AILET Mock Test-1


150 Questions MCQ Test AILET Mock Test Series | AILET Mock Test-1


Description
This mock test of AILET Mock Test-1 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT AILET Mock Test-1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this AILET Mock Test-1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this AILET Mock Test-1 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other AILET Mock Test-1 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

DIRECTIONS: Each question consists of four sentences on a topic. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Select the option that indicates the grammatically correct and appropriate sentences.

A. The balance of power will shift to the East as China and India evolve.
B. Rarely the economic ascent of two still relatively poor nations have been watched with such a mixture of awe,  opportunism and trepidation.
C. Postwar era witnessed economic miracles in Japan and South Korea, but neither was populous enough to power world side growth or change the game in a complete spectrum of industries.
D. China and India, by contrast, possess the weight and dynamism to transform the 21st-centrury global economy.

Solution:

B should be “rarely has…” C should begins with ’the’ Hence the answer is (b)

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTIONS: Each question consists of four sentences on a topic. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Select the option that indicates the grammatically correct and appropriate sentences.

(A) Large reductions in the ozone layer, which sits about 15-30 km above the Earth, take place each winter over the polar regions, especially the Antarctic, as low temperatures allow the formation of stratospheric clouds that assist chemical reactions breaking down ozone.
(B) Industrial  chemicals containing chlorine and bromine have been blamed for thinning the layer because they attack the ozone molecules, making them to break apart.
(C) Many an offending chemicals have now been banned.
(D) It will still take several decades before these substances have disappeared from the atmosphere.

Solution:

Statement B is incorrect because of incorrect use of 'to’ before the verb 'break' (to- infinitive). It should be 'making’ them break' and NOT 'making them to break'. Statement C is incorrect because of the erroneous use of indefinite article 'an' before 'offending'. It should be 'many offending chemicals' and NOT 'many an offending chemicals' as 'many' and 'an' cannot go together. Statements A and D are correct.Hence, option (c) is the answer.

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTIONS: Choose the best option.

Q. The Christmas tree was ……… with stars and other decorative items.

Solution:

The Christmas tree was adorned with stars and other decorative items.

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTIONS: Choose the best option.

Q. The committee was in favour of the proposal but the president ……… it.

Solution:

The committee was in favour of the proposal but the president vetoed it.

QUESTION: 5

DIRECTIONS: Choose the best option.

Q. The two sides in the civil war signed a peace ……..

Solution:

The two sides in the civil war signed a peace accord.

QUESTION: 6

DIRECTIONS: Choose the best option.

Q. The only …….. with the proposal is that it is a little expensive.

Solution:

The only glitch with the proposal is that it is a little expensive.

QUESTION: 7

DIRECTIONS: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text.

Q. It is an important and popular fact that things are not always what they seem. For instance, on the planet Earth, man had always assumed that he was more intelligent than dolphins because he had achieved so much – the wheel, New York, wars and so on -- whilst all the dolphins had ever done was muck about in the water having a good time. But conversely, the dolphins had always believed that they were far more intelligent than man – for precisely the same reasons. 

Solution:

The passage talks about the popular fact of how things are not always what they seem. To support  this statement an example of man and dolphins is given where both believe their respective selves to be the  more intelligent being.
The most suitable summary would be (b) as it covers all the points mentioned in the  passage.
Also, (a) cannot be the answer as it begins with ‘Appearances are not always true’. Similarly, (c) doesn’t  specify what the ‘same reason’ is. (d) is too vague and so can be eliminated. Hence, the answer is (b).

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTIONS: Four alternative summaries are given below each text. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the text. 

Q. The human race is spread all over the world, from the polar regions to the tropics. The people of whom it is made up eat different kinds of food, partly according to the climate in which they live, and partly according to the kind of food which their country produces. In hot climates, meat and fat are not much needed; but in the Arctic regions they seem to be very necessary for keeping up the heat of the body. Thus, in India, people live chiefly on different kinds of grains, eggs, milk, or sometimes fish and meat. In Europe, people eat more meat and less grain. In the Arctic regions, where no grains and fruits are produced, the Eskimo and other races live almost entirely on meat and fish.

Solution:

The passage precisely explains food habits of people from different regions. It also compares eating habits of people across nations: ‘in India people live chiefly on different kinds of grains, eggs, milk, or sometimes fish and meat? In Europe people eat more meat and less grains. In the Arctic regions ... the Eskimo and other races live almost entirely on meat and fish. Now you need to look for the statement that further elaborates it. None of the options give as comprehensive and holistic explanation as option (a) gives. Options (b) & (c) are not good choice because both of them are partially true. Option (b) speaks only about ‘requirements’ and ignores ‘the climate dependent produce of the regions’ while option (c) speaks only about ‘the climate dependent produce of the regions’ and not ‘requirements: Option (d), however, sounds more judgmental with ‘they have to change what they eat. ’Option (a) encapsulates the entire gist of the reasons of different eating habits of people across nations is the most logical conclusion of the passage. Hence, the answer is (a).

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTIONS: In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four. 

Q. It was us who had left before he arrived.

Solution:

use of objective case pronoun ‘us’ is not correct, instead ‘we’ being subjective case pronoun is a better choice. 

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS: In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four. 

Q. The MP rose up to say that in her opinion, she thought the Women’s Reservation Bill should be passed on unanimously.

Solution:

(a)“ In her opinion, she thought’ and ‘passed on’ are redundancy error, incorrect usage. ‘rose up’ is also same kind one. So answer is (a).

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTION: The sentences given in each of the following questions, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. From among the four choices given below each question, choose the most logical order of sentences that constructs a coherent paragraph.

(A) Maintaining and monitoring financial stability has always been a key objective of monetary policy.
(B) Accordingly, the RBI set up a Financial Stability Unit in August-2009 and started presenting periodical reports since March 2010.
(C) The first report found the banking system to be broadly healthy and well-capitalized, but noted that global economic shocks, inflation, the slow pace of fiscal consolidation and the unsettlingly large capital inflows posed significant risks to financial mobility.
(D) However, it was only from the middle of 2009 that the government and the RBI sought to institutionalize the process making financial stability "an integral driver of the policy frame work".
(E) The Reserve Bank of India's second financial stability report is generally positive. 

Solution:

While (A) and (E) both appear to be possible opening sentence, it is clear that DB go together-accordingly in (B) follows ‘sought to institutionalize the process’ in (D). Hence we narrow down to choices (b) and (d), (E) is the first sentence in both introducing RBI’s second ‘financial stability report’. (C) follows (B) since ‘the first report’ in it refers to the first of the report being presented ‘since March 2010’ Hence EADBC is the sequence. Answer is (b)

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTION: The sentences given in each of the following questions, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. From among the four choices given below each question, choose the most logical order of sentences that constructs a coherent paragraph.

(A) The basic dilemma of the nuclear age has been with us since Hiroshima; how to bring the destructiveness of  modern weapons into some moral or political relationship with the objectives that are pursued.
(B) More than 200 years ago, the philosopher Immanuel Kant defined the ultimate choice before mankind; if world  history was to culminate in universal peace, would it be through moral insight or through catastrophe of a magnitude that allowed no outcome?
(C) We are approaching a point where that choice may be imposed on us.
(D) Efforts to develop a more nuanced application have never succeeded, from the doctrine of a geographically limited nuclear war in the 1950 and 1960s to the "mutual assured destruction" theory of general nuclear war in the 1970s.
(E) Any use of nuclear weapons is certain to involve a level of casualities and devastation out of proportion to foreseeable foreign-policy objections, 

Solution:

B is the opening sentence as it states the main idea on which the paragraph is based. C follows B. ‘that choice’ in C refers to the choice mentioned in B. A follows showing how and why that choice is ‘being imposed on us’. E follows elaborating on nuclear weapons. (D) concludes drawing evidence from history on what the future may hold. Hence BCAED is the correct sequence. Answer is (d)

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS: In each question, there are five sentences. Each sentence has pairs of words/phrases that are underline. From the underline words/phrases, select the most appropriate words/phrases to form correct sentences. Then, from the options given, choose the best one.

Q. The participants waited with baited [A] / bated [B] breath while the names of the winners were announced. The initial diagnosis [A] /prognosis [B] made by the general physician was confirmed by a specialist. 
Ten years of city life has transformed the uncouth country lad into an urbane [A] / urban [B] gentleman. 
The balmy [A] / barmy [B] weather of the hill station helped her to recuperate fast. 
I didn't have the courage to broach [A] / brooch [B] the delicate subject with him. 

Solution:

To wait with bated breath is to wait in an anxious or excited way. To bait is to use a small amount of food on a hook or a special device to attract and catch a fish or an animal. Only the former makes sense here. Hence B. 

Diagnosis is an identification of or an opinion about a problem or disease while a prognosis is a prediction about the outcome. Only A suits the context. The word urbane means suave and sophisticated while urban means of or related to the city. The word urbane is apt as it contrasts with 'uncouth country lad. Hence A. 

The word balmy which means soothing and comforting is apt in the context. Barmy meaning mad does not make sense here. Therefore a. Broach is to open up (a conversation etc.). A brooch is a piece of jewellery. Only A makes sense here. Hence the sequence is BAAAA. Answer is (d)

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS: In each question, there are five sentences. Each sentence has pairs of words/phrases that are underline. From the underline words/phrases, select the most appropriate words/phrases to form correct sentences. Then, from the options given, choose the best one.

Q. The mother-in-law never missed an opportunity to deprecate[A]/depreciate[B]  her daughter-in-law's achievements.
All the students were asked to confirm[A] /conform[B] to the rules laid down by the school management. Temperance and tolerance are some of the crucial[A] /cardinal[B] virtues advocated by all religions. 
Students pursuing civil services exams should keep themselves abreast of currant[A] / current[B] events. All nations of the world should make a conscience[A] / conscious[B] effort to cut-down the emissions of poisonous gases in order to save the planet

Solution:

Deprecate is to disapprove or to belittle. Depreciate means to reduce or lessen. Only the former makes sense here. Hence A. 

Conform is to comply with rules or standards. Confirm is to establish the truth or correctness of. Only the former makes sense in the given context. Hence B.

Crucial meaning decisive does not make sense in the context. Only the word cardinal collocates with virtues. Cardinal virtues refer to qualities like justice, prudence", fortitude, etc. Hence B.

Currant meaning a small black dried grape does not make sense in the context. Current meaning present day is more apt in the context. Hence B.

Conscience refers to a person's sense of what is right and wrong, conscious implies self-awareness. Only b suits the context. The sequence is ABBBB.    Answer is (a)

QUESTION: 15

In each of the questions below, four different ways of writing a sentence are given. Choose the best way of writing the sentence.

Solution:

We are talking of a definite activity in the past so the tense should be past simple. Hence, the answer is (a).

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. Among all the apprehensions that Mr Goran Lindblao expresses against communism, which one gets admitted, although indirectly, by the author?

Solution:

This is a direct question. All the options other than option (c) fail to depict impartial evaluation of communism and also what the author 'admitted' in this the passage. It is mentioned at two places in a rather bold manner in the third paragraph of the passage: 'Despite the cruelties' and 'For all its brutalities and failures' communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination. Hence, the answer is (c).

QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. What, according to the author, is the real reason for a renewed attack against communism?

Solution:

This is an inference based indirect question. Options (a) and (c) are not in line with what the author thinks (as mentioned in the passage) is the reason of 'attack against communism' while of the remaining two options, (b) and (d) do indicate towards its reason, option (b) scores over option (d) because of the key word 'real reason in the question and as option (d) indicates, 'still survives' which certainly cannot be rational reason to destroy it or 'renewed attack' against it. Hence, the answer is (b).

QUESTION: 18

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. The author cites examples of atrocities perpetrated by European colonial regimes in order to

Solution:

This is an inference based indirect question. Throughout the passage, in an attempt to 'neutralize' the arguments of Lindblad, the author some way or the other tries to bring into light the actual cause and effect of communism in comparison with colonialism and Nazism: 'Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine' and 'For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination' of the third paragraph. Taking this into consideration, options (a), (b), (c) automatically get eliminated. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. Why, according to the author, is Nazism closer to colonialism than it is to communism?

Solution:

This is again an inference based indirect question. In the passage, in an attempt to counter Lindblad's argument, the author tries to establish some sort of similarity between colonialism and Nazism than communism. In the opening line of the third paragraph, he says: 'The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense'. Now the question is 'why Nazism is closer to colonialism than it is to communism'? Options (b) and (c) straightaway get eliminated because all the three options somewhere or the other deviate from what the author mentions in the passage: 'genocides ... were of similar magnitude'; 'ideas of the Nazi... imported from colonial regimes' and of 'Nazis and the colonialists originated in Europe'. Of the remaining two options, (a) scores over (d) mainly because it precisely mentions what one key thing differentiates Nazism and communism is 'tyranny of one race over another'. Hence, the answer is (a).

QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. Which of the following cannot be inferred as a compelling reason for the silence of the Council of Europe on colonial atrocities?

Solution:

This also is an inference based indirect question. All the adoptions other than option (d) are either irrelevant or contracting as they actually are 'the compelling reasons for the silence of the Council of Europe about colonial atrocities' while option (d) is in fact, 'the compelling reason for the Council of Europe's condemnation of communism. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question

Fifteen years after communism was officially pronounced dead, its spectre seems once again to be haunting Europe. Last month, the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly voted to condemn the "crimes of totalitarian communist regimes", linking them with Nazism and complaining that communist parties are still "legal and active in some countries." Now Goran Lindblad, the conservative Swedish MP behind the resolution, wants to go further. Demands that European Ministers launch a continent-wide anti-communist campaign—including school textbook revisions, official memorial days, and museums - only narrowly missed the necessary two-third majority. Mr Lindblad pledged to bring the wider plans back to the Council of Europe in the coming months.
He has chosen a good year for his ideological offensive: this is the 50th anniversary of Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of Joseph Stalin and the subsequent Hungarian uprising, which will doubtless be the cue for further excoriation of the communist record. Paradoxically, given that there is no communist government left in Europe outside Moldova, the attacks have if anything, become more extreme as time has gone on. A clue as to why that might be can be found in the rambling report by Mr Lindblad that led to the Council of Europe declaration. Blaming class struggle and public ownership, he explained "different elements of communist ideology such as equality or social justice still seduce many" and "a sort of nostalgia for communism is still alive." Perhaps the real problem for Mr Lindblad and his right-wing allies in Eastern Europe is that communism is not dead enough—and they will only be content when they have driven a stake through its heart.
The fashionable attempt to equate communism and Nazism is in reality a moral and historical nonsense. Despite the cruelties of the Stalin terror, there was no Soviet Treblinka or Sorbibor, no extermination camps built to murder millions. Nor did the Soviet Union launch the most devastating war in history at a cost of more than 50 million lives—in fact it played the decisive role in the defeat of the German war machine. Mr Lindblad and the Council of Europe adopt as fact the wildest estimates of those "killed by communist regimes" (mostly in famines) from the fiercely contested Black Book of Communism, which also underplays the number of deaths attributable to Hitler. But, in any case, none of this explains why anyone might be nostalgic in former communist states, now enjoying the delights of capitalist restoration. 
The dominant account gives no sense of how communist regimes renewed themselves after 1956 or why Western leaders feared they might overtake the capitalist world well into the 1960s. For all its brutalities and failures, communism in the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere delivered rapid industrialization, mass education, job security, and huge advances in social and gender equality. Its existence helped to drive up welfare standards in the West, and provided a powerful counterweight to Western global domination.
It would be easier to take the Council of Europe's condemnation of communist state crimes seriously if it had also seen fit to denounce the far bloodier record of European colonialism—which only finally came to an end in the 1970s. This was a system of racist despotism, which dominated the globe in Stalin's time. And while there is precious little connection between the ideas of fascism and communism, there is an intimate link between colonialism and Nazism. The terms lebensraum and konzentration slager were both first used by the German colonial regime in South-West Africa (now Namibia), which committed genocide against the Herero and Nama peoples and bequeathed its ideas and personnel directly to the Nazi party.
Around 10 million Congolese died as a result of Belgian forced labour and mass murder in the early twentieth century: tens of millions perished in avoidable or enforced famines in British-ruled India; up to a million Algerians died in their war for independence, while controversy now rages in France about a new law requiring teachers to put a positive spin on colonial history. Comparable atrocities were carried out by all European colonialists, but not a word of condemnation from the Council of Europe. Presumably, European lives count for more.
No major twentieth century political tradition is without blood on its hands, but battles over history are more about the future than the past. Part of the current enthusiasm in official Western circles for dancing on the grave of communism is no doubt about relations with today’s Russia and China. But it also reflects a determination to prove there is no alternative to the new global capitalist order—and that any attempt to find one is bound to lead to suffering. With the new imperialism now being resisted in the Muslim world and Latin America, growing international demands for social justice and ever greater doubt about whether the environmental crisis can be solved within the existing economic system, the pressure for alternatives will increase.

Q. Which of the following words appearing in the passage means ‘legacy’?

Solution:

‘Bequeath’ means to leave as inheritance or will. Hence, the answer is (a).

QUESTION: 22

In each of the questions below only one among the given alternatives is correctly spelt. Find out the word with correct spelling.

Solution:

Colleague is correct.

QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS: Choose the correct meaning of the idiom.

Q. So far as hazards of pollution are concerned, the traffic policeman bear the brunt.

Solution:

So far as hazards of pollution are concerned, the traffic policeman bear the brunt suffer the most.

QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS: Choose the correct meaning of the idiom.

Q. My boss is, in fact, a live wire he works for twelve hours a day.

Solution:

A live wire is a sharp and active person. The correct answer is (b).

QUESTION: 25

In each of the questions below only one among the given alternatives is correctly spelt. Find out the word with correct spelling.

Solution:

Remembrance is correct.

QUESTION: 26

In each of the questions below only one among the given alternatives is correctly spelt. Find out the word with correct spelling.

Solution:

Tentative is correct.

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following best represents tale of sharks?

Solution:

Both options (a) and (b) represent the 'tales of sharks' as given in the passage. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. Which of the following support the author’ s claim "It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status"?

Solution:

All the given options support the author's claim "It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god­like status'. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is true in the context of sharks:

Solution:

Neither option (a) nor option (b) are true in the context of sharks. Only option (c) is true. Hence, the answer is (c).

QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following is not true in the context of sharks:

Solution:

Both options (a) and (b) are true in the context of sharks as given in the passage. But option (c) is not true. Hence, the answer is (c).

QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. According to the passage, SRI does not have field office in:

Solution:

According to the passage, SRI does not have field office in 'Canada, the Galapagos Islands and Myanmar'. See the first paragraph. It makes it clear that option (d) is the answer. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS: Each passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

Shark Research Institute (SRI) is a multi-disciplinary non-profit scientific research organization that sponsors and conducts research on sharks and promotes the conservation of sharks. Founded in 1991 at Princeton, New Jersey, USA, SRI has field offices in Canada, the Galapagos Islands, Honduras, Mexico, South Africa, Taiwan and the Seychelles. The SRI works to correct misperceptions about sharks and stop the slaughter of 100 million sharks annually.
The shark has been a magnificent creation—perfectly adapted for a life of hunting food in the world’s oceans. It is almost certain that man first encountered the shark not long after he first began using the sea for food-gathering. The fact that sharks are absent from Egyptian and biblical records is no mystery. Given that, even today, much remains to be discovered about the shark, it is not surprising that the Greek word ketos, and the Hebrew word tannin were used to describe any great fish in these times. The earliest known writings specifically about sharks are to be found in Greek records. Herodotus described shark attacks in 492 BC, and Aristotle was able to distinguish between species by 355 BC. It was only when Europeans first entered the Indian and Pacific oceans that they began to encounter the shark on a regular basis. Until the 1560s the shark was generally known as tiburon—a Spanish word.
The English word 'shark', which appeared at about this time, may have come from the German word schurke, meaning Villain. It was in the South Pacific islands where the shark gained its god-like status. The Polynesian people lived on and from the sea, and had plenty of opportunity for gaining fairly intimate knowledge of the creature’s habits. Tales of the shark began to be told. The most well-known is that of Kamo-hoa-lii, the shark-god who lived under the island of Hawaii in great submarine caverns. He occasionally liked to swim in a secluded pool in the Waipo valley. Here he first saw the human girl, Kalei. She was the most beautiful human girl he had ever seen, and he fell in love with her.
Summoning all his magical powers, he transformed himself into a hand­some young man. He successfully courted and wed her. Just before the birth of their son he warned her that the child must never be fed meat. The boy, named Nanaue, was born healthy and normal—except for a shark’s mouth on his back between his shoulder blades. This his mother disguised with a cloak which he wore at all times. When he grew old enough to have to eat with the men, he accidentally ate some roast pork, and developed a craving for meat. He also found that he could turn himself into a shark at will. This helped him hunt fish whose bodies assuaged his craving for fresh flesh. And so he grew to be a man. He was talked about behind his back.
People found the fact that he was reclusive and never removed his strange cloak, but they never attributed the occasional disappearance of a vil­lager from their favourite bathing pool to him. It was only when he was conscripted to work on one of the royal plantations that his secret was discovered. Some young men began teasing him about wearing the cloak even when working hard in the hot, tropical sun. One thing led to another and the cloak was torn from his back revealing the snapping shark jaws between his shoulder-blades. He managed to escape the horrified villagers, leapt into the sea where he turned into a great shark and swam away, never to be seen again.
The tale exists in many forms. In one version he is captured, bound and dragged up Kain-alu hill where he was incinerated on a pyre made of bamboo from the sacred grove.
The bamboo in the sacred grove had always made the sharpest knives. But the god Mohoalii was so angered by the desecration of the bamboo that he took away its hardness. To this day the bamboo on Kain-alu hill, now known as Puumano or Shark Hill, on Molokai is the softest and weakest in the Hawaiian Islands.
By the early nineteenth-century, shark worship was well established in the Hawaiian Islands. Each island worshipped a certain species of shark and inter-island wars often broke out if islanders mistakenly killed another island's god-shark species. There were even shark-human gladiatorial contests.

Q. The story of ‘Nanaue’ can be best described by which of the following names?

Solution:

A ‘fable’ is a very simple story that has a simple moral lesson and often involves animals. ‘Folklore’ is knowledge of customs, traditions and beliefs passed down generation to generation and often have a ‘less than credible’ connotation. Parables are stories from old times that have strong moral and religious lesson. A legend on the other hand is a mysterious, larger than life tales, often inspiring fear or awe. Hence, the answer is (d).

QUESTION: 33

In each of the questions below only one among the given alternatives is correctly spelt. Find out the word with correct spelling.

Solution:

Deliquescent is correct.

QUESTION: 34

DIRECTIONS: A, B, C, D. All these four choices have sets of numbers. The correct choice contains all four correct meanings of the four different words.

Solution:

is correct.

QUESTION: 35

DIRECTIONS: A, B, C, D. All these four choices have sets of numbers. The correct choice contains all four correct meanings of the four different words.

Solution:

is correct.

QUESTION: 36

Fill in the blank:
Q. _______ has been ranked first in India's cleanest cities survey ‘Swachh Survekshan-2018’.

Solution:

Indore  has been ranked first in India's cleanest cities survey ‘Swachh Survekshan-2018’. 

QUESTION: 37

Which of the following IIMs has launched a Bharat Inclusion Initiative to build knowledge and foster innovation and entrepreneurial activity across areas such as financial inclusion, livelihood, education and health? 

Solution:

IIM-Ahmedabad has launched a Bharat Inclusion Initiative to build knowledge and foster innovation and entrepreneurial activity across areas such as financial inclusion, livelihood, education and health.

QUESTION: 38

Who among the following won the European Golden Shoe for the fifth time recently? 

Solution:

Lionel Messi  won the European Golden Shoe for the fifth time recently.

QUESTION: 39

The Union Cabinet has approved signing and ratification of pact between India and Brunei Darussalam with regard to Taxes. The capital of Brunei Darussalam is 

Solution:

The Union Cabinet has approved signing and ratification of pact between India and Brunei Darussalam with regard to Taxes. The capital of Brunei Darussalam is Bandar Seri Begawan.

QUESTION: 40

Which of the following countries recently unveiled world's first floating nuclear power station? 

Solution:

Russia recently unveiled world's first floating nuclear power station.

QUESTION: 41

ECG Sudarshan passed away at 86 recently. He was an eminent Indian-American 

Solution:

ECG Sudarshan passed away at 86 recently. He was an eminent Indian-American Physicist.

QUESTION: 42

Mark Rutte is soon to visit India with an aim to boost the economic and political cooperation between the two countries. He is the present Prime Minister of

Solution:

Mark Rutte is soon to visit India with an aim to boost the economic and political cooperation between the two countries. He is the present Prime Minister of Netherlands.

QUESTION: 43

Justice Ramalingam Sudhakar was sworn-in as the new Chief Justice of which of the following High Courts recently?

Solution:

Justice Ramalingam Sudhakar was sworn-in as the new Chief Justice of which of the following High Courts recently Manipur High Court.

QUESTION: 44

The GLOBSEC 2018 Bratislava Forum meet was held recently in Slovakia. The capital of Slovakia is 

Solution:

The GLOBSEC 2018 Bratislava Forum meet was held recently in Slovakia. The capital of Slovakia is  Bratislava.

QUESTION: 45

The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a plan called 'REPLACE' to eliminate industrially-produced artificial trans fats from the global food supply by 

Solution:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched a plan called 'REPLACE' to eliminate industrially-produced artificial trans fats from the global food supply by  2023.

QUESTION: 46

The Govt has approved the establishment of National Institute of Mental Health Rehabilitation (NIMHR) at

Solution:

The Govt has approved the establishment of National Institute of Mental Health Rehabilitation (NIMHR) at Bhopal.

QUESTION: 47

Uttam Pacharne has been appointed as the Chairman of the Lalit Kala Akademi. He is a/an

Solution:

Uttam Pacharne has been appointed as the Chairman of the Lalit Kala Akademi. He is a/an sculptor.

QUESTION: 48

The department of telecommunications (DoT) has approved the merger of Bharti Airtel and 

Solution:

The department of telecommunications (DoT) has approved the merger of Bharti Airtel and Telenor India.

QUESTION: 49

Anil Kumar Jha has been appointed as the Chairman-cum-Managing Director (CMD) of

Solution:

Anil Kumar Jha has been appointed as the Chairman-cum-Managing Director (CMD) of Coal India.

QUESTION: 50

Which of the following public sector banks divested its MD and CEO Usha Anantha Subramanian of all powers recently?

Solution:

Allahabad Bank  public sector banks divested its MD and CEO Usha Anantha Subramanian of all powers recently.

QUESTION: 51

For the first time, an international rail coach expo was held recently in

Solution:

For the first time, an international rail coach expo was held recently in  Chennai.

QUESTION: 52

Fill in the blank:

Q. The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that air pollution still kills about _______ people each year, almost all of them in poor countries in Asia and Africa 

Solution:

The World Health Organization (WHO) has said that air pollution still kills about 07 mn  people each year, almost all of them in poor countries in Asia and Africa .

QUESTION: 53

Free banking services are likely to remain out of the ambit of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). Which of the following is a free service offered by the banks? 

Solution:
QUESTION: 54

Fill in the blank:

Q. ________ will serve a second two-year term as the independent chairman of the International Cricket Council after he was elected unopposed recently.  

Solution:

Shashank Manohar will serve a second two-year term as the independent chairman of the International Cricket Council after he was elected unopposed recently.  

QUESTION: 55

The Union Cabinet approved the MoU between the India and Swaziland on cooperation in the field of Health and Medicine recently. The capital of Swaziland is

Solution:

The Union Cabinet approved the MoU between the India and Swaziland on cooperation in the field of Health and Medicine recently. The capital of Swaziland is Mbabane.

QUESTION: 56

The Union Minister Smriti Irani reviewed the progress of the ‘Samarth’ scheme at a meeting of the stakeholders on the scheme recently. The scheme is associated with 

Solution:

The Union Minister Smriti Irani reviewed the progress of the ‘Samarth’ scheme at a meeting of the stakeholders on the scheme recently. The scheme is associated with Textile Sector.

QUESTION: 57

The Union Environment Ministry has launched Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) that aims to train over 5.5 lakh workers in environment and forest sectors by 

Solution:

The Union Environment Ministry has launched Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP) that aims to train over 5.5 lakh workers in environment and forest sectors by 2021.

QUESTION: 58

The India Meteorological Department recently issued an advisory to Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and the Lakshadweep archipelago over cyclonic storm 

Solution:

The India Meteorological Department recently issued an advisory to Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra and the Lakshadweep archipelago over cyclonic storm Sagar.

QUESTION: 59

Indian team won the Under-16 football tournament held in Serbia recently. India defeated which of the following teams? 

Solution:

Indian team won the Under-16 football tournament held in Serbia recently. India defeated Tajikistan  teams.

QUESTION: 60

Which country is considering giving India access to a deep sea port in Sabang, including to its naval vessels? PM Narendra Modi is to visit this country shortly. 

Solution:

Indonesia country is considering giving India access to a deep sea port in Sabang, including to its naval vessels. PM Narendra Modi is to visit this country shortly. 

QUESTION: 61

Fill in the blank:

Q. _______ has been ranked first in India's cleanest cities survey ‘Swachh Survekshan-2018’.

Solution:

Indore  has been ranked first in India's cleanest cities survey ‘Swachh Survekshan-2018’.  

QUESTION: 62

PM Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of Zojila Tunnel in which of the following states recently?

Solution:

PM Narendra Modi laid the foundation stone of Zojila Tunnel in which of the following states recently Jammu and Kashmir.

QUESTION: 63

The UN General Assembly President has lauded India's contribution and commitment to UN peacekeeping operations. The present President of the UNGA is 

Solution:

The UN General Assembly President has lauded India's contribution and commitment to 
UN peacekeeping operations. The present President of the UNGA is Miroslav Lajcak.

QUESTION: 64

Fill in the blank:

Q. _______ has set up India Trade Connect, a blockchain-based trade network in India, in partnership with seven banks

Solution:

Infosys has set up India Trade Connect, a blockchain-based trade network in India, in partnership with seven banks. 

QUESTION: 65

Which of the following banks launched ‘Agenda 25X25’ recently to create a synergetic start-up environment for budding women entrepreneurs in India? 

Solution:

YES Bank ‘Agenda 25X25’ recently to create a synergetic start-up environment for budding women entrepreneurs in India.

QUESTION: 66

Britain's Prince Harry got married with who among the following US actresses in London recently? 

Solution:

Britain's Prince Harry got married with Meghan Markle  US actresses in London recently.

QUESTION: 67

The US Senate approved who among the following as the CIA's first female director recently?

Solution:

The US Senate approved  as the CIA's first female director recently Gina Haspel.

QUESTION: 68

The Thomas Cup is associated with which of the following games? The tournament started in Thailand recently.

Solution:

The Thomas Cup is associated with  games The tournament started in Thailand recently  Badminton.

QUESTION: 69

Volcano Mount Kilauea erupted recently. It is situated in which of the following countries?

Solution:

Volcano Mount Kilauea erupted recently. It is situated in US countries.

QUESTION: 70

The Uber Cup is associated with which of the following games? The 27th edition of the game was held recently.

Solution:

The Uber Cup is associated with games The 27th edition of the game was held recently Badminton.

QUESTION: 71

The Supreme Court recognized transgenders as a third gender with all rights in the case of:

Solution:

The SC recognised transgenders as a third gender in the case of NALSA v. Union of India. The case was decided by a two-judge bench of the court which declared that complete fundamental rights shall be granted to the transgender community. It declared that no recognition to transgenders in cases of marriage, divorce and adoption is discriminatory. The case of NAZ Foundation v. Govt. Of NCT challenged the validity of Section 377 of the IPC, and held that consensual homosexual intercourse between two adults is not penal.

QUESTION: 72

Principle:
I. Malicious prosecution is malicious institution against one another of unsuccessful criminal, or bankruptcy, or liquidation  proceedings, without reasonable or probably cause. Burden of proof lies on the plaintiff.
II. Defamation leads to expose a person to hatred, contempt or ridicule, or to injure him in his trade, business calling or office or cause him to be avoided or shunned away from the society.

Facts: Mr. Bhatt is a reputed CEO of BIG SHOT COMPANY. One day, Shalini, a member of his A-team, during a bout of anger shouts in a room full of personalities that Mr. Bhatt is a bad person who sexually assaulted her in exchange for a promotion. Within 2 days, she filed a suit on similar charges against him. Mr. Bhatt, who says he is innocent and requests you for legal advise on prosecuting Shalini for lying.

Q. As a defense attorney what do you think should he do?

Solution:

Both defamation and malicious prosecution (in case of acquittal) are possible.

QUESTION: 73

Principle:
I. Recovery of specific immovable property - A person entitled to the possession of specific immovable property may recover it in the manner provided by the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

II. Suit by person dispossessed of immovable property - If any person is dispossessed without his consent of immovable property otherwise than in due course of law, he or any person claiming through him may, by suit, recover possession thereof, notwithstanding any other title that may be set up in such suit.

Facts: Tyra Banks leased a bungalow in Beverly Hills for a period of 10 years. She lived there for a couple of months before leaving for NYC to shoot a movie. She returned after a year. The owner of the bungalow, who holds the title, wouldn’t let Banks in, claiming that she forfeited her right to enter the bungalow. Of the above-mentioned ones, which principle do you think she can sue her landlord under to gain the possession of the bungalow back (if at all)?

Solution:

Principle 1 allows an owner or the title-holder to sue for possession, note the words, “A person entitled to the possession” while Principle 2 allows a person who has the legal possession (and no title to the property) to sue for claiming back such possession. Hence, principle 2 is an appropriate choice.

QUESTION: 74

The present maximum strength of Lok Sabha is:

Solution:

The maximum strength of Lok Sabha is 552 which include 530 as representatives of States, 20 as representatives of Union Territories and 2 members of Anglo-Indian community nominated by the President.

QUESTION: 75

Principle: Whoever enters into or upon the property in the possession of another, with intent to commit an offence or to intimidate or annoy any person in possession of the property, and remains there with intent thereby to intimidate or annoy another person or with the intent to commit an offence is guilty of criminal trespass.

Facts: Roxy is a boy of 20. He enters a house to have sexual relations with a 19-year-old Melisa on her invitation. He understands that nobody is home but is caught in the act by Melisa’s uncle. 

Q. Is he guilty of criminal trespass?

Solution:

Roxy would not be liable as no mala fide intention existed.

QUESTION: 76

Principle: 
I. A penal legislation must be governed by rules of strict and literal interpretation.
II. Social welfare legislations should be afforded a beneficial interpretation.

Explanation: The Prevention of Corruption Act (POCA) provides that before taking action against any joint secretary to the Government of India, the prosecuting authorities need to take permission from the concerned minister.

Facts: Manoj is an IPS officer posted in the city of Kolkata. He occupies the post of Inspector General of Police (IGP) which is a post of the rank of joint secretary to the Government of India. The CBI wishes to prosecute him on charges of possessing disproportionate assets. \

Q. Does the CBI need prior permission before prosecuting him?

Solution:

As per the principle,a penal legislation must be afforded strict and literal construction. The POCA is clearly a penal legislation and it specifies “all joint secretaries”. It fails to differentiate between those occupying the post of joint secretary and those who occupy post equivalent to the rank of joint secretary.

QUESTION: 77

The first cyber police station whose jurisdiction covers all offences committed under Information Technology  Act, 2000 (only for the state where this city is located), was set up at:

Solution:

The first cyber police station in India was set up in Bangalore, by the name Cyber Crime Police Station (CCPS), Bangalore. The jurisdiction of the police station extends to the whole of Karnataka for offences like computer hacking, data damage and e-frauds committed under the IT Act, 2000. The local police stations would however continue to register cases relating to cyberspace crimes.

QUESTION: 78

DIRECTION: The questions given below consist of two statements labeled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). In the context of the two statements, which of the following is correct?

A: Existence of a lawful consideration forms an essential condition for a valid contract.
R: A contract expressly barred under law is considered to be an invalid contract.

Solution:

Both Assertion and Reason are factually true. However, there isn’t any connection between the both.

QUESTION: 79

Principle: The person with the last opportunity to avert danger must bear responsibility for it.

Facts: Kabir threw a dagger at Vyas, who caught it adeptly, as he was skilled in the art, by virtue of being employed in the circus. They kept doing this to attract the crowd and gather money. Soon, they moved on to throwing fireballs at each other. Kabir threw one at Vyas, and on spotting their friend Vasisht, they threw one at him. Soon the situation got out of hand, and everyone began throwing fireballs at each other and catching them, in a chain. Vasisht threw one at Valmiki and Valmiki, in the process of throwing it to Varun, lost control and threw it on Mira, a passerby. 

Q. Who is liable to compensate Mira?

Solution:

The fireball was last thrown by Valmiki and he missed and hit Mira, hence he is responsible, as he had the last opportunity to avoid danger.

QUESTION: 80

The Constitution of India was enacted on:

Solution:

The Constitution was drafted on 26 November, 1949 and this day is celebrated as ‘Law Day’ since independence. It was adopted on the day of 26 January 1950 to commemorate the ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or the ‘Complete Independence’ declaration made by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru in 1930.

QUESTION: 81

Principle:
I: Anyone who gets or causes to get two minor Hindus married is said to have committed child marriage, and shall be punished accordingly.
II: For a Hindu marriage to be valid, both the parties to the marriage must be competent to get married, i.e., they must not be suffering from any mental disorder at the time of the marriage.

Explanation:
I: Anybody below the age of 18 years is a minor.
II: Mental disorder must be of such a kind that creates a situation, wherein the person suffering from it is unable to understand the nature of the transaction being entered into, and is unaware of himself and his surroundings.

Facts: Akhil and Bharti were married off by their respective parents when both of them were 12 years old and both continued to stay at their parents' places till they turned 21. When Akhil turned 20, he fell in love with Karishma, a girl from his University, but he couldn't marry her as he was still legally married to Bharti. Akhil filed a case in court to dissolve his previous marriage on the ground that he was a minor when he was married off, and hence, unable to give his consent and a marriage without consent is void. 

Q. Will Akhil win his case with this argument?

Solution:

As per Principle I, child marriage is a punishable offence, however, it still remains to be a marriage. The only condition where a Hindu marriage is not valid (as per Principle II) is when either of the parties is suffering from a mental disorder, which does not apply to the present case. The marriage of Akhil and Bharti is still a valid marriage in the eyes of the law. 

QUESTION: 82

Principle: Nothing is an offense merely by reason of its being done with the knowledge that it is likely to cause harm, if it be done without any criminal intention to cause harm, and in good faith for the purpose of preventing or avoiding other harm to person or property.

Facts: Hari,a bus driver was driving negligently and took a sharp turn without slowing down. Suddenly, he found a child standing on the road and in order to prevent him, he immediately turned his steering in other direction and collided with a car and thereby killed three individuals. The police charged him with death due to rash and negligent act. Decide whether Hari can avail the defense enunciated in the above principle.

Solution:

Though Hari took the turn negligently, he acted out in good faith for the purposes of saving the life of the child and thus lacked the intention to kill the persons. Hence, He is not liable.

QUESTION: 83

Principle: When a contract is annulled by the court, the parties are obliged to make good any expenses incurred in connection with the contract, by the other party.

Explanation: Annulment means a declaration by the court that the contract shall not be enforced in a court of law.

Facts:  Albert signs a contract with Pinto to sell his land to him. However, Pinto has a condition that Albert hire a property valuer before the sale to determine the true value of the property. Before the actual transfer of property takes place, the court annuls the agreement on the ground that the land was part of the Green Belt and hence, could not be used for commercial purposes, but belonged to the Government. 

Q. Can Albert claim any compensation?

Solution:

The agreement was annulled by the court.However, Pinto had insisted on getting the property valued by a proper valuer. Hence, he is required to make good the amount.

QUESTION: 84

Principle: Nothing is an offence which is done by a child above seven years of age and under twelve years of age. 

Facts: Sid is a ten year old boy. On the New Years’ eve, there was a huge party at his family friend’s house. While everybody was busy in the party, Sid stole a diamond ring from the owner’s dressing table, with the sole purpose of selling it and earning some money. 

Q. Should he be held liable for stealing?

Solution:

We must examine the given problem in light of the established principle. Here, the principle simply states that no act is an offence if committed by someone between the ages of seven and twelve. Since no exception has been provided, we can eliminate (A) and (B). Option (D) is both factually incorrect (since Sid did have the intention to steal the diamond ring) and cannot be used because the principle does not talk about the element of intent.

QUESTION: 85

Principle: Nothing is an offence which is done by a person who, at the time of doing it, is, by reason of intoxication, incapable of knowing the nature of the act, or that he is doing what is either wrong, or the contrary to law provided that the thing which intoxicated him was administered to him without his knowledge or against his will.

Facts: Soham liked to lead a fast life and usually drove really fast, rather dangerously. When his dad got him a new car as he had got into National Law School, he went to party with his friends. His friends got him drunk although Soham protested and on their way back, Soham exceeded the speed limit and rammed his car into a street light post. The traffic cop on duty booked him for rash and negligent driving and later for drunken driving.

Solution:

Soham did not voluntarily consume alcohol and had actively priested against it and hence he is not liable.

QUESTION: 86

Principle:
I. Under Article 14 of the Constitution of India, the State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India. 
II. All the legislations in India must derive their legitimacy from the Constitution, as it is the supreme law of the land. 

Facts: A person in charge of the construction works was blacklisted from entering into a Government contract, without issuing any warning or providing any reason whatsoever. In his petition, he contended that he has the right to have equal opportunity to enter into contract and his exclusion is violative of his fundamental right to equality under Article 14 of the Constitution. In light of the given principle, decide if his contentions stand in the court of law. 

Solution:

We can easily eliminate option (B) as it directly contravenes principle 2. Applying principle 1, we can see that the person was denied equal protection of the laws under Article 14 of the Constitution, without providing him with a suitable reason for the same. 

QUESTION: 87

Principle:
I:
 The term “industry” has been defined to mean “any business, trade, undertaking, manufacture or calling of employers and includes any calling, service, employment, handicraft or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen” under section Section 2(j) of the Industrial Disputes Act.

II: Under the Industrial Disputes Act, “industry” means any systematic activity carried on by co-operation between an employer and his workmen (whether such workmen are employed by such employer directly or by or through any agency, including a contractor) for the production, supply or distribution of goods or services with a view to satisfy human wants or wishes (not being wants or wishes which are merely spiritual or religious in nature).

III: Sovereign functions of the State do not qualify as “industry”. If an establishment undertakes several activities, the dominant activity of that establishment will determine whether that establishment is an industry.

Facts: A group of lawyers volunteer as per their convenience, when they are not employed by clients, at a legal services clinic, where they provide legal advice to the economically underprivileged for free. 

Can the clinic be termed as an industry?
I. Yes
II. No

Reasons:
(i) Because the clinic is an example of the legal industry
(ii) Because the clinic is not an industry and the lawyers can't be called workmen as they offer free legal advice as  per their convenience
(iii) Because the lawyers are not paid and they are doing the same for charity
(iv) Because profit is not a defining factor for an institution to be an 'industry'

Solution:

The legal clinic is not an example of an industry, as the same flows from the principle. The reasons for the same are clearly outlined in the option itself. There is no sort of employment or agency in this case. It is more of a case of charity in the form of legal aid.

QUESTION: 88

Principle: A marriage is always governed by the personal laws of the parties unless the parties consciously decide to get married under any other personal law.

Explanation: The place of marriage and residence are relevant, but not conclusive considerations in the determination of the personal law that governs the marriage.

Facts: Karan and Lata are both Hindus and get married in Punjab. Now, Karan had not completed his education, and wanted to pursue his Masters degree in the USA, for which he went to Detroit. There, he fell in love with Manisha and they decided to get married. The laws prevalent in Detroit prohibited bigamy. Hence, Karan moved a petition in the court of Detroit for the dissolution of his marriage with Lata. The Court allowed the petition, and being a bachelor again, Karan got married to Manisha. When this news travelled to Lata, she was devastated, and moved a petition in an Indian court to get the marriage of Karan and Manisha dissolved when they visited India on their honeymoon. 

Q. Which of the following is true?

Solution:

The principle clearly states that the personal law of the parties shall be applicable. Since both parties are Hindus and their marriage was governed by Hindu law, Karan should file for a divorce or separation under the same law, not under the law of Detroit, merely because he was residing there at that point of time for his education.

QUESTION: 89

The Constituent Assembly members were:

Solution:

The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the members of provincial assemblies by a single transferable vote system of proportional representation.

QUESTION: 90

DIRECTION: The questions given below consist of two statements labeled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). In the context of the two statements, which of the following is correct?

A: No man can enforce a right which he has voluntarily waived.
R: If a person agrees to suffer harm he can still bring a claim against the tortfeasor. 

Solution:

If a person agrees to suffer harm he loses the right to bring a claim.

QUESTION: 91

Principle: Time is an essence of the contract.

Facts: Banarsi is the most reputed sweet-shop in Lucknow. It requires large quantities of sugar for making sweets. Banarsi plans to sell some new, unique and delicious items of sweets on the eve of Navratri. Therefore, it places an order to Sugar and More Sugar Co, Gorakhpur for supply of 1000 tonnes of top quality sugar before the end of November, specifying its urgent need. The consignment of sugar does reach the sweets-shop, but only on the 12th of December, 2013. Due to delay in supply of sugar, Banarsi incurs heavy losses both in business and reputation.

Decide

Solution:

Time was the essence of this contract. The huge amount of sugar was asked due to incoming festival season and since the consignment came later than that, Banarsi can claim damages. Mere performance at any time is not necessary.

QUESTION: 92

Precedent is binding and authoritative on later cases is based on the principle of law known as: 

Solution:

The doctrine of stare decisis means ‘let the decision stand’ and says that former decisions of a court are binding and authoritative in later cases. Vertical stare decisis means that the decision of higher court is binding on lower courts. Under the Indian Constitution, Article 141 gives effect to vertical stare decisis of Supreme Court of India. Horizontal stare decisis operates when the court is bound by its own decisions. Case laws have established that the court will be bound by its own decision unless the same is challenged by a larger bench.

QUESTION: 93

Principle: Preventing movement in any direction amounts to false imprisonment.

Facts: Baba Hari Om, employing peaceful forms of protest against the granting of the right of euthanasia, along with his followers, lie down on the ground in a narrow lane, leading to the Government Hospital. As a result, Mr. Khatwani, who was on his way to the hospital with a broken wrist, could not proceed in that direction. 

Q. Which of the following is correct?

Solution:

The mere fact that the protest was peaceful does not imply that there was no false imprisonment. As a result of the demonstration, an injured man was prevented from going to the hospital and seeking immediate care.

QUESTION: 94

Principle: All the courts of the world have the jurisdiction to punish the violator/s for acts which are considered to be Crimes against Humanity.

Explanation: Any act likely to obstruct international trade amounts to a crime against humanity.

Facts: Captain Harpreet Singh Bedi, captain of the ship, Sea Princess, was on a return voyage to India from Canada, via the Atlantic Channel. When the ship was crossing the Coast of Somalia, it was attacked by local pirates and held captive along with the crew. However, Captain Bedi somehow managed to notify the Indian Navy of the same. The Naval force managed to capture the pirates and bring them to India. 

Q. Which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

As the principle clearly states, this is a case of Crime against Humanity, and in such situations, no particular country has the jurisdiction to prosecute the offenders. All countries, whether related to the case or not, have the jurisdiction to try such offenders.

QUESTION: 95

Principle:
I. The right to be silent is an essential component of the right against self-incrimination which is a fundamental right of every citizen.
II. During the trial, an accused person has the right not to testify by exercising his or her right to remain silent. 
III. When an accused person does decide to testify, his or her right to remain silent is waived and he can no longer take the defence of self-incrimination in the court. 

Facts: K R Kejriwal was a brilliant scientist and statistician who was arrested one fateful night by the Noida police department and brought in for questioning for his involvement in the mafia responsible for the smuggling of arms to Pakistan. In the police custody, the chief inspector Mr. Thakur beat up Mr. Kejriwal repeatedly and threatened to cause him serious bodily harm if he did not confess that he was guilty of the offence of abetment. However, Mr. Kejriwal did not admit to the offence despite numerous attacks and finally passed out in his custodian cell. In the court, the defence attorney for Mr. Kejriwal brought Mr. Thakur to the stand and questioned him for attacking his client. During one of the questions, Mr. Thakur stated that he is no longer interested in answering any further questions and wished to exercise his right to remain silent in court. 

Q. Can Mr. Thakur exercise his right to remain silent?

Solution:

The right to remain silent subsists as long as the accused does not testify in the court. In this case, Mr. Thakur was already brought to stand and questioned for attacking his client. Therefore, he has waived his right to remain silent. 

QUESTION: 96

Principle:  A stranger to a contract does not get a right to sue in India.

Facts: A mortgaged his property to B. Later A sold the same property to X.  X at the time of sale agreed to pay the mortgage amount to A but was not able to pay. B sued X to recover the mortgage amount. 

Solution:

There are two separate contracts in this case, one is a contract of mortgage between A and B and the other one is a contract of sale between A and X.  B being a stranger to the contract between A and X does not get the right to sue.

QUESTION: 97

Principle:  Mensrea, or the mental element is an essential ingredient for the commission of a crime.

Explanation: Mensrea means that the offence must be committed knowingly and intentionally.

Facts: Raghav Roy is a popular TV show host and an actor, who is famous in India for his acting talent and charismatic personality. One morning, Roy woke up next to his wife who had been brutally murdered with the help of a kitchen knife. Roy was extremely distressed and had to be admitted to a hospital for hysteria and panic attacks. When the police investigated his house, they found out through the CCTV cameras located at the kitchen that around 3 am the previous night, Mrs. Roy had entered the kitchen to drink a glass of water. A few seconds later, Mr. Roy followed her to the kitchen with a dazed expression on his face, picked up the knife and repeatedly stabbed his wife before dragging her body to their bedroom. It was later discovered that Mr. Roy suffered from a disease in which he acted as a person engaged in seemingly normal activities while he was sound asleep. Because of this condition, he was unaware of his actions during his state of slumber. Decide if the crime constituted sufficient mens rea to hold Mr. Roy liable for murder of his wife.

Solution:

Mr. Roy was completely unaware of his actions since he was committing the offence of murder in his sleep, i.e. not in his conscious state. Therefore, there was no mensrea involved.

QUESTION: 98

Principles:
I: The term 'immovable property' has been defined in the General Clauses Act, 1897, to include land, benefits arising out of land and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to things attached to the earth.
II: Lease, mortgage, charge, rent and other such benefits are examples of immovable property.
III: Under the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, a material is considered to be attached to the earth if it is rooted in the earth (like trees, shrubs), or if the material is embedded in the earth or placed on the land for permanent beneficial enjoyment, rather than mere convenience.

Explanation: Everything else, other than the things covered in the above principles, is considered to be movable   property.

Facts: Mrs. Venugopal owns a plot of land with a two-storeyed house built on it, but she has no boundary walls. Alarmed by the increasing number of thefts occurring in the neighborhood, she gets some men to stack large boulders and stones on top of each other, so as to create a boundary wall and provide her safety. 

In this case, which of the following can be classified as immovable property?
(i) The plot of land
(ii) The two-storeyed building
(iii) The stone wall

Solution:

See principle III. Even though the stone wall was not a pukka or permanent structure, in the sense that it was merely a stack of stones piled onto each other, it was for the permanent enjoyment or benefit of the owner, who had no boundary wall.

QUESTION: 99

Principle: A man is said to commit" rape" who, except in the case hereinafter excepted, has sexual intercourse with a woman under circumstances falling under any of the following descriptions: - 
I. Against her will. 
II. Without her consent. 
III. With her consent, when her consent has been obtained by putting her or any person in whom she is interested in fear of death or of hurt. 
IV. With her consent, when, at the time of giving such consent, by reason of unsoundness of mind or intoxication, she is unable to understand the nature and consequences of that to which she gives consent.
V. With or without her consent, when she is under sixteen years of age.Facts: Roxy is a major boy of 20. He enters a house to have sexual relations with a 14-year-old Melisa on her invitation. He understands that nobody is home but is caught in the act by Melisa’s uncle. 

Q. Is he guilty of criminal trespass?

Solution:

Since the young man was going to commit statutory rape punishable under Principle 2 (6), he was liable for criminal trespass too.

QUESTION: 100

Principle: Whoever by words, either spoken or intended to be read, or by signs or by visible representation, makes or publishes any imputation concerning any person intending to harm, or knowing or having reason to believe that such imputation will harm, the reputation of such person is said to defame that person.

Facts: Amit Singh is invited as a guest to the famous chat-show. ‘We are Indians’ hosted by noted journalist Polumi Bhattacharya. During the chat-show he is asked what he thinks of the opposition party. Amit claims that the opposition includes a group of thugs and robbers. Raghu Pal who is a member of the opposition sues Amit for defamation. 

Q. Will he succeed?

Solution:

Ragu Pal will not succeed because statements made by Amit did not impute his reputation in the eyes of others. It may amount to be derogatory but never imputes any person’s reputation in eyes of a reasonable man.

QUESTION: 101

DIRECTION: The questions given below consist of two statements labeled as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). In the context of the two statements, which of the following is correct?

A: The Ninth Schedule was added to the Indian Constitution by the first amendment in 1951. 
R: Each new amendment to the Indian Constitution requires adding of a new schedule.

Solution:

The reason is factually incorrect. The Indian Constitution till date has seen 101 amendments, but only four more schedules have been added over and above the original list of eight schedules. Ninth schedule was added in 1951 by first amendment to keep certain laws outside judicial purview.

QUESTION: 102

Principle: When a master lends the services of his servant to another person, then that one of the two is held liable who has the power to control the manner in which the work is to be performed.

Facts: A was the owner of some cranes, which were driven by skilled drivers. He rented his crane to B along with the driver for the purpose of transportation of a cargo. In the process of transportation some goods fell on the people standing nearby. An action is brought against both A and B for payment of damages.

Solution:

Only A will be liable as the principle clearly states that only he will be liable who has the power to control the manner in which the work is to be performed. Here A lent both the cranes and the driver and therefore B had no control in the manner in which the work is to be performed.

QUESTION: 103

Principles:
I: The term 'immovable property' has been defined in the General Clauses Act, 1897, to include land, benefits arising out of land   and things attached to the earth or permanently fastened to things attached to the earth.
II: Lease, mortgage, charge, rent and other such benefits are examples of immovable property.
III: Under the Transfer of Property Act, 1882, a material is considered to be attached to the earth if it is rooted in the earth (like trees, shrubs), or if the material is embedded in the earth or placed on the land for permanent beneficial enjoyment, rather than mere convenience.

Explanation: Everything else, other than the things covered in the above principles, is considered to be movable property.

Facts: Mr. Chandwani is a builder and he is building a stone wall for a client, for which he asks for the delivery of stones and boulders. Now, since the client is out of station, for the time being, Mr. Chandwani gets the boulders delivered to his own house and stacks them up to form a stone wall in his garden. Mr. Chandwani lives on a plot of land with a huge bungalow, a garden and a greenhouse. Which of the following will be considered to be immovable property in this case?

(i) The plot of land
(ii) The garden
(iii) The greenhouse
(iv) The stone wall

Solution:

This is so because, in this case, the stones were merely stored temporarily in Mr. Chandwani's house, till his clients returned. It was not for the purpose of beneficial or permanent enjoyment of the same.

QUESTION: 104

Which of the following bodies should an Indian citizen approach for securing his fundamental right of personal freedom guaranteed by the Constitution?

Solution:

A citizen could directly approach these courts for a remedy for any violation of Fundamental Rights under Article 32 of the Constitution. He can approach to High Court for any other remedy under Article 226 for the same. The ambit of 226 is much greater than Article 32.

QUESTION: 105

Principle: No agreement can bar the jurisdiction of a court.

Facts: Rakesh and Sushil enter into an agreement whereby they agree that in case of any dispute, the same shall only be brought before the courts of Delhi. A few weeks later a dispute arose between the two and Sushil who resides in Bombay wants to file a suit in the courts of Bombay. 

Decide.

Solution:

The agreement between the party clearly confers jurisdiction to the courts of Delhi. The principle only declares void those agreements which bar the jurisdiction of any court. This agreement only identified the jurisdiction of Delhi courts by mutual consent and was not an agreement to preclude the jurisdiction of any other court.

QUESTION: 106

If it is false that 'women always obey the law', which one of the following statements is doubtful?

Solution:

If 'women always obey the law' is correct then 'all women obey law' (as in b) is also correct. But as the statement is false the statement 'all women obey law" (as in b) has to be wrong and hence, doubtful. The remaining three can be deduced in some limited scope; hence, cannot be doubtful completely. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 107

Statement 1: People who read General Knowledge do not like to read Mathematics. 

Statement 2: Ranbeer does not read General Knowledge.

Q. Assuming that Statements 1 and 2 are true, which of the following conclusions might be said to follow?

Solution:

This argument is similar to 'if P then Q' type in which P is cause and Q is the effect. If this argument is true then whenever there is 'reading General Knowledge' there will be 'no reading Mathematics' ('reading General Knowledge' is cause and 'no reading Mathematics' is the effect). In this kind of argument, when the cause is not there we cannot say with certainity that the effect will also not be there. Therefore, option (b) is correct.

QUESTION: 108

In a row of children Nidhi is twelfth from left end and Radha is sixth from right end. When Radha is shifted to left by two places and Nidhi is shifted to right by two places there are six children between Radha and Nidhi. How many children are there in the row?

Solution:

Total number of children (12 + 6 + 2 + 2 + 6) = 28 Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 109

Suleiman: All Communists are atheists. 

Sheeba: That is not true. 

Q. Which of the following, if true, would make Sheeba's reply the most convincing?

Solution:

to Suleiman, communists set must be a subset of atheist set (as shown in the figure). But if Sheeba contradicts this then at least a of communists set must be outside the atheist set. Therefore option (b) is correct. 

QUESTION: 110

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

A company wants to select a team of four call center executives from its centre based in South India for a transfer to their newly set up centre in north India. The company is managed by professional managers and is very particular about human resources and Personal relations. There are seven team members of equal ability: X, Y and Z (who are senior), and A, B, C and D (who are junior). The company requires two senior executives and two junior in the team. It is necessary that all the executives in a particular team are friendly with each other, in order to maintain team spirit and avoid any personal relation problems in the new centre. The relationship between the seven executives is as follows:
(i) Y and A are not friendly
(ii) Z and C are not friendly
(iii)  A and B are not friendly

Q. If both Y and Z are selected, which of the executives must be on the team with them?

Solution:

If Y and Z are selected, A and C cannot be selected. Hence, two junior members are B and D only. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 111

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

A company wants to select a team of four call center executives from its centre based in South India for a transfer to their newly set up centre in north India. The company is managed by professional managers and is very particular about human resources and Personal relations. There are seven team members of equal ability: X, Y and Z (who are senior), and A, B, C and D (who are junior). The company requires two senior executives and two junior in the team. It is necessary that all the executives in a particular team are friendly with each other, in order to maintain team spirit and avoid any personal relation problems in the new centre. The relationship between the seven executives is as follows:
(i) Y and A are not friendly
(ii) Z and C are not friendly
(iii)  A and B are not friendly

Q. Which statement (s) must be false?
I. Y and C are never selected together
II. Z and B are never selected together 
III. Z and D are never selected together

Solution:

Y and C can be selected along with X and B or D. Z and B can be selected along with X or Y and D. Z and D can be selected along with X and Y and A or B. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 112

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

A company wants to select a team of four call center executives from its centre based in South India for a transfer to their newly set up centre in north India. The company is managed by professional managers and is very particular about human resources and Personal relations. There are seven team members of equal ability: X, Y and Z (who are senior), and A, B, C and D (who are junior). The company requires two senior executives and two junior in the team. It is necessary that all the executives in a particular team are friendly with each other, in order to maintain team spirit and avoid any personal relation problems in the new centre. The relationship between the seven executives is as follows:
(i) Y and A are not friendly
(ii) Z and C are not friendly
(iii)  A and B are not friendly

Q. Which of the following statements are true for X?
I. X must be selected as one of the senior executives on the team
II. X must be selected, if C is selected 
III. X cannot be selected, if both A and C are rejected.

Solution:

If C is selected, Z cannot be selected. Hence, X must be there as one of the two senior members. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 113

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

Sourav's Fish Salon serves a special Friday night sea­food banquet consisting of seven courses: hilsa, pomfret, Indian shrimp, rahu, kingfish, lobster, and bhetki. Diners are free to select the order of the seven courses, according to the following conditions:
(i) The kingfish is served sometimes after rahu. 
(ii) Exactly one course should be served between the pomfret and the Indian shrimp. 
(iii) The lobster is served some time before the pomfret. 
(iv) The kingfish is either the fifth or the course to be reserved sixth. The hilsa is the second course to be served.

Q. If kingfish is the sixth course served, then which one of the following cannot be true? 

Solution:

If K = 6, H = 2, then P must be 5 as there is no position left for it. Hence, R cannot be 5.

Hence, correct option is (a).

QUESTION: 114

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

Sourav's Fish Salon serves a special Friday night sea­food banquet consisting of seven courses: hilsa, pomfret, Indian shrimp, rahu, kingfish, lobster, and bhetki. Diners are free to select the order of the seven courses, according to the following conditions:
(i) The kingfish is served sometimes after rahu. 
(ii) Exactly one course should be served between the pomfret and the Indian shrimp. 
(iii) The lobster is served some time before the pomfret. 
(iv) The kingfish is either the fifth or the course to be reserved sixth. The hilsa is the second course to be served.

Q. Which one of the following would make it possible to determine the exact order of the course?

Solution:

If S = 5, H = 2, P has to be 4 and K = 6. Hence, all positions can be determined.
Hence, correct option is (b).

QUESTION: 115

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

Sourav's Fish Salon serves a special Friday night sea­food banquet consisting of seven courses: hilsa, pomfret, Indian shrimp, rahu, kingfish, lobster, and bhetki. Diners are free to select the order of the seven courses, according to the following conditions:
(i) The kingfish is served sometimes after rahu. 
(ii) Exactly one course should be served between the pomfret and the Indian shrimp. 
(iii) The lobster is served some time before the pomfret. 
(iv) The kingfish is either the fifth or the course to be reserved sixth. The hilsa is the second course to be served.

Q. Which one of the following sequences would make for an acceptable banquet?

Solution:

Note that all the choices violate some condition or the other, except (a).

QUESTION: 116

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

Sourav's Fish Salon serves a special Friday night sea­food banquet consisting of seven courses: hilsa, pomfret, Indian shrimp, rahu, kingfish, lobster, and bhetki. Diners are free to select the order of the seven courses, according to the following conditions:
(i) The kingfish is served sometimes after rahu. 
(ii) Exactly one course should be served between the pomfret and the Indian shrimp. 
(iii) The lobster is served some time before the pomfret. 
(iv) The kingfish is either the fifth or the course to be reserved sixth. The hilsa is the second course to be served.

Q. If the kingfish is the fifth course served, men which one of the following must be true?

Solution:

If K = 5, L= 1/3, P = 4 and S=6. Hence, B = 7.
Hence, correct option is (c).

QUESTION: 117

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

Sourav's Fish Salon serves a special Friday night sea­food banquet consisting of seven courses: hilsa, pomfret, Indian shrimp, rahu, kingfish, lobster, and bhetki. Diners are free to select the order of the seven courses, according to the following conditions:
(i) The kingfish is served sometimes after rahu. 
(ii) Exactly one course should be served between the pomfret and the Indian shrimp. 
(iii) The lobster is served some time before the pomfret. 
(iv) The kingfish is either the fifth or the course to be reserved sixth. The hilsa is the second course to be served.

Q. If bhetki is the third course served, which one of the following must be true?

Solution:

If S = 7, H = 2, B = 3, then all conditions can be determined.
Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 118

You are running in a marathon and you overtake the person in second place, what position are you now in?

Solution:

If you think that you are now in first place, then think again! If you overtake the person in second place, you are now in second place yourself. Hence, correct option is (b).

QUESTION: 119

Two statements are given below followed by two conclusions (I and II). You have to consider the two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance with commonly known facts. You have to decide which of the 'conclusions, if any, follow from the given statements. 

Statements:
I. All good hockey players are in the Indian Hockey team.
II. ‘X' is not a good hockey player. 

Conclusions:
I. ‘X’ is not in the Indian Hockey team.
II. 'X' wants to be in the Indian Hockey team.

Solution:

As we can see in the Venn diagram, neither of the conclusions follow and therefore, option (d) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 120

'Greater than' is said to be transitive (relation) since A is greater than B and B is greater than C imply A is greater than C. Similarly 'friend of is said to be symmetric since if A is a friend of B, then B is a friend of A. If so, what kind of relation is 'analogous'?

Solution:
QUESTION: 121

DIRECTIONS: In each of the following question, two rows of numbers are given. The resultant number in each row is to be worked out separately based on the following rules and the questions below the rows of numbers are to be answered. The operations of numbers progress from the left to the right. 

Rules:
(i) If an odd number is followed by another composite odd number, they are to be added. 
(ii) If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
(iii) If an even number is followed by a number which is the perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the perfect square. 
(iv) If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by' the second number.
(v)  If an odd number is followed by an even number, the second one is to be subtracted from the first number.

Q. If r is the resultant of the first row, what will be the resultant of the second row?

Solution:

QUESTION: 122

DIRECTIONS: In each of the following question, two rows of numbers are given. The resultant number in each row is to be worked out separately based on the following rules and the questions below the rows of numbers are to be answered. The operations of numbers progress from the left to the right. 

Rules:
(i) If an odd number is followed by another composite odd number, they are to be added. 
(ii) If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
(iii) If an even number is followed by a number which is the perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the perfect square. 
(iv) If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by' the second number.
(v)  If an odd number is followed by an even number, the second one is to be subtracted from the first number.

Q. If p is the resultant of the first row, what will be the resultant of the second row?

Solution:

QUESTION: 123

DIRECTIONS: In each of the following question, two rows of numbers are given. The resultant number in each row is to be worked out separately based on the following rules and the questions below the rows of numbers are to be answered. The operations of numbers progress from the left to the right. 

Rules:
(i) If an odd number is followed by another composite odd number, they are to be added. 
(ii) If an even number is followed by an odd number they are to be added.
(iii) If an even number is followed by a number which is the perfect square, the even number is to be subtracted from the perfect square. 
(iv) If an odd number is followed by a prime odd number, the first number is to be divided by' the second number.
(v)  If an odd number is followed by an even number, the second one is to be subtracted from the first number.

Q. If m is the resultant of the first row, what will be the resultant of the second row?

Solution:

QUESTION: 124

"Some philosophers believe that a concept which cannot be verified can still be valid because of its inner logic which ennobles it."
In the light of the above statement, decide the status of the statement given below.

Statement: "Every person has certain inherent and inalienable rights which must be protected by Rule of Law."

Solution:

The first statement means that according to some philosophers, a concept which can't be verified can still be considered valid because of the inner reasoning attached to it and which gives it a noble character.

The given statement is true in light of the above statement. It says that every person has 'certain inherent and inalienable rights' (i.e. concepts) which can't be verified i.e ascertained whether they are justified or not, right or wrong. Because of the nature of such rights and the fact that they are inalienable to an individual, these rights are considered valid and given the status of protection by the Rule of Law. Hence, correct option is (a).

QUESTION: 125

4 statements are given. Group two of them in such a way that one is logically possible and the other is empirically (factually) highly improbable.
(A) No theories of science can explain the origin of the Universe satisfactorily.     
(B) Solar energy is inexhaustible.                     
(C) Liberalisation and rise in consumerism are directly related.             
(D) God exists.

Solution:

Statement (A) is logically possible as we may not be able to explain the riddle of origin of the Universe even in the future. Statement (B) is factually improbable. Hence, correct option is (a).

QUESTION: 126

From among the given alternatives, identify the missing premise.
1st Premise: If a plane triangle is possible, then perfect straight line is possible
2nd Premise: If perfect straight line is possible, then Riemann is right.
3rd Premise :
4th
 Premise: But Euclid is right.

Conclusion: 
Therefore a plane triangle is not possible.
(I) If Euclid is right, then Riemann is right      
(II) If Euclid is wrong, then Riemann is right
(III) If Euclid is right, then Riemann is not wrong
(IV) If Riemann is right, then Euclid is wrong

Solution:

‘But’ in the fourth premise requires something in contrast with the statement. Only statement (d) brings out such a contrast. 
Concepts of conditional statements should be clear for solving this question. Eg.
If p then q has two conclusions
*p implies q
*~q implies ~p
Put the above inferences in the above questions along with answer option (d) you will get your result.

QUESTION: 127

DIRECTIONS: Study the following sequence carefully and answer the questions given:

M  E  5  P  B  2  A  7  K  N  9  T  R  U  4  6  I  J  D  F  1  Q  3  W  8  V  I  S  Z

Q. Which of the following letter/number is the eighth to the left of the nineteenth letter/number from the left end?

Solution:

Eighth to the left of the nineteenth letter/number from the left means (19 - 8 =) 11th letter/number from the left. Hence, required element is 9. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 128

DIRECTIONS: Study the following sequence carefully and answer the questions given:

M  E  5  P  B  2  A  7  K  N  9  T  R  U  4  6  I  J  D  F  1  Q  3  W  8  V  I  S  Z

Q. How many such numbers are there in the above sequence, each of which is both immediately preceded by and immediately followed by a consonant? 

Solution:

We have to search for letter-number-letter combination. Bold numbers in the sequence given below represent those numbers: 

M  E  5  P  B  2  A  7  K  N  9  T  R  U  4  6  I  J  D  F  1  Q  3  W  8   V   I    S   Z

Hence, correct option is (a).

QUESTION: 129

DIRECTIONS: Read the following passage and solve the questions based on it.

A company wants to select a team of four call center executives from its centre based in South India for a transfer to their newly set up centre in north India. The company is managed by professional managers and is very particular about human resources and Personal relations. There are seven team members of equal ability: X, Y and Z (who are senior), and A, B, C and D (who are junior). The company requires two senior executives and two junior in the team. It is necessary that all the executives in a particular team are friendly with each other, in order to maintain team spirit and avoid any personal relation problems in the new centre. The relationship between the seven executives is as follows:
(i) Y and A are not friendly
(ii) Z and C are not friendly
(iii)  A and B are not friendly

Q. If A is on the team, then which other executives must be on the team as well?

Solution:

If A is on the team, Y and B cannot be selected. Hence, other members are X, Z and D because Z and C cannot be selected together. Hence, correct option is (b)

QUESTION: 130

If the first half of English alphabet is reversed and the second half of the English alphabet is left undisturbed then answer the questions given below.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Q. Which letter of the first half does not change its position when 1st half of the English alphabet is reversed?

Solution:

Middle letter of the first half of the alphabet does not change after reversal. Hence, [{13 + 1}  ÷  2 =] 7th letter, i.e. G will be the middle letter. Therefore, G will not change its position.Hence, correct option is (b).

QUESTION: 131

During a recent police investigation. IG Khan was inter­rogating five criminals—A, B, C, D and E—to try and identify who is the culprit. Below is a summary of their statements:

A:  it wasn't E     it was B 
B: it wasn't C      it wasn't E 
C: it was E          it wasn't A 
D: it was C         it was B 
E: it was D         it wasn't A

Q. It was well known that each suspect told exactly one lie. Can you determine who the criminal is?

Solution:

C committed the terrible crime. The way to solve this puzzle is to look at each clue. We know that exactly one of each person's statements is true. Looking at A statements, let's check to see 'it was B is true? If 'it was B is true, then we know the other statement is false, hence it was E. This is a contradiction. Hence, we now know it wasn't B, nor E (as 'it wasn't E must be the true statement). Looking at C statement, we can similarly determine that it wasn't A either. E statement gives us that it wasn't D, which leaves only C as the culprit. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 132

"Make hay while the sunshine" is logically similar to

Solution:

"Make hay while the sun shines' means to make the most of one's opportunities when one has the chance. None of the options is logically similar to it. Hence, correct option is (d).

QUESTION: 133

'Senthil goes to Ambala for the first time in his life. On the way from the railway station to his hotel, he sees twelve people, all of them male. He concludes that there are no women in Ambala. As a matter of fact, there are many thousands of women in Ambala.'

Q. Which of the following best describes Senthil's error?

Solution:

Senthil draws his conclusion about the entire Ambala city on the basis of a limited and insufficient data. He had only seen the rout from railway station to the hotel and not the entire city. Hence, correct option is (b).

QUESTION: 134

DIRECTIONS: Each question consists of, five statements (a-e) followed by options consisting of three statements put together in a specific order. Choose the option which indicates a valid argument; that is, where the third statement is a conclusion drawn from the preceding two statements. 

a. Law graduates are in great demand.
b. Rajesh and Krishna are in great demand.
c. Rajesh is in great demand.
d. Krishna is in great demand. 
e. Rajesh and Krishna are law graduates.

Choose the correct option:

Solution:


As can be seen in the Venn diagram given above, Option (c) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 135

123, 129, 141, 147, 159, ________

Solution:

123, 129, 141, 147, 159, 165.

QUESTION: 136

An argument is given below, on the basis of that argument; find out the parallel argument from the given list of subsequent arguments

Argument: 

Himalayan Sparrows are disappearing. This bird is an Indian bird; therefore, Indian birds are disappearing.

Subsequent Arguments:

Solution:

The argument is of the form A (Himalayan sparrows) is B (disappearing), A is C (Indian bird), and therefore B is C.

Option (a): It is completely out of sync with the given argument. It has four elements viz. industrialists, most taxes, Z and wealthy man. The given argument has only three elements and so both are not on the same line of reasoning.

Option (b): Here pineapple is a subset of fruit. Mango is also a subset of fruit- But they necessarily can't be the same sets Hence, the reasoning is flawed and not on the same lines as in the argument. 

Option (c): This option can be broken down as A (Snow tigers) is a subset of B (endangered species), B is a subset of C (protected) and so A is a subset of C. It follows the given argument exactly and hence is the correct answer.

Option (d): This option has both the premise (John is his father's favorite son) and conclusion (John is his father's favorite son) as the same. Therefore, this option does not follow the same line of reasoning.

Hence, correct option is (c).

QUESTION: 137

DIRECTIONS: Study the following sequence carefully and answer the questions given:

M  E  5  P  B  2  A  7  K  N  9  T  R  U  4  6  I  J  D  F  1  Q  3  W  8  V  I  S  Z

If the order of the first twenty letters/numbers in the above sequence is reversed and the remaining letters/numbers are kept unchanged, which of the following will be the fourteenth letter/number from the right end after the rearrangement?

Solution:

There are 29 characters in all. Fourteenth character from the right means (29 - 14 + 1 =) 16th character from the left in the new series. Since first twenty characters are reversed, therefore, 16th character from the left in the new series means (20 - 16 + 1 =) 5th character from the left in the question series, ie B. Hence, correct option is (a).

QUESTION: 138

Identify the alternative which gives true picture of the relation between the arguments listed below:

1. A healthy society is characterised by overall development of every section. As in the case of human body no organ is less prominent, so also in a society no section is less important. If any human organ is sick, then the human being is sick. Similarly, if any section of society is sick, then the society is sick.

2. It is fallacious to think that priority to production of agricultural products alone promotes the prosperity of farmers. Prosperity has too many discussions. Transportation, communication, network, sound economic policy, to mention a few are equally important to the economic wellbeing of farmers, Hence they also deserve consideration,

Solution:

The speaker brings out the importance of each organ to the human body, each section of the society to the whole society. So they are analogous. Hence, correct option is (c).

QUESTION: 139

DIRECTIONS: Each question consists of, five statements (a-e) followed by options consisting of three statements put together in a specific order. Choose the option which indicates a valid argument; that is, where the third statement is a conclusion drawn from the preceding two statements. 

A. All captains are great players.
B. Some captains are successful sports administrators.
C. Ritwik is a great player.
D. Ritwik is a captain and successful sports administrator.
E. Some successful sports administrators are great players.

Choose the correct option:

Solution:

As can be seen in the Venn diagram given above, option (b) is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 140

If the terrorists' demands are met, then lawlessness will prevail. And if the terrorists' demands are not met, then the hostages will be murdered. Consider the statements given below: 

(i) Lawlessness has not prevailed, 
(ii) The hostages have been murdered. 
(iii) The terrorists' demands have been met. 
(iv) The terrorists' demands have not been met.

Q. Which of the following options does not show a proper cause-effect relationship? 

Solution:

Let us take the options one by one: 

Option (a) i-ii

Since lawlessness has not prevailed (i), it means that the terrorists' demands have not been met. And if the terrorists' demands have not been met, then the hostages will be murdered (ii).So, this option shows a valid relationship.

Option (b) iv-ii

Since the terrorists' demands have not been met, the hostages will be murdered. This is a direct conclusion. So, it is a valid relationship.

Option (c) iii-ii

Since the terrorists' demands have been met, lawlessness will prevail. Now, from here we cannot deduce that the hostages will be murdered. So. it is not a valid relationship.

Option (d) ii-iv

Since the hostages have been murdered, the terrorists' demands must not have been met. So, this is also a valid relationship.

Hence option (c) is not a valid cause-effect relationship.

QUESTION: 141

Find ∠ BZY from the given figure, given AB is the tangent to the circle at the point Z.

Solution:

From the alternate segment theorem, the angle between a tangent and a chord through the point of contact of the tangent is equal to the angle made by the chord in the alternate segment. 
∴ ∠BZY = ∠ZXY =60°

QUESTION: 142

3 women and 18 children together take 2 days to complete a piece of work. How many days will 9 children alone take to complete the piece of work, if 6 women alone can complete the piece of work in 3 days?

Solution:

Since, 3 women + 18 children complete work in 2 days. Therefore, (3×2) women + (18×2) children complete  

work in 1 day i.e., 6 women + 36 children complete work in 1 day.

Work of 36 children for 1 day =  [Work of 6 women for 1 day= 1/3]
∴ 36 children do 2/3 part of the work in 1 day.
36 children can do the work in 3/2 days.
9 children can do the work in    days. 

QUESTION: 143

January 1, 2008 is Tuesday. What day of the week lies on Jan 1, 2009?

Solution:

The year 2008 is a leap year. So, it has 2 odd days.

1st day of the year 2008 is Tuesday (Given)

So, 1st day of the year 2009 is 2 days beyond Tuesday.

Hence, it will be Thursday.

QUESTION: 144

The total emoluments of A and B are equal. However. A gets 65 per cent of his basic salary as allowances and B gets 80 per cent of his basic salary as allowance. What is the ratio of the basic salaries of A and B?

Solution:

Suppose that basic salaries of A and B be x and y respectively.

∴ x + 65% of x = y + 80% of y

QUESTION: 145

How many different signals can be made by taking 3 different coloured flags at a time from 5 different coloured flags?

Solution:

Required number of signals =  5P3 = 60 

QUESTION: 146

Tea worth Rs.126 per kg and Rs.135 per kg are mixed with a third variety in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2, if the mixture is worth Rs.153 per kg. then the price of the third variety per kg will be

Solution:

Suppose the quantities of tea worth Rs.126 per kg. Rs.135 per kg and Rs.x per purchased are y, y and 
2y kg respectively. 

Tea of the third variety is purchased @ Rs.175.50 per kg 

QUESTION: 147

In how many ways can 3 ladies and 3 gentlemen be seated at a round table, so that any two and only two of ladies sit together? 

Solution:

Let L1, L2, L3 be 3 ladies and G1,G2, C3be 3 gents. Any two of the ladies out of 3 can be selected in 3C2 ways andcan be arranged mutually in 2! ways. Now we are left with 3 gents and 1 lady these 4 persons canbe arranged at a round table in 3! ways.

Now we have only two places among 4 persons to place thetwo selected ladies which can be done in 2P1ways.Hence the required number of arrangements 

3C2 × 2! × 3! × 2P1 
= 3 × 2 × 6 × 2 = 72

QUESTION: 148

If 50% of the 2 : 3 solution of milk and water is replaced with water, then the concentration of the solution is reduced by