secreted from anterior lobe of pituitary. Placenta secretes Human Placental Lactogenic Factor which prepare mammary glands to secrete milk.
Which one of the following hormones is a modified amino acid? 
Epinephrine is synthesized from amino acid tyrosine. While estrogen and progesterone are modified steroids and prostaglandins are basically fat.
Parkinson’s disease (characterized by tremors and progressive rigidity of limbs) is caused by degeneration of brain neurons that are involved in movement control and make use of neurotransmitter 
Parkinson’s disease (Paralysis agitans) (i) It develops due to deficiency of neuro transmitter, dopamine. The dopamine is not produced due to gradual destruction of neurons in the substantia nigra. (ii) It produces muscle tremors so called shaking palsy. (iii) There is lack of control and coordination of movements resulting in expression less face and stooping posture which gradually produces physical disability.
Sertoli cells are regulated by the pituitary hormone known as 
During spermatogenetic developments spermatids get nourished by nurse or sertoli cells. The function of sertoli cells and hence the spermatogenesis is under the direct influence of folliclestimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by adenohypophyses of pituitary gland.
A steroid hormone which regulates glucose metabolism is
Cortisole is the steroid hormone secreted by adrenal cortex and plays an important role in carbohydrate metabolism. It retards the glucose consumption & hence level of glucose in blood increases & blood pressure increases.
Which one of the following is not a second messenger in hormone action ? 
In heart cells AMP acts as secondary messenger which is made in the response of adrenaline and it stimulates Ca2+ ions to come out from the sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle fibres which causes muscle contraction. cGMP (Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate) which acts as secondary messenger works on the action of acetylcholine, increase in flow of Ca2+ into muscle fibres & hence causes muscle relaxation. There is no role of sodium in hormonal action.
Which one of the following does not act as a neurotransmitter ? 
Epinephrine or adrenaline, norepinephrine or noradrenaline and acetylchloline are the neurotransmitters. These are released by the nerve fibres to transmit the impulse to the next neurone. Cortisone is not the neurotransmitter.
Which of the following is an accumulation and release centre of neurohormones ? 
Neurohormones are actually secreted by the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus. They are circulated to the posterior part of the pituitary gland through the blood & stored there and released when required.
Which hormone causes dilation of blood vessels, increased oxygen consumption and glucogenesis? 
Adrenaline (called Frieght-Flight-Fight hormone) in responsible for the dilation of blood vessels, increased oxygen consumption by tissues & glucogenesis to prepare the body for emergency reactions under the threatening conditions.