CAT Mock Test - 15 (New Pattern)


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Attempt CAT Mock Test - 15 (New Pattern) | 76 questions in 120 minutes | Mock test for CAT preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study CAT Mock Test Series for CAT Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.

In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. It can be understood from the passage that the main purpose of the author in the second paragraph is which of the following?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the author does not talk about the fall of nihilism, although this paragraph does talk briefly about its rise. C is incorrect as the author does not talk about whether nihilism shaped man's life or not; he simply demonstrates how the philosophy took form at different points of time. D is incorrect as this forms only one part of the paragraph and is not the main purpose. B is the right answer, as the second paragraph throws light on the evolution of the philosophy and how it advanced through time.

QUESTION: 2

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the author presents no analysis of his own in the entire course of the passage. C and D are incorrect as the author only throws light on a particular school of philosophy; he does not in turn contemplate or present his own views regarding it. He only provides facts about the school of philosophy and the views of some prominent advocates of it. B is the right answer, as the author describes in detail the tenets of the philosophy and throws light on the views held by some of its philosophers.

QUESTION: 3

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. It can be inferred from the description of nihilism portrayed in the passage that such a philosophy is most likely to cause which of the following emotions in a person?

Solution:

Since the philosophy propagates the meaninglessness and purposelessness of life, values and talks of absence of order and structure, it is clear that the philosophy would definitely awaken a sense of gloom and emptiness in a person. We can also infer this from the line: 'its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror.' Summing up the said emotions in the sentence (gloom, anxiety, terror), the closest emotion given in the option is desolation, which is a state of complete emptiness, misery or destruction. B is incorrect as it is unclear what said person would regret doing. C is incorrect as nostalgia refers to a state of sadness that arises due to recollection of the past; the concept of such an emotion or of past and present is not explored in this passage. D is incorrect as this emotion may or may not arise depending on the nature of the person, so we cannot infer this to be definitely true. A is the right answer.

QUESTION: 4

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. It can be understood from the passage that nihilism is most closely represented by which of the following beliefs?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the passage does not talk about death as the final doom of mankind, or attribute this as the reason for man's meaningless life. B is incorrect as although nihilism does hold the view that morals are man-made, it should directly propagate the idea that one must live a life of lawlessness, although we can infer that it does imply the futility in living by morals. D is incorrect as although we can infer nihilism to hold both of the views given in this answer choice, we cannot say that this is the closest or the most accurate representation of nihilism. At best, we can say that nihilism would agree with these points. C is the right answer, as all the nihilist philosophers seem to imply this view and this view is most representative of the philosophy of nihilism.

QUESTION: 5

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. Which of the following can be understood about the author regarding his view on nihilism?

Solution:

Since Nietzsche argues that there is no belief that is true and reason and values are impotent; human life has no purpose or direction, the author is not likely to agree with this belief as shown by the following lines of the author: 'I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.' This implies that the author considers nihilism to be just another interpretation of the world, which can be overcome. Given that Nietzsche talks about no purpose of life and no true beliefs, this would imply that there is no correct course for humankind to follow. So, this view of the author counters that of Nietzsche's. So, A and B would be incorrect. We have insufficient information to conclude C, as the author gives very little info about his own stance regarding the philosophy. D is the right answer.

QUESTION: 6

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

Nihilism is often associated with extreme pessimism and a radical skepticism that condemns existence. A true nihilist would believe in nothing, have no loyalties, and no purpose other than, perhaps, an impulse to destroy. While few philosophers would claim to be nihilists, nihilism is most often associated with Friedrich Nietzsche who argued that its corrosive effects would eventually destroy all moral, religious, and metaphysical convictions and precipitate the greatest crisis in human history.
In the 20th century, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Mid-century, for example, the existentialists helped popularize tenets of nihilism in their attempts to blunt its destructive potential. By the end of the century, existential despair as a response to nihilism gave way to an attitude of indifference, often associated with antifoundationalism.
It has been over a century now since Nietzsche explored nihilism and its implications for civilization. As he predicted, nihilism's impact on the culture and values of the 20th century has been pervasive, its apocalyptic tenor spawning a mood of gloom and a good deal of anxiety and terror. Interestingly, Nietzsche himself, a radical skeptic preoccupied with language, knowledge, and truth, anticipated many of the themes of postmodernity. It's helpful to note, then, that he believed we could--at a terrible price--eventually work through nihilism. I am sure if we survived the process of destroying all interpretations of the world, we could then perhaps discover the correct course for humankind.
For Nietzsche, there is no objective order or structure in the world except what we give it. Penetrating the façades buttressing convictions, the nihilist discovers that all values are baseless and that reason is impotent. "Every belief, every considering something-true," Nietzsche writes, "is necessarily false because there is simply no true world" (Will to Power [notes from 1883-1888]). For him, nihilism requires a radical repudiation of all imposed values and meaning: "Nihilism is . . . not only the belief that everything deserves to perish; but one actually puts one's shoulder to the plough; one destroys" (Will to Power).
The caustic strength of nihilism is absolute, Nietzsche argues, and under its withering scrutiny "the highest values devalue themselves. The aim is lacking, and 'Why' finds no answer" (Will to Power). Inevitably, nihilism will expose all cherished beliefs and sacrosanct truths as symptoms of a defective Western mythos. This collapse of meaning, relevance, and purpose will be the most destructive force in history, constituting a total assault on reality and nothing less than the greatest crisis of humanity.
Since Nietzsche's compelling critique, nihilistic themes--epistemological failure, value destruction, and cosmic purposelessness--have preoccupied artists, social critics, and philosophers. Convinced that Nietzsche's analysis was accurate, for example, Oswald Spengler in The Decline of the West (1926) studied several cultures to confirm that patterns of nihilism were indeed a conspicuous feature of collapsing civilizations. In each of the failed cultures he examines, Spengler noticed that centuries-old religious, artistic, and political traditions were weakened and finally toppled by the insidious workings of several distinct nihilistic postures: the Faustian nihilist "shatters the ideals"; the Apollinian nihilist "watches them crumble before his eyes"; and the Indian nihilist "withdraws from their presence into himself." Withdrawal, for instance, often identified with the negation of reality and resignation advocated by Eastern religions, is in the West associated with various versions of epicureanism and stoicism. In his study, Spengler concludes that Western civilization is already in the advanced stages of decay with all three forms of nihilism working to undermine epistemological authority and ontological grounding.
In 1927, Martin Heidegger, to cite another example, observed that nihilism in various and hidden forms was already "the normal state of man" (The Question of Being). Other philosophers' predictions about nihilism's impact have been dire. Outlining the symptoms of nihilism in the 20th century, Helmut Thielicke wrote that "Nihilism literally has only one truth to declare, namely, that ultimately Nothingness prevails and the world is meaningless" (Nihilism: Its Origin and Nature, with a Christian Answer, 1969). From the nihilist's perspective, one can conclude that life is completely amoral, a conclusion, Thielicke believes, that motivates such monstrosities as the Nazi reign of terror. Gloomy predictions of nihilism's impact are also charted in Eugene Rose's Nihilism: The Root of the Revolution of the Modern Age (1994). If nihilism proves victorious--and it's well on its way, he argues--our world will become "a cold, inhuman world" where "nothingness, incoherence, and absurdity" will triumph.

Q. Which of the following would be the most appropriate title for the above passage?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the author does not pass any comment on Nietzsche's philosophy or defend it. B is incorrect as this forms only a brief part of the passage, and is not directly reflective of its central idea. C is incorrect as we have already inferred from the tone that the author is not a nihilist himself; he is simply throwing light on this school of philosophy. D is the right answer, as it most accurately encapsulates the central idea and the essence of the passage.

QUESTION: 7

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. It can be understood that the first paragraph of the passage describes an image most likely to be which of the following?

Solution:

B is unlikely to be the answer, as a documentary usually showcases educational or factual content, rather than content that would evoke emotions or carries an implicit message. C is incorrect as we know that the image has been depicted on a TV screen, so it is more likely to be a video rather than still photographs. D is incorrect as the image seeks to convey a social message to the audience, which a fictional short film usually wouldn't. A is the right answer, as the image is most likely to be a powerful television commercial which has been produced in order to send across a message to the audience. Also, the length of the incident described in the paragraph makes it too small for a short film, but appropriate for a tv ad.

QUESTION: 8

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage?

Solution:

A is incorrect as although the passage indeed criticises the government's inactive participation in the situation, the tone of the entire passage is not critical. C is incorrect as although parts of the passage do seek to evoke a response from people, the central purpose is not to evoke an emotion in the readers, but rather to illustrate a point and debate on its success. D is incorrect as the author does not simply describe the topic, instead he gives info on it, and also his own views which are somewhat doubtful about the success of the method. B is the right answer, as the author expresses scepticism towards the success and scope of the rainwater harvesting method.

QUESTION: 9

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. Which of the following is the main purpose of the fourth paragraph?

Solution:

Both A and B are correct as the author brings up the example of Basti in order to explain the intensity of the problem, and also to tell us about the section of society worst hit by the crisis. C is incorrect as the author does not talk about how water is especially important for this section of society more than others. D is the right answer.

QUESTION: 10

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. It can be understood from the context of the passage that the image portrayed by the CSE suggests that people must solve the water problem themselves due to which of the following reasons?

Solution:

A is incorrect as this presumes that it is the responsibility of the people, whereas the passage indirectly implies that the govt. is reluctant to take responsibility for it. B is incorrect as although the passage does talk about the vastness of the crowds of Delhi, it does not attribute this as a cause for why people must solve the water problem on their own. D is incorrect as this suggests that water is available in abundance, which is countered by the passage. C is the right answer, as it is implied by the following paragraphs that the govt. cares little to solve the water problem.

QUESTION: 11

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. Which of the following best sums up the central idea of the passage?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the author makes it clear that the future is not going to benefit those who need water the most. B is incorrect as the passage talks of an ongoing water crisis, not an impending one. D is incorrect as the government's apathy forms only a brief part of the passage, and is not the central idea. C is the right answer, as the passage seeks to examine the scope of CSE's campaign.

QUESTION: 12

Directions : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

An umbrella tumbles from the old man's hands, a smile spreading slowly across his dripping face. He watches it fill with water. Men, women and children crowd the flooded streets, carrying pots, cups, and hats to gather the gift of water falling from the sky. In the midst of these idyllic images, a message scrolls across the bottom of the TV screen: "Rainwater belongs to each of us, but how do we keep and share?"
Water is a plentiful blessing in this depiction, produced by the Delhi-based Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a public interest organization that lobbies for environmental issues in India. The compelling image is a response to increasingly worrisome water supply issues in Delhi. The vast and crowded capital of India struggles to provide enough water to its neighbourhoods, where citizens rely on communal taps that draw from a limited municipal groundwater source. CSE promotes rainwater harvesting, the gathering of rainwater, to supplement the city's ever-dwindling water supply. The depiction presents a blunt conclusion in the final shot: "Rainwater harvesting: Solve your water problem yourself."
The current water supply system in Delhi begs for change, and it is becoming increasingly obvious that the government will do little to improve it. While the wealthy see running water gush to their sinks every day, most of Delhi must wait their turn at the communal taps, uncertain whether they will be able to gather enough water for basic needs. The Delhi Jal Board, the city's water municipality, supplies 696 million gallons of water per day, but some estimate Delhi consumes as much as 1,280 million gallons daily. In this parched city, access to water is a privilege, not a right.
The Basti, a predominantly Muslim neighbourhood in Delhi, stands disconnected from the modern world. No cars fit through its narrow, dirt alleyways, where women scrub laundry with rocks and young children wander the streets begging for a spare rupee. Here, most families share the public taps, yet cooperation is not always forged by this communal burden. "Women wait in line to get their share from the tap, but there are arguments if anyone takes someone's share." explained Praveen Abdul Kaleem, a 21-year-old resident of the Basti. "Sometimes the argument gets so heated, the police get called in." And sometimes, there is no water to share. "The biggest problem with the water supply happens in the hot and dry season," said Gauri Patel, a maidservant and mother of four who relies on a weak tap outside her home. "Sometimes it doesn't come until the night; sometimes not for a day or two. When it doesn't come, there's nothing to do but be patient."
Located in a region with few standing bodies of water, Delhi has always struggled to provide water for its 17 million inhabitants. The city still uses the colonial system of centralized distribution and pays the northern state of Uttar Pradesh to pipe water into Delhi. But centralized distribution is archaic and inefficient. "There are huge losses in centrally-operated systems," said Salahuddin Saiphy, assistant coordinator of community water management and rainwater harvesting at CSE. "It is extremely inefficient to import water 4,000 kilometres."
While the Delhi government perpetuates the inefficiencies of this colonial relic, CSE and other NGOs across the country have proposed rainwater harvesting as an organic solution to provide water to the citizens of Delhi. "Rainwater harvesting technology is very basic and decentralized to individual households. It facilitates a larger philosophy of water management," said Pradip Saha, also of CSE.
Still, the government remains only partially committed to the idea. Although laws ensure that rainwater harvesting facilities are installed on all new buildings, the city has been postponing the deadline for the rooftops of old buildings to be converted to harvesting systems since 2001. This lack of action comes as no surprise, said Saha at CSE. "We can't trust the government only, because it has failed miserably over the years." In a country known for a massive bureaucracy left over from British rule, people have learned not to expect change from the government.
When water fleetingly arrives at the taps, it is not easy to gather enough to last. People try to store it in large containers, but some of the poorest people don't even have those. What can they do? This dilemma is left unanswered by CSE's campaign. Television commercials and informative websites may encourage wealthy philanthropists to change their ways, and CSE must be lauded for its persistent and innovative advocacy. But rainwater harvesting, while promising, is not yet accessible to the citizens of the Basti. For those who need water the most, true change may remain a pipe dream for some time to come.

Q. It can be understood that the passage is most likely to be an excerpt from which of the following sources?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the entire passage does not focus on a particular case or a particular section of society or neighbourhood which is undergoing a problem. Rather it picks up a social problem and talks of a possible solution for it that has recently emerged. B is incorrect as the passage contains no studies, findings or research. C is incorrect as the passage does not give us info on sociological relations between people or cultures, but rather talks on a social issue. D is the right answer, as the passage is likely to be taken from a newspaper editorial, which generally focus on discussions over current social issues by the means of examples, problems and their potential solutions.

QUESTION: 13

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. It can be understood that the passage is most likely to be an excerpt from which of the following sources?

Solution:

A is incorrect as a newspaper report would contain info on current events, while the passage talks of a social issue being prevalent since a long time, and specifically of a particular case. B is incorrect as the passage can be inferred to be taken from a pamphlet of the BBA, but note that the passage is not from the point of view of an activist from BBA, or talking from the perspective of the NGO itself. C is incorrect as the passage talks of a broader question in addition to a particular case. D is the right answer, as this would entail both a description of the case, and the social context surrounding it.

QUESTION: 14

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. Which of the following questions cannot be answered on the basis of the information given in the passage?

Solution:

A is answered in the sixth paragraph: 'Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers.' B is answered in the fourth paragraph: 'Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted.' D is answered in the fifth paragraph: 'A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.' C is not discussed or answered in the passage, so it is the right answer.

QUESTION: 15

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. Which of the following is confirmed from the facts provided in the passage?
I. A large number of people who work(ed) as child labourers can be encouraged to end their plight after being made aware of the prospects of better life.
II. Should society change its mindset towards familial responsibility, a large number of lives can be saved from child labour.
III. The fact that young children employed as labourers are unaware of the fact that the life they go through is undeserved, helps child labour to persist.

Solution:

I can be inferred from the example given towards the end of the passage about Razia Sultan: 'But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement.' II can be inferred from the passage from the following lines: 'Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers.' III can be inferred from the following lines: 'The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.'

QUESTION: 16

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. The author of the passage would clearly support how many of the following statements:
I. Effective abolition of child labour requires a concerted effort by all stakeholders in society: the police, local authorities, the source communities of child and bonded labour, as well as common citizens.
II. Child labour is a complex issue involving multiple stakeholders, and any strategy to address it will have to be multi-pronged, simultaneously targeting civil society, the affected communities and children and the traffickers themselves.

III. Not only do the laws against child labour have to be enforced better, the punishment and penalties against those who flout these laws, be it middlemen or police authorities, need to be much stricter.

Solution:

The author would clearly support I and II, as he/ she has emphasized on several instances in the passage how child labour is something that affects every stakeholder of the society and must be ended by collective effort of all, and that any strategy to end these must target all such sections of society: 'Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour', and 'Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society.'
There is insufficient information provided to us in the passage from which we may conclude that the author would agree (or disagree) with III, as the author does not attribute child labour to the lax laws that are prevalent in the country. As such, we can say that the author would most definitely agree with 2 statements, making C the right answer.

QUESTION: 17

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. Which of the following can be attributed to as the central purpose of the passage?

Solution:

A is incorrect as the author does not address the readers directly at any point, nor does he mention or imply anything that would urge the reader to feel guilty. C is incorrect as the author rather than taking a pessimistic tone, or focusing primarily on the weaknesses of the social system, provides a way forward into the future by means of which, child labour can be effectively curbed. D is incorrect as the author seeks to illustrate a broader question through a specific example; the passage is not concerned within the limits of the example itself. B is the right answer, as the passage seeks to describe in detail the finer aspects of this social evil, its causes and a way forward to curbing it.

QUESTION: 18

Directions: Read the following passage carefully, and answer the questions that follow.

In 1980, Wasal Khan, a brick kiln worker from Sirhind, a city in India's north-western state of Punjab, came to the capital city of New Delhi, driven by desperation and fear. His family members had been serving as bonded labourers in a brick kiln for 20 years in order to repay a debt owed to the kiln owner, who now threatened to sell Khan's adolescent daughter to a brothel. Exploited by his employer and ignored by the authorities, he chanced across the newsletter of an organization working for the socially marginalized and somehow managed to locate their office.
Khan found an unexpected source of help in an electrical engineer-turned journalist and human rights activist, Kailash Satyarthi, and his team of like-minded activists at Bachpan Bachao Andolan (BBA), or Save the Children Mission. Soon after, Satyarthi the engineer and his team of like-minded activists rescued 34 brick kiln workers and the Khan's 15-year old daughter, Sabo. This episode laid the foundations of the India's largest grassroots movement against child labour and trafficking.
Today, Satyarthi is a world-renowned voice against the exploitation of children, making headlines in 2014 when he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize along with Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai. Child labour activists are hopeful that BBA's Nobel Peace Prize will lead to a renewed discussion and initiative among all sections of Indian society to ultimately end child labour. "It is extremely overwhelming - the BBA receives dozens of calls every day from common people, asking us what they can do about child labour," a female activist working in victim assistance, who wished to remain anonymous, told me. "While everyone cannot dedicate their lives to ending child labour, at the very least they could boycott those places and goods that employ child labour."
Her statement carries weight. As I sipped a cup of piping hot masala chai, the characteristic Indian tea, I could see BBA activists busy at work on the lower level of the office. I thought of the number of times I have seen young children working at roadside tea stalls across India, seemingly content and happy with their lives. Several industries such as carpet-making, fire-cracker manufacturing, marble inlay work, filigree metal work, and many others are particularly notorious for using child labour as the children's small thin hands are better suited for the fine motor skills required by these processes. Since children generally accept lower wages than adult labourers, it is also cost-effective for many firms to employ child laborers. The employed children are often unaware that they are victims of physical and mental abuse, denied access to opportunities that other children take for granted. Even today, India has about 60 million child labourers waiting to be rescued.
In India and other nearby developing countries, child labour was not considered a pertinent issue until thirty years ago. Even today, the constant refrain heard from a large part of India's population is that children have no option but to work to financially support their impoverished families. Unfortunately, such people fail to recognize that the effects of child labour encompass all sections of society. A study conducted by Sathyarthi and BBA titled "Capital Corruption" estimates that the amount of illegal money generated by Indian firms employing child labourers could be as high as $20,000 million every year. The income earned by child labourers thus represents a huge leakage from the nation's economy, also impacting adult employment and income generation.
Societal attitudes towards child labour have ensured its perpetuation. The affected children have been conditioned into believing their work is a perfectly normal obligation to their families and employers. BBA rescues a large number of such children every day and takes some of them to its rehabilitation centres in Delhi and Rajasthan, as well as to rescue homes run by other organizations. But the response from these children is often negative. Some beg to be sent back. As the same female activist put it, "Many of them view their employer as their guru, their master, and what he says or does is sacrosanct. It takes intensive counselling to help them realize the exploitation they have been subject to."
Many people continue to live the experiences of Wasal Khan, the brick kiln worker whose daughter was rescued from a life of forced prostitution by Kailash Satyarthi and Bachpan Bachao Andolan. But increasingly, the work of such human rights activists has inspired other individuals to play their own part in the movement. Take Razia Sultan, an inhabitant of Meerut, a city in Uttar Pradesh, who worked as a child labourer in football stitching. When her village was transformed into a Bal Mitra Gram, she helped bring 75 children in the village to school through her work with the Bal Panchayat. She also initiated a campaign against schools that charged tuition fees. She was rewarded for her efforts in 2013 as the first recipient of the Malala Peace Prize. BBA has achieved much over thirty years, but perhaps its most commendable success is this: giving India's child labourers the power to dream and have these dreams realized.

Q. Which of the following would best describe the tone of the passage?

Solution:

B is incorrect as the author does not present any analysis of the situation or state of affairs, rather he illustrates an example, and discusses an important social issue by means of that example. C is incorrect as the author does not narrate a story here; although an example does feature prominently in the passage, it serves as an instrument for the author to discuss a bigger topic. D is incorrect as the author not only provides us with factual data and statistics, he provides opinions of experts, in depth description of the issue and examples. A is the right answer, as the author seeks to explain or illustrate an important social issue by means of an example.

QUESTION: 19

Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions with the most appropriate choice.

The success of the campaign to legalise gay marriage across many western countries is quite astonishing. Political and popular opposition has crumbled in the face of the reasonable demand for a public justification for banning it. The feeble excuses for arguments trotted out by its opponents - including religious institutions, talking heads, politicians and lawyers in court - are increasingly perceived as mere rationalisations for bigotry. This is democracy as public reasoning at its best.
Yet I see something to regret in the line of reasoning behind the 'marriage equality' movement. Proponents have overwhelmingly argued that it is unfair to treat homosexual relationships differently from heterosexual ones because they are in every significant respect the same. As a rhetorical strategy to advance marriage rights and the acceptance of homosexuals in general this argument may be justified by its political success.But as a contribution to public reasoning such a justification is disappointing. It does not really advance the idea of equality of deep freedom because it is a demand to have one's conformity recognised rather than to have one's difference respected.
I don't begrudge the gay rights movement its victory. Discrimination is a very real injustice that is worth fighting against. Preventing homosexual couples from marrying violates the principle of equality under the law - treating similar cases in the same way - and the principle of equality of dignity in a democracy. There are hundreds if not thousands of government benefits and ancillary rights linked to marriage status which it is unfair and demeaning to deny to people on the basis of an irrelevant feature: their sexuality.
In terms of justice, opening these benefits to homosexual couples is a comparative improvement. Yet it is only an incremental movement and not necessarily a step in the right direction. A genuinely just society would respect everyone's equal right to live your own life for yourself, rather than to have to satisfy other people's ideas of how you should live. Moving towards that goal would seem to require more than merely tinkering with the distributional rules about who gets the legal and financial benefits of marriage. It requires challenging their legitimacy. After all, a great many of those government benefits are explicitly intended to support the institution of marriage at the expense of alternative non-monogamous, non-sexual, non-long term relationships or singleness, partly by incentivising people to pursue conventional ideas of the good life and partly by making it hard for them not to. This is the bureaucratisation of morality - the use of state resources and power to institutionalise certain private moral conventions in the order of society. Extending membership of the marriage club to homosexuals merely extends the benefits of conventional conformity to them: the right to live in the same way as heterosexuals are supposed to - the right to fit in.

Q. It can be inferred from the passage that the author is:

Solution:

Options (1) and (2) should confuse you. Option (1) is the correct answer and can be inferred from the lines: This is the bureaucratisation of morality - the use of state resources and power to institutionalise certain private moral conventions in the order of society. Extending membership of the marriage club to homosexuals merely extends the benefits of conventional conformity to them: the right to live in the same way as heterosexuals are supposed to - the right to fit in.
Option (3) is ruled out as he is clearly against a number of mechanisms of the state.
Option (4) might some of you but is the incorrect choice as he clearly makes a third-person reference to 'gay right activists'.

QUESTION: 20

Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions with the most appropriate choice.

The success of the campaign to legalise gay marriage across many western countries is quite astonishing. Political and popular opposition has crumbled in the face of the reasonable demand for a public justification for banning it. The feeble excuses for arguments trotted out by its opponents - including religious institutions, talking heads, politicians and lawyers in court - are increasingly perceived as mere rationalisations for bigotry. This is democracy as public reasoning at its best.
Yet I see something to regret in the line of reasoning behind the 'marriage equality' movement. Proponents have overwhelmingly argued that it is unfair to treat homosexual relationships differently from heterosexual ones because they are in every significant respect the same. As a rhetorical strategy to advance marriage rights and the acceptance of homosexuals in general this argument may be justified by its political success.But as a contribution to public reasoning such a justification is disappointing. It does not really advance the idea of equality of deep freedom because it is a demand to have one's conformity recognised rather than to have one's difference respected.
I don't begrudge the gay rights movement its victory. Discrimination is a very real injustice that is worth fighting against. Preventing homosexual couples from marrying violates the principle of equality under the law - treating similar cases in the same way - and the principle of equality of dignity in a democracy. There are hundreds if not thousands of government benefits and ancillary rights linked to marriage status which it is unfair and demeaning to deny to people on the basis of an irrelevant feature: their sexuality.
In terms of justice, opening these benefits to homosexual couples is a comparative improvement. Yet it is only an incremental movement and not necessarily a step in the right direction. A genuinely just society would respect everyone's equal right to live your own life for yourself, rather than to have to satisfy other people's ideas of how you should live. Moving towards that goal would seem to require more than merely tinkering with the distributional rules about who gets the legal and financial benefits of marriage. It requires challenging their legitimacy. After all, a great many of those government benefits are explicitly intended to support the institution of marriage at the expense of alternative non-monogamous, non-sexual, non-long term relationships or singleness, partly by incentivising people to pursue conventional ideas of the good life and partly by making it hard for them not to. This is the bureaucratisation of morality - the use of state resources and power to institutionalise certain private moral conventions in the order of society. Extending membership of the marriage club to homosexuals merely extends the benefits of conventional conformity to them: the right to live in the same way as heterosexuals are supposed to - the right to fit in.

Q. What does the author mean when he says 'Yet it is only an incremental movement and not necessarily a step in the right direction'?

Solution:

Refer to the lines: In terms of justice, opening these benefits to homosexual couples is a comparative improvement. Yet it is only an incremental movement and not necessarily a step in the right direction. A genuinely just society would respect everyone's equal right to live your own life for yourself, rather than to have to satisfy other people's ideas of how you should live.
Option (4) is a really tempting incorrect answer choice here. Between options (2) and (4), we need to identify the one closer to the author's intended meaning. Option (2) is the closer answer choice as it highlights the author's view that the legalisation of gay marriages does not really solve the problem of equality, and it is not a step in the right direction; this aspect is missing from option (4).

QUESTION: 21

Directions : Read the passage given below and answer the questions with the most appropriate choice.

The success of the campaign to legalise gay marriage across many western countries is quite astonishing. Political and popular opposition has crumbled in the face of the reasonable demand for a public justification for banning it. The feeble excuses for arguments trotted out by its opponents - including religious institutions, talking heads, politicians and lawyers in court - are increasingly perceived as mere rationalisations for bigotry. This is democracy as public reasoning at its best.
Yet I see something to regret in the line of reasoning behind the 'marriage equality' movement. Proponents have overwhelmingly argued that it is unfair to treat homosexual relationships differently from heterosexual ones because they are in every significant respect the same. As a rhetorical strategy to advance marriage rights and the acceptance of homosexuals in general this argument may be justified by its political success.But as a contribution to public reasoning such a justification is disappointing. It does not really advance the idea of equality of deep freedom because it is a demand to have one's conformity recognised rather than to have one's difference respected.
I don't begrudge the gay rights movement its victory. Discrimination is a very real injustice that is worth fighting against. Preventing homosexual couples from marrying violates the principle of equality under the law - treating similar cases in the same way - and the principle of equality of dignity in a democracy. There are hundreds if not thousands of government benefits and ancillary rights linked to marriage status which it is unfair and demeaning to deny to people on the basis of an irrelevant feature: their sexuality.
In terms of justice, opening these benefits to homosexual couples is a comparative improvement. Yet it is only an incremental movement and not necessarily a step in the right direction. A genuinely just society would respect everyone's equal right to live your own life for yourself, rather than to have to satisfy other people's ideas of how you should live. Moving towards that goal would seem to require more than merely tinkering with the distributional rules about who gets the legal and financial benefits of marriage. It requires challenging their legitimacy. After all, a great many of those government benefits are explicitly intended to support the institution of marriage at the expense of alternative non-monogamous, non-sexual, non-long term relationships or singleness, partly by incentivising people to pursue conventional ideas of the good life and partly by making it hard for them not to. This is the bureaucratisation of morality - the use of state resources and power to institutionalise certain private moral conventions in the order of society. Extending membership of the marriage club to homosexuals merely extends the benefits of conventional conformity to them: the right to live in the same way as heterosexuals are supposed to - the right to fit in.

Q. Go through the following statements:
I. Homosexuals are like heterosexuals.
II. Homosexuals have the right to make their own decisions.
III. Homosexuals are the same as hererosexuals.
The author of the passage would agree with which of the above statements.

Solution:

Refer to the following statements: It does not really advance the idea of equality of deep freedom because it is a demand to have one's conformity recognised rather than to have one's difference respected...A genuinely just society would respect everyone's equal right to live your own life for yourself, rather than to have to satisfy other people's ideas of how you should live.

The lines above clearly indicate that the author maintains the view that everyone has the right to decide their own future, and there is no point in forcing people to act in a certain way. Also, he clearly outlines that distinctions should be respected in society and not wiped-out. This helps us identify statement II as the only correct statement here.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 22

The question consists of four or five statements labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which when logically ordered forms a cogent passage. Choose the option that represents the most logical order.
1. That means we can satisfy more of our desires for the good things in life than humans have ever been able to.
2. But if all that we can already have isn't enough to satisfy us, then perhaps we should reconsider whether having even more would make us happier.
3. People in the west are richer than ever.
4. Consciously or not we have come to depend on a particular economic theory of welfare as mere preference satisfaction.
5. Yet we don't seem to be getting any happier.


Solution:

The first observation that you should make about this question is that statement 3 is the perfect opening sentence for the passage, and it sets up the discussion perfectly for us. The topic is then taken forward by 1 and a contradiction is provided by statement 5. Then statements 4 and 2 cap it off, and provide the final conclusion for the passage.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 23

Each question given below has five statements. The statements need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most appropriate option.
1. This is only a document, a bit of real life, a document which can give to those who are really anxious to discover the truth about the Kornilov affair.
2. I send you the stenographic copies of my fundamental statement on the Kornilovaffair which have been saved from destruction, with supplementary remarks and explanations which I have now made.
3. This is necessary, though I myself see all its imperfections from a literary point of view.
4. I place this manuscript at your disposal and ask you if possible to publish it, but exactly in its present form.
5. But this is not a literary production, not "memoirs" for history, not the fruit of my unfettered creative faculty.


Solution:

24 is the link, 3 speaks of the necessity of getting the document published inspite of the imperfections. 243 is the links 51 follows naturally and hence 24351

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 24

The question consists of four or five statements labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 which when logically ordered forms a cogent passage. Choose the option that represents the most logical order.
1. One study found that rates more than doubled between 1999 and 2003 for women on Medicaid; at present, about six to seven per cent of pregnant women take these medications.
2. For women with a history of depression, the rates are far higher.
3. Some fifteen per cent of women suffer from depression during pregnancy, and the use of antidepressants in expectant women is on the rise.
4. Pregnancy can easily trigger a relapse, and those who discontinue medications during pregnancy are nearly three times as likely to relapse as those who continue to take their medication.
5. Sampling of cord blood at birth indicates that the level of these medications in the fetal bloodstream is more than half of the level in the mother's; the drugs are also present in amniotic fluid.


Solution:

This is question where you need to identify mandatory pairs. Two such pairs are: 12 (linked by rates) and 45 (5 provides a continuation for the medication mentioned at the end of statement 4). Also, statement 3 forms the perfect opening sentence for the paragraph, and the topic mentioned in it is taken forward in statements 12.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 25

Five sentences labelled 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, when properly sequenced form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given options
1. Distances were measured with increasing accuracy 'on the ground'; then it was found that by applying trigonometrical principles, it was unnecessary to measure every requisite distance directly, though this method required the much more accurate measurement of a number of short lines, or bases.
2. Meanwhile the astronomers showed that the earth is spherical, and that the position of any place on its surface could be expressed by its angular distances from the Equator (latitude) and a prime meridian (longitude), though for many centuries an accurate and practical method of finding longitude baffled scientists.
3. The history of cartography is largely that of the increase in the accuracy with which the elements of distance and direction are determined and in the comprehensiveness of the map content
4. In this development cartography has called in other sciences to its aid.
5. Similarly, instead of determining direction by observing the position of a shadow at midday, or of a constellation in the night sky, or even of a steady wind, use was made of terrestrial magnetism through the magnetic compass, and instruments were evolved which enabled horizontal angles to he measured with great accuracy.


Solution:

The answer is 34152. Sentence 3 begins the paragraph, sentence 4 follows it and then sentences 1 and 5 respectively explain how cartography has made use of other sciences mentioned in sentence 4. Thus, the correct sequence is 34152.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 26

Each question given below has five statements. The statements need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph. Choose the most appropriate option.
1. But we can free ourselves from both of these limitations without altering the nature of our specification of position.
2. On the basis of this illustration, we are able to see the manner in which a refinement of the conception of position has been developed.
3. If, for instance, a cloud is hovering over Times Square, then we can determine its position relative to the surface of the earth by erecting a pole perpendicularly on the Square, so that it reaches the cloud
4. This primitive method of place specification deals only with places on the surface of rigid bodies, and is dependent on the existence of points on this surface which are distinguishable from each other.
5. The length of the pole measured with the standard measuring-rod, combined with the specification of the position of the foot of the pole, supplies us with a complete place specification.


Solution:

The correct answer is 41352. 352 is the link; the challenge is where to place 41. If we place 41 then 'this method' in 4 will refer to 'the method' used in 352, but the method described in 4 is different from the one in 352. Therefore the pronoun 'This' in 4 has no precedence.
4: deals 'only with places on the surface of rigid bodies and depends on points on this surface distinguishable from each other'
1: But we can free ourselves from both these limitations without altering the nature of our specification of position.
352 further explain how this can be achieved.

QUESTION: 27

Directions: The following state-wise demographic information is available for the different states in North-East India. This demographic findings is conducted every 5 years, and the latest one was conducted this year in 2016.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a year
Literacy Rate is the percentage of the population who have the ability to read and write.
Each of these figures have been rounded off to the nearest integer.
The Government of India wants to track all these parameters and note key areas where the states have improved in the past 5 years. A higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period is what the Government of India wants from these states.

Q. What is the approximate average literacy rate for the states of North-East India in 2016 if the ratio of the populations of the states listed in alphabetical order is 1:1:1:2:3:1:2:4 ?

Solution:

The average literacy of the states shall be the weighted average of the individual literacy of the states, where the weights are the ratio of their populations.
Hence, Average Literacy =

= 1248/15 = 83.2

QUESTION: 28

Directions: The following state-wise demographic information is available for the different states in North-East India. This demographic findings is conducted every 5 years, and the latest one was conducted this year in 2016.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a year
Literacy Rate is the percentage of the population who have the ability to read and write.
Each of these figures have been rounded off to the nearest integer.
The Government of India wants to track all these parameters and note key areas where the states have improved in the past 5 years. A higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period is what the Government of India wants from these states.

Q. How many states were able to make the Government of India pleased on all three parameters?

Solution:

The Government of India wants a higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period. Except for Manipur and Tripura, every state is satisfying all three parameters. Hence, six states satisfy the given condition.

QUESTION: 29

Directions: The following state-wise demographic information is available for the different states in North-East India. This demographic findings is conducted every 5 years, and the latest one was conducted this year in 2016.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a year
Literacy Rate is the percentage of the population who have the ability to read and write.
Each of these figures have been rounded off to the nearest integer.
The Government of India wants to track all these parameters and note key areas where the states have improved in the past 5 years. A higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period is what the Government of India wants from these states.

Q. If the population of Meghalaya increased by 20% during this period 2011-2016, then by how much approximate percent did the population of women increase by in that state?

Solution:

Let the number of males in 2011 be 1000 in Meghalaya.
Hence the number of females was 919. 
Total population in 2011 was 1919.
In 2016, the total population has increased by 20% to 2302.8 or 2303.
Since the ratio of females : males in 2016 is 939:1000,
we get the count of females in 2016 as (2302.8 * 939/1939) = 1115.18.
Number of increase females in the 2011-2016 period is = (196.18×100)/919 = 21.3
Hence the percentage increase in females in the 2011-2016 period is 21.3%.

QUESTION: 30

Directions: The following state-wise demographic information is available for the different states in North-East India. This demographic findings is conducted every 5 years, and the latest one was conducted this year in 2016.

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of females per 1000 males.
Birth Rate is the number of live births per 1000 population in a year
Literacy Rate is the percentage of the population who have the ability to read and write.
Each of these figures have been rounded off to the nearest integer.
The Government of India wants to track all these parameters and note key areas where the states have improved in the past 5 years. A higher sex ratio, higher literacy rate, and lower birth rate across this period is what the Government of India wants from these states.

Q. How many of these states saw an increase in the sex ratio figure by more than 3% during the 2011-2016 period?

Solution:

Arunachal Pradesh (4.69%), Assam (3.03%), Sikkim (3.77%) and Tripura (3.40%) saw an increase in the sex ratio figure by more than 3% during the 2011-2016 period. Hence, four states.

QUESTION: 31

Directions: The pie charts below show the distribution of yearly expenses of a family for the years 2015-16 and 2014-15.
Total annual expense for the year 2014-15 was 19.2 lakhs and for the year 2015-16 was 25 lakhs.

Q. What is the % increase in Housing expenditure for the year 2015-16?

Solution:

% increase in cost for Housing sector = ((cost in 2015-16 - cost in 2014-15)/cost in 2014-15)*100
= (34% of 25 lakhs - 23% of 19.2 lakhs)/(23% of 19.2 lakhs)*100
= 93 (approx.)

QUESTION: 32

Directions: The pie charts below show the distribution of yearly expenses of a family for the years 2015-16 and 2014-15.
Total annual expense for the year 2014-15 was 19.2 lakhs and for the year 2015-16 was 25 lakhs.

Q. What is the % change in transportation cost for the family in the financial year 2015-16 compared to the previous year ?

Solution:

Transportation cost for the year 2014-15=18% of 19.2 lakhs=3.45 lakhs
Transportation cost for the year 2015-16=15% of 25 lakhs=3.75 lakhs
Hence % change in transportation cost = ((3.75-3.45)/3.45) *100=8.7

QUESTION: 33

Directions: The pie charts below show the distribution of yearly expenses of a family for the years 2015-16 and 2014-15.
Total annual expense for the year 2014-15 was 19.2 lakhs and for the year 2015-16 was 25 lakhs.

Q. % increase in which cost is the most for the year 2015-16 compared to the previous year?

Solution:

% increase in cost= (cost this year - cost previous year)/cost previous year *100

So we can see that among all the sectors, % increase in cost for Entertainment sector is highest.

QUESTION: 34

Directions: The pie charts below show the distribution of yearly expenses of a family for the years 2015-16 and 2014-15.
Total annual expense for the year 2014-15 was 19.2 lakhs and for the year 2015-16 was 25 lakhs.

Q. In the year 2015-16 how much money is paid less for taxes compared to the year 2014-15?

Solution:

In the year 2015-16 money paid for tax=10% of 25 lakhs=2.5 lakhs
In the year 2014-15 money paid for tax=13% of 19.2 lakhs=2.5 lakhs (approx.)

So approx. no money is paid less.

QUESTION: 35

Directions : Miaomi is an electronics company in India, operating out of six exclusive showrooms in India S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. Other than these six exclusive showrooms, no other outlet, or shop sells Miaomi electronic products in the country. Miaomi deals in basically five major varieties of electronic goods, in India, which are as follows - Mobiles(M), Tablets(T), Laptops(L), Electric Kettles(EK) and Adapters(A).

The following graph depict the sales by showroom(in Rs. Crores).

The following pie-chart depicts the Category-wise break-up in the sales(in Rs.) of Miaomi products across the country.

Q. If the maximum possible number of Categories which were sold in equal amounts, across the six showrooms is N, then what is the value of N?

Solution:

The sales figures(in Rs. Crores) for each Category are as follows,

Mobiles = 81, Tablets = 51, Laptops = 90, Electric Kettle = 30, Adapters = 48

The sales figures(in Rs. Crores) for each showroom are as follows,

S1 = 27, S2 = 49, S3 = 19, S4 = 31, S5 = 102, S6 = 72.

Now since there are 6 showrooms, for equal distribution for maximum product categories across all showrooms, we start with Electric Kettle(smallest figure) and distribute Rs. 30 Crores across all showrooms (Rs. 5 Crore each)

Next we take Adapters, and distribute Rs. 48 Crores across all showrooms (Rs. 8 Crore each)

Next item is Laptops, where we have to distribute Rs. 51 Crores across all showrooms (Rs. 8.5 Crore each)

But one of the showrooms, S3 has total sales of only Rs. 19 Crores.

(5 + 8 + 8.5)>19.

Hence a maximum of only two Product Categories, can be evenly distributed across all six showrooms.

QUESTION: 36

Directions : Miaomi is an electronics company in India, operating out of six exclusive showrooms in India S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. Other than these six exclusive showrooms, no other outlet, or shop sells Miaomi electronic products in the country. Miaomi deals in basically five major varieties of electronic goods, in India, which are as follows - Mobiles(M), Tablets(T), Laptops(L), Electric Kettles(EK) and Adapters(A).

The following graph depict the sales by showroom(in Rs. Crores).

The following pie-chart depicts the Category-wise break-up in the sales(in Rs.) of Miaomi products across the country.

Q. If it is known that two particular categories of Miaomi electronic goods are sold in exactly four of the six showrooms, and in those four showrooms, no other category of products are sold, then which of the following must be one of those two particular categories ?

Solution:

Since the sum of total sales across all showrooms is Rs. 300 Crores, and the percentage share of each of the 5 Product Categories is in integers, hence the sale for any Product Category will be a multiple of 3.

Thus the sum of the two Product Categories, in question will be such that the sum is a multiple of 3.

Also the sum of the sales figures for these four showrooms must be divisible by 3.

Now if we look at the individual showroom sales figures(in Rs. Crores) we see that,
S1→27 mod 3 = 0
S2→ 49 mod 3 = 1
S3→ 19 mod 3 = 1
S4→ 31 mod 3 = 1
S5→ 102 mod 3 = 0
S6→ 72 mod 3 = 0

Thus if we want to add any four, such that sum is divisible by 3, all three of S2, S3 and S4 must be included, and any one of the remaining three

Now, thus three possible sums may be obtained,
S1 + (S2 + S3 + S4) = 27 + 49 + 19 +31 = 126
S5 + (S2 + S3 + S4) = 102 + 49 + 19 +31 = 201
S6 + (S2 + S3 + S4) = 72 + 49 + 19 +31 = 171

Now we can observe that sum of sales of Mobiles and Laptops(27 + 30)% of 300 = 171
No two other pairs of sales figures will add up to 126 or 201.
Hence, from Options, we can see that one of the categories must be M

QUESTION: 37

Directions : Miaomi is an electronics company in India, operating out of six exclusive showrooms in India S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. Other than these six exclusive showrooms, no other outlet, or shop sells Miaomi electronic products in the country. Miaomi deals in basically five major varieties of electronic goods, in India, which are as follows - Mobiles(M), Tablets(T), Laptops(L), Electric Kettles(EK) and Adapters(A).

The following graph depict the sales by showroom(in Rs. Crores).

The following pie-chart depicts the Category-wise break-up in the sales(in Rs.) of Miaomi products across the country.

Q. Considering the information provided in question 2, which of the following are not amongst the four showrooms selling those two particular categories exclusively?

Solution:

From the solution to the previous question, we can see that, the four showrooms selling Mobiles and Laptops only are S2, S3, S4 and S6.
Hence from amongst the options, S1 is not amongst the four showrooms in question.

QUESTION: 38

Directions : Miaomi is an electronics company in India, operating out of six exclusive showrooms in India S1, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6. Other than these six exclusive showrooms, no other outlet, or shop sells Miaomi electronic products in the country. Miaomi deals in basically five major varieties of electronic goods, in India, which are as follows - Mobiles(M), Tablets(T), Laptops(L), Electric Kettles(EK) and Adapters(A).

The following graph depict the sales by showroom(in Rs. Crores).

The following pie-chart depicts the Category-wise break-up in the sales(in Rs.) of Miaomi products across the country.

Q. If Showrooms S1, S3 and S5 were the only three showrooms dealing in mobiles, and exactly two of the three dealt only in Mobiles, then what approximate percentage of the sales incurred by the other showroom is accounted for by products not in the 'Mobiles' category ?

Solution:

The sum of total Sales of all showrooms combined is = (27 + 49 + 19 +31 + 102 + 72) = Rs. 300 Crores
27% of total sales is accrued from Mobile = Rs. 81 Crores.
Now S1, S3 and S5 have sales of 27, 19 and 102 respectively.
Hence S1 and S3, must be dealing only in Mobiles, and S5 sells other items as well worth (81 - 27 - 19) = Rs. 35 Crores.
Hence S5 makes (102 - 35) = Rs. 67 Crores, by selling items other than 'Mobiles'.
Hence percentage of the sales incurred by S5 for products not in the 'Mobiles' category is (67/102)*100% 
= 65.7%, which is roughly 66%

QUESTION: 39

Directions : Bhiku Mahtre has suddenly taken interest in solving crossword puzzles. His aide, Satya, is reading the newspaper and which has a unique crossword puzzle in it. First, the words have to be found out using the clues given, and then the position of the words also needs to be identified. After a brainstorming session, the two stalwarts have managed to find out the following
- There are only five words in the entire crossword, viz. EQUAL, MORALE, FERVOUR, GROTESQUE, ELITE.
- The words are arranged inside a 9*8(9 columns and 8 rows) crossword grid.
- There is only one word which lies across; all others are up-down
- There is no row or column which remains empty, at least one letter is there in every row or column
- The words are arranged in left to right or from top to bottom only
- None of the five words are standalone and are connected to at least one word.
- Row-1 Column-8 and Row-1 Column-9 are empty
- There is at least one empty cell above and also to the right of the letter F

Q. The word ELITE can start in which row?

Solution:

We have the number of letters of the words as EQUAL-5, ELITE-5, MORALE-6, FERVOUR-7, GROTESQUE-9.
Let us denote Row number 'x' as R - x, and Column number 'x' as C - x.
Since it is given that there is only one across word and no column remains empty, GROTESQUE must be the across word, as there are only 9 columns, and every other word must be connected to it.
Now, the word FERVOUR, which contains 7 letters must be an up-down word, and must start in row 2, as there is at least one blank cell above F. Also, it cannot start in row 3 or below.
Let us see what can be the common letter to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.

Suppose the common letter is R. Then, there are 2 possibilities, GROTESQUE starts at R- 4, C-1 or R-8 C1. But it cannot start with R-8, C-1 as we need an 8 letter word to occupy row 1.

Therefore, MORALE must start from R-3, C-3, and to ensure that row 1 is not empty, ELITE must start at R-1, C-4. The position of EQUAL cannot be fixed.


Next, suppose, O is common to GROTESQUE AND FERVOUR. Then GROTESQUE must start at R-6, C-1. Therefore MORALE must start at the 1st row, as that is the only 6 letter word which ensures that Row 1 is not empty. But it cannot start at R-1, C-8 or R-1, C9. Hence it must start at R-1, C-5.
The only place therefore equal can start is at R-4, C-7. The position of ELITE cannot be fixed.

Next, let us say that E is common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.
Obviously, the last E of GROTESQUE cannot be common as then F will not have at least one blank cell on its right. Hence GROTESQUE must start at R-3, C-1. Now, if we start EQUAL at R-3, C-9, there is no place for ELITE. Hence EQUAL must start at R-2, C-7. Therefore, MORALE must start at R-1, C-2, and ELITE at R-3, C-9

Lastly, U can be common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR. But that means GROTESQUE starts at row 7, and we need another 7 letter word to have at least 1 letter in row 1. This case is ruled out.

The word ELITE can start in 1st, 2nd and 3rd row. Therefore, more than 1 is possible.

Hence Option 4.

QUESTION: 40

Directions : Bhiku Mahtre has suddenly taken interest in solving crossword puzzles. His aide, Satya, is reading the newspaper and which has a unique crossword puzzle in it. First, the words have to be found out using the clues given, and then the position of the words also needs to be identified. After a brainstorming session, the two stalwarts have managed to find out the following
- There are only five words in the entire crossword, viz. EQUAL, MORALE, FERVOUR, GROTESQUE, ELITE.
- The words are arranged inside a 9*8(9 columns and 8 rows) crossword grid.
- There is only one word which lies across; all others are up-down
- There is no row or column which remains empty, at least one letter is there in every row or column
- The words are arranged in left to right or from top to bottom only
- None of the five words are standalone and are connected to at least one word.
- Row-1 Column-8 and Row-1 Column-9 are empty
- There is at least one empty cell above and also to the right of the letter F

Q. What is the position of the first letter of the word GROTESQUE?

Solution:

We have the number of letters of the words as EQUAL-5, ELITE-5, MORALE-6, FERVOUR-7, GROTESQUE-9.

Let us denote Row number 'x' as R - x, and Column number 'x' as C - x.

Since it is given that there is only one across word and no column remains empty, GROTESQUE must be the across word, as there are only 9 columns, and every other word must be connected to it.

Now, the word FERVOUR, which contains 7 letters must be an up-down word, and must start in row 2, as there is at least one blank cell above F. Also, it cannot start in row 3 or below.

Let us see what can be the common letter to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.

Suppose the common letter is R. Then, there are 2 possibilities, GROTESQUE starts at R- 4, C-1 or R-8 C1. But it cannot start with R-8, C-1 as we need an 8 letter word to occupy row 1.

Therefore, MORALE must start from R-3, C-3, and to ensure that row 1 is not empty, ELITE must start at R-1, C-4. The position of EQUAL cannot be fix

Next, suppose, O is common to GROTESQUE AND FERVOUR. Then GROTESQUE must start at R-6, C-1. Therefore MORALE must start at the 1st row, as that is the only 6 letter word which ensures that Row 1 is not empty. But it cannot start at R-1, C-8 or R-1, C9. Hence it must start at R-1, C-5.

The only place therefore equal can start is at R-4, C-7. The position of ELITE cannot be fixed.

Next, let us say that E is common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.
Obviously, the last E of GROTESQUE cannot be common as then F will not have at least one blank cell on its right. Hence GROTESQUE must start at R-3, C-1. Now, if we start EQUAL at R-3, C-9, there is no place for ELITE. Hence EQUAL must start at R-2, C-7. Therefore, MORALE must start at R-1, C-2, and ELITE at R-3, C-9

Lastly, U can be common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR. But that means GROTESQUE starts at row 7, and we need another 7 letter word to have at least 1 letter in row 1. This case is ruled out.
Clearly from the above possible solutions the exact position of the first letter of the word GROTESQUE cannot be determined. Hence Option 4.

QUESTION: 41

Directions : Bhiku Mahtre has suddenly taken interest in solving crossword puzzles. His aide, Satya, is reading the newspaper and which has a unique crossword puzzle in it. First, the words have to be found out using the clues given, and then the position of the words also needs to be identified. After a brainstorming session, the two stalwarts have managed to find out the following
- There are only five words in the entire crossword, viz. EQUAL, MORALE, FERVOUR, GROTESQUE, ELITE.
- The words are arranged inside a 9*8(9 columns and 8 rows) crossword grid.
- There is only one word which lies across; all others are up-down
- There is no row or column which remains empty, at least one letter is there in every row or column
- The words are arranged in left to right or from top to bottom only
- None of the five words are standalone and are connected to at least one word.
- Row-1 Column-8 and Row-1 Column-9 are empty
- There is at least one empty cell above and also to the right of the letter F

Q. The word MORALE cannot start from which position ?

Solution:

We have the number of letters of the words as EQUAL-5, ELITE-5, MORALE-6, FERVOUR-7, GROTESQUE-9.

Let us denote Row number 'x' as R - x, and Column number 'x' as C - x.

Since it is given that there is only one across word and no column remains empty, GROTESQUE must be the across word, as there are only 9 columns, and every other word must be connected to it.

Now, the word FERVOUR, which contains 7 letters must be an up-down word, and must start in row 2, as there is at least one blank cell above F. Also, it cannot start in row 3 or below.

Let us see what can be the common letter to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.

Suppose the common letter is R. Then, there are 2 possibilities, GROTESQUE starts at R- 4, C-1 or R-8 C1. But it cannot start with R-8, C-1 as we need an 8 letter word to occupy row 1.

Therefore, MORALE must start from R-3, C-3, and to ensure that row 1 is not empty, ELITE must start at R-1, C-4. The position of EQUAL cannot be fixed.

Next, suppose, O is common to GROTESQUE AND FERVOUR. Then GROTESQUE must start at R-6, C-1. Therefore MORALE must start at the 1st row, as that is the only 6 letter word which ensures that Row 1 is not empty. But it cannot start at R-1, C-8 or R-1, C9. Hence it must start at R-1, C-5.
The only place therefore equal can start is at R-4, C-7. The position of ELITE cannot be fixed.

Next, let us say that E is common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.
Obviously, the last E of GROTESQUE cannot be common as then F will not have at least one blank cell on its right. Hence GROTESQUE must start at R-3, C-1. Now, if we start EQUAL at R-3, C-9, there is no place for ELITE. Hence EQUAL must start at R-2, C-7. Therefore, MORALE must start at R-1, C-2, and ELITE at R-3, C-9

Lastly, U can be common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR. But that means GROTESQUE starts at row 7, and we need another 7 letter word to have at least 1 letter in row 1. This case is ruled out.
Clearly from the above possible solutions the word MORALE can start from all the given options. Hence Option 4.

QUESTION: 42

Directions : Bhiku Mahtre has suddenly taken interest in solving crossword puzzles. His aide, Satya, is reading the newspaper and which has a unique crossword puzzle in it. First, the words have to be found out using the clues given, and then the position of the words also needs to be identified. After a brainstorming session, the two stalwarts have managed to find out the following
- There are only five words in the entire crossword, viz. EQUAL, MORALE, FERVOUR, GROTESQUE, ELITE.
- The words are arranged inside a 9*8(9 columns and 8 rows) crossword grid.
- There is only one word which lies across; all others are up-down
- There is no row or column which remains empty, at least one letter is there in every row or column
- The words are arranged in left to right or from top to bottom only
- None of the five words are standalone and are connected to at least one word.
- Row-1 Column-8 and Row-1 Column-9 are empty
- There is at least one empty cell above and also to the right of the letter F

Q. How many blank cells are there in total ?

Solution:

We have the number of letters of the words as EQUAL-5, ELITE-5, MORALE-6, FERVOUR-7, GROTESQUE-9.

Let us denote Row number 'x' as R - x, and Column number 'x' as C - x.

Since it is given that there is only one across word and no column remains empty, GROTESQUE must be the across word, as there are only 9 columns, and every other word must be connected to it.

Now, the word FERVOUR, which contains 7 letters must be an up-down word, and must start in row 2, as there is at least one blank cell above F. Also, it cannot start in row 3 or below.

Let us see what can be the common letter to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.

Suppose the common letter is R. Then, there are 2 possibilities, GROTESQUE starts at R- 4, C-1 or R-8 C1. But it cannot start with R-8, C-1 as we need an 8 letter word to occupy row 1.

Therefore, MORALE must start from R-3, C-3, and to ensure that row 1 is not empty, ELITE must start at R-1, C-4. The position of EQUAL cannot be fixed.

Next, suppose, O is common to GROTESQUE AND FERVOUR. Then GROTESQUE must start at R-6, C-1. Therefore MORALE must start at the 1st row, as that is the only 6 letter word which ensures that Row 1 is not empty. But it cannot start at R-1, C-8 or R-1, C9. Hence it must start at R-1, C-5.
The only place therefore equal can start is at R-4, C-7. The position of ELITE cannot be fixed.


Next, let us say that E is common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR.
Obviously, the last E of GROTESQUE cannot be common as then F will not have at least one blank cell on its right. Hence GROTESQUE must start at R-3, C-1. Now, if we start EQUAL at R-3, C-9, there is no place for ELITE. Hence EQUAL must start at R-2, C-7. Therefore, MORALE must start at R-1, C-2, and ELITE at R-3, C-9

Lastly, U can be common to GROTESQUE and FERVOUR. But that means GROTESQUE starts at row 7, and we need another 7 letter word to have at least 1 letter in row 1. This case is ruled out.
Total cells = 9*8 = 72. Total number of letters = 5 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 9 = 32. Out of these 4 must be common. Total blanks occupied = 32 - 4 = 28. Total blanks un-occupied = 72 - 28 = 44.

Hence Option 2.

QUESTION: 43

Directions : A T-20 tournament was organized in which six teams were invited. Six Teams - Barca Blues, Victoria Violets, Bengal Browns, York Yellows, Romeo Reds and Berlin Blacks - participated in the tournament.

- Each Team played each of the other teams exactly once
- Every match resulted in a win for one team and a loss for another team
- The top two teams in this round proceed to the next stage. Then the remaining four teams play against each other once more. Top two teams after this round of matches join the other two teams who were selected at the end of the first round.
- 4 points are awarded for a win to the winning team and 0 points for the losing team in this stage of the tournament.
- In the next stage, the top team in the first round plays the top team of the second round and the second placed team in the first round plays the second placed team in the second round.
- The winners of these matches play a match to decide the winner.
- If teams end up with same points there is a tie breaker to determine the team qualifying to the knockout stage.

Q. Which of the following statements can be true?
(i) The team which qualified via the second round had more wins than the both the teams which qualified in the first round.
(ii) The team which had 4 wins overall had won the tournament
(iii) The team which won the tournament and the team which ended runners-up had the same number of wins

Solution:

2nd Stage

As seen in the tables above we conclude that statement (i) is possible.

B has 2 wins in league stage and wins the Semi-Final and Final. With 4 wins a team could have won the tournament. Therefore, Statement (ii) is possible.

2nd stage

A and B win the Semi-Finals.
B beats A in the final. B the winner has 6 wins and A also has 6 wins
Statement (iii) is possible.

QUESTION: 44

Directions : A T-20 tournament was organized in which six teams were invited. Six Teams - Barca Blues, Victoria Violets, Bengal Browns, York Yellows, Romeo Reds and Berlin Blacks - participated in the tournament.

- Each Team played each of the other teams exactly once
- Every match resulted in a win for one team and a loss for another team
- The top two teams in this round proceed to the next stage. Then the remaining four teams play against each other once more. Top two teams after this round of matches join the other two teams who were selected at the end of the first round.
- 4 points are awarded for a win to the winning team and 0 points for the losing team in this stage of the tournament.
- In the next stage, the top team in the first round plays the top team of the second round and the second placed team in the first round plays the second placed team in the second round.
- The winners of these matches play a match to decide the winner.
- If teams end up with same points there is a tie breaker to determine the team qualifying to the knockout stage.

Q. What is the maximum possible difference in the number of matches won (wins in first stage and wins in the second stage) by the team who qualified via the second round viz-a-viz the number of wins secured by the team that qualified in the first round itself?

Solution:

Let the teams be called A, B. C, D, E& F respectively.
First Scenario:

2nd stage

Difference 5 wins (Secured by C) - 2 wins (Secured by B)=3
Second Scenario:

2nd stage

Difference 6 wins (Secured by C) - 4 wins (Secured by B)=2
Therefore Maximum possible Difference = 3

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 45

Direction : Answer the questions on the basis of information given below.

The following bar graphs give the data about various districts being affected by natural  calamities in the state of Maharashtra for the period 1984 to 1993.

Note : No flood affected district is also a drought  affected district.

Q. In 1987, how many districts faced only one calamity?


Solution:

In 1987 there are two overlapping districts. So, there distribution must be with flood and drought district,
Only flood district = 6-1= 5.
Only twister district = 6 -2= 4.
Only drought district =8-1= 7.
Therefore total is 5+4+7 = 16.

Hence answer is 16.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 46

Direction : Answer the questions on the basis of information given below.

The following bar graphs give the data about various districts being affected by natural  calamities in the state of Maharashtra for the period 1984 to 1993.

Note : No flood affected district is also a drought affected district.

Q. How many years none of the districts experienced more than one calamity?


Solution:

There are only two years 1984 and 1992
Hence answer option is 2.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 47

Direction : Answer the questions on the basis of information given below.

The following bar graphs give the data about various districts being affected by natural  calamities in the state of Maharashtra for the period 1984 to 1993.

Note : No flood affected district is also a drought affected district.

Q. In 1988, there were two districts which faced both flood and twister, then how many districts faced both twister and drought?


Solution:

Total number of districts affected by all calamities in 1988 = 9.
As no flood district is drought district, therefore there must be at least 1 district with only twister.
And there are 12-9 = 3 districts with two calamities.
Therefore district affected by both twister and drought = 3-2 =1.
Hence answer is 1.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 48

Direction : Answer the questions on the basis of information given below.

The following bar graphs give the data about various districts being affected by natural  calamities in the state of Maharashtra for the period 1984 to 1993.

Note : No flood affected district is also a drought affected district.

Q. What is the number of districts affected by twister only over the given 10 years ?


Solution:

No. of districts affected by only twister= total no. of districts - (districts affected by drought + District affected by flood)
For 1993, only twister districts = 10 - (6+3 )=1.
Similarly, 1+5+2+3+4+1+4+4+2+4 =30.
Hence answer is 30.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 49

The following table shows the number of boys and girls of different schools that have participated in a scholarship test over five years.

Q. The total number of participants in year 2003 is


Solution:

Number of participation in 2003,
= (340+90)+(420+120)+(230+70)+(360+90)
= 1720

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 50

The following table shows the number of boys and girls of different schools that have participated in a scholarship test over five years.

Q. Tow many girls more participated in year 2004 as compared to 2003 for all schools taken together?


Solution:

Number of girls participating in 2004
=100+140+120+120=480
Number of girls participants in 2003
=90+120+70+90=370
required number = 480 - 370 - 110

QUESTION: 51

A and B do a work in exactly 16 days, B and C do the same work in exactly 12 days while C and A do the same work in about 10 days. If A, B and C can together do the work in integral number of days, then C does the work alone in

Solution:

Let a,b,c be the number of days in which A, B, C, can do the work alone. Then

QUESTION: 52

A right circular cone has height H and radius R. A small cone is cut off at the top by a plane parallel to the base. At what height above the base the section has been made?
Statement (I): H = 20cm
Statement (II): Volume of small cone: volume of large cone : 1:15

Solution:

From statement I, we know that the height of the initial cone is 20cm. However, nothing is said about the small cone. Hence, we cannot answer the question using statement A. So, we can eliminate choices (C).
We are down to choices, (A), (B) or (D)
From Statement II,we know that the ratio of the volume of the small cone to that of the large cone is 1 : 15

(r is the base
radius of the smaller cone and h is the height of the smaller cone)
or r2×h:R2×H is 1:15
From this information, we will not be able to find the answer to h. Hence, we can eliminate choice (A).
Combining the information in the two statements:
When a section is made the two cones are similar triangles. so, h/H = r/R

 Substituting H = 20, we can get the value for h.
Choice (B) is therefore, the correct answer.
 

QUESTION: 53

A report consists of 20 sheets each of 55 lines and each such line consists of 65 characters. This report is reduced onto sheets each of 65 lines such that each line consists of 70 characters. The percentage reduction in number of sheets is closest to:

Solution:

No. of Characters in one line =65
No. of characters in one sheet = No. of lines × No. of characters per line =55×65
Total number of characters = No. of sheets × No. of characters in one sheet =20×55×65=71500
If the report is retyped -
New sheets have 65 lines, with 70 characters per line
No. of characters in one sheet =65×70
Number of pages required,

Hence, 16 pages will be required if report is retyped.
Hence, reduction of (20−16) = 4 pages
% reduction is = (4/20) × 100 = 20%

QUESTION: 54

If a three digit number 'abc' has 3 factors, how many factors does the 6 -digit number 'abcabc' have?

Solution:

'abc' has exactly 3 factors, so 'abc' should be square of a prime number. (This is an important
inference, please remember this).
Any number of the form paqbrC will have (a+1)(b+1)(c+1) factors, where p,q,r are prime.
So if a number has 3 factors, its prime factorization has to be p2.
'abcabc′=′abc′×1001 or abc×7×11×13 (again, this is a critical idea to remember)
Now, 'abc' has to be square of a prime number. It can be either 121 or 169 (square of either 11 or 13 ) or it can be the square of some other prime number.
When abc=121 or 169, then 'abcabc' is of the form p3q1r11, which should have 4×2×2=16 factors.
When 'abc' = square of any other prime number (say 172 which is 289 ) , then 'abcabc' is of the
form p1q1r1s2, which should have 2×2×2×3=24 factors
So, 'abcabc' will have either 16 factors or 24 factors.

QUESTION: 55

If a three digit number 'abc' has 3 factors, how many factors does the 6 -digit number 'abcabc' have?

Solution:

'abc' has exactly 3 factors, so 'abc' should be square of a prime number. (This is an important
inference, please remember this).
Any number of the form paqbrC will have (a+1)(b+1)(c+1) factors, where p,q,r are prime.
So if a number has 3 factors, its prime factorization has to be p2.
'abcabc′=′abc′×1001 or abc×7×11×13 (again, this is a critical idea to remember)
Now, 'abc' has to be square of a prime number. It can be either 121 or 169 (square of either 11 or 13 ) or it can be the square of some other prime number.
When abc=121 or 169, then 'abcabc' is of the form p3q1r11, which should have 4×2×2=16 factors.
When 'abc' = square of any other prime number (say 172 which is 289) , then 'abcabc' is of the
form p1q1r1s2, which should have 2×2×2×3=24 factors
So, 'abcabc' will have either 16 factors or 24 factors.

QUESTION: 56

log2⁡4×log4⁡8×log8⁡16×………… nth term = 49, what is the value of n?

Solution:

First, the nth term of L.H.S need to be defined by observing the pattern :-
It is log(2n)⁡2.2n
Given, log2⁡4×log4⁡8×log8⁡16×……………log(2n)⁡2.2n = 49
Whenever solving a logarithm equation, generally one should approach towards making the base same.
Making the base 2 :-

QUESTION: 57

Two mutually perpendicular chords AB and CD meet at a point P inside the circle such that AP = 6cms,PB = 4 units and DP=3 units. What is the area of the circle?

Solution:


As AB and CD are two chords that intersect at O,AP×PB=CP×PD
6×4=CP×3
CP=8
From center O draw OM⊥rAB and ON ⊥rCD .
From the center a line ⊥r to a chord bisects the chord.
So, we have AM=MB=5cm
MP=1cm,ON=1cm,CD=11cm,CN=5.5cm
ON2+CN= OC2
12+5.52+r2
1+30.25 = r2
Area = πr2
π×31.25
31.25π = 125π/4sqcms

QUESTION: 58

Numbers A,B,C and D have 16,28,30 and 27 factors. Which of these could be a perfect cube?

Solution:

Any number of the form paqbrc will have (a+1)(b+1)(c+1) factors, where p,q,r are prime. In
order for the number to be a perfect cube a, b, c will have to be multiples of 3.
We can assume that a=3m,b=3n,c=3l 
This tells us that the number of factors will have to be of the form (3n+1)×(3m+1)×(31+1).
In other words (a+1),(b+1) and (c+1) all leave a remainder of 1 on division by 3.
So, the product of these three numbers should also leave a remainder of 1 on division by 3. Of the four
numbers provided, 16 and 28 can be written in this form, the other two cannot.
So, a perfect cube can have 16 or 28 factors. Now, let us think about what kind of numbers will have 16 factors.
A number of the form p15 or q3r3 will have exactly 16 factors. Both are perfect cubes. Note that there are other prime factorizations possible that can have exactly 16 factors. But these two
forms are perfect cubes, which is what we are interested in.
Similarly, a number of the form p27 or q3r6 will have 28 factors. Both are perfect cubes.

QUESTION: 59

Solution:


However, from inequalities (1) and (2), y cannot take either of these value.

QUESTION: 60

x, y, z are 3 integers in a geometric sequence such that y − x is a perfect cube. Given log36⁡x2+log6√⁡y+log216⁡y1/2z = 6. Find the value of x+y+z

Solution:


Possible values of (a, b) satisfying the equation:-
(1,36),(2,18),(3,12),(4,9),(9,4),(12,3),(18,2),(36,1)
Given y−x is a perfect cube
⇒ ab-a is perfect cube
⇒a(b−1) is perfect cube
Only possible when (a,b)=(9,4)
∴x=9,y=36,z=144
∴ x + y + z = 9 + 36 + 144 = 189

QUESTION: 61

Find the equation of the graph shown below.

Solution:

The equation has to be of the form x=ay2+by+c
A quick look at the choices tells us that we can eliminate choices (A), and (B)
Choice A is a linear equation. So, it represents a straight line. Rule it out.
Choices (b) is in the form of y=ax2. Our axes are swapped. So, choice (B) can also be ruled out.
Choice C:x=2y2−40
Substitute y=−4 in the equation.
We get x=2(−4)2−40=32−40=−8
However, we know that when y=−4,x=0.
So, Choice (C) cannot be the answer.
Choice (D) :{x}=2 {y}^{2}+3 {y}-19)
When y=−4,x=2(−4)2+3(−4)−19=32−31=1
So, when y is around −4, it will be 0 .
Let us validate it with one more data point.
When y=0,x=2(0)2+3(0)−19=−19
The value of x is around −20 as indicated in the curve.

QUESTION: 62

A string is wound around two circular disk as shown. If the radius of the two disk are 40cm and 30cm respectively. What is the total length of the string?

Solution:


As, tangent from an exterior point makes right angle with the radius.

Length of string wound around circle x ⇒ 270/360×2×π×80
=3/4×80π
=60π
Similarly, Length of string wound around circle 

QUESTION: 63

A sphere of radius r is cut by a plane at a distance of h from its center, thereby breaking this sphere into two different pieces. The cumulative surface area of these two pieces is 25% more than that of the sphere. Find h.

Solution:

Area = 4πr2 


Cumulative area of the two pieces =25%
more than that of sphere.
Area of 2 pieces =1.25×4π2=5πr2
Extra area = πr2
Extra area = area of two new circles that are now created circles.

Let radius of new circle be r1.




Now, r1,h and r form a right angled triangle.

QUESTION: 64

It costs Rs. x each to make the first thousand copies of a compact disk and Rs. y to make each subsequent copy. If z is greater than 1,000, how many Rupees will it cost to make z copies of the compact disk?

Solution:

We need to find the total cost to make z copies, z>1000.
The first 1000 copies will cost Rs. x each.
Or the total cost of first 1000 copies = Rs. 1000x
The remaining z−1000 copies will cost Rs. y each.
Or the cost of the z−1000= Rs. (z−1000)y
Therefore, total cost = 1000x + zy - 1000y = 1000(x - y) = yz

QUESTION: 65

A charity solicited P persons over the phone who agreed to an average pledge of Rs. R each. Q of these people who had pledged an average of Rs. S each never sent in the pledged amount. Which of the following expressions represents the percentage of pledged money that the charity received?

Solution:

Total amount solicited from P persons, each of whom agreed to pledge Rs.R= Rs. P×R
Of these Q did not send the pledged amount. Average value of amount not sent = Rs. S. Hence, the total amount pledged but not received =Rs.Q×S
The charity therefore, received Rs. (PR−QS) Expressing the amount received as a percentage of amount pledge, we get  Or, the expression can be rewritten as 

QUESTION: 66

 what is the value of x ?

Solution:

First of all, let us define the xth term.

Whenever you encounter a distinctive number such as one given in R.H.S of above equation, always try to find its significance in the context of question.

In this case L.H.S has  must be some form of 3a.
With little hit and trial, you may find


Solving this equation for x > 0, we get x = 11.
You should directly be able to see that 132 = 11 × 12
⇒ x = 11

QUESTION: 67

logxy + logy x2 = 3. Find logy3 

Solution:


Hence from above logy x = 1/a
Now rewritting the equation logx y + logy x2 = 3 

QUESTION: 68

Three labourers worked together for 30 days, in the course of work, all of them remained absent for few days. One of them was absent for 10 days more than the second labourer and the third labourer did one-third of the total work. How many days more than the third labourer was the first one absent?

Solution:

Let k be the part of work labourers can do in one day and x−10,x,y be the number of days for which they remained present. Then

The required number of days  = y - (x - 10) = 5

QUESTION: 69

How many numbers are there less than 100 that cannot be written as a multiple of a perfect square greater than 1 ?

Solution:

To begin with, all prime numbers will be part of this list.
There are 25 primes less than 100 .
Apart from this, any number that can be written as a product of two or more primes will be there on this list.
That is, any number of the form pq, or pqr, or pqrs will be there on this list (where p,q,r,s are primes).
A number of the form pnq cannot be a part of this list if n is greater than 1, as then the number will be a multiple of p2
First let us think of all multiples of 2× prime number. This includes 2×3,2×5,2×7,2×11 all the way up to 2×47(14 numbers).
The, we move on to all numbers of the type 3∗ prime number 3×5,3×7 all the way up to 3×31(9 numbers).
Then, all numbers of the type 5× prime number −5×7,5×11,5×13,5×17,5×19(5 numbers).
Then, all numbers of the type 7× prime number and then 7×11,7×13 (2 numbers).
There are no numbers of the form 11× prime number which have not been counted earlier.
Post this, we need to count all numbers of the form p×q×r, where p,q,r are all prime.
Adding 1 to this list, we get totally 36 different composite numbers.
Along with the 25 prime numbers, we get 61 numbers that cannot be written as a product of a perfect square greater than 1 .
Hence the answer is 61

QUESTION: 70

Cylindrical cans of cricket balls are to be packed in a box. Each can has a radius of 7cm and height of 30cm. Dimension of the box is 1=76cm,b=46cm,h=45cm. What is the maximum number of cans that can fit in the box?

Solution:

Since, both the box and cans are hard solids, simply dividing the volume won't work because the shape can't be deformed.
Each cylindrical can has a diameter of 14cm and while they are kept erect in the box will occupy height of 30cm
Vumber of such cans that can be placed in a row = l/Diameter = 76/14 = 5 (Remaining space will be vacant)
Thus 5×3=15 cans can be placed in an erect position. 
However, height of box =45cm and only 30cm has been utilized so far Remaining height =15cm>14cm (Diameter of the can) 
So, some cans can be placed horizontally on the base.
Number of cans in horizontal row 

Number of such rows = 

∴ 2 x 3 = 6 cans can be placed horizontally
∴ Maximum number of cans  = 15 + 6 = 21

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 71

One year payment to the servant is Rs. 90 plus one turban. The servant leaves after 9 months and receives Rs. 65 and turban. Then find the price of the turban


Solution:

Payment for 12 months = 90+t Assuming t as the value of a turban}
Payment for 9 months should be 3/4(90+t)
Payment for 9 months is given to us as 65+t
Equating the two values we get

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 72

A red light flashes three times per minute and a green light flashes five times in 2 min at regular intervals. If both lights start flashing at the same time, how many times do they flash together in each hour?


Solution:

A red light flashes three times per minute and a green light flashes five times in 2 min at regular intervals. So red light flashes after every 1/3 min and green light flashes every 2/5 min. LCM of both the fractions is 2min.
Hence they flash together after every 2min. So in an hour they flash together 30 times.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 73

For the given pair (x,y) of positive integers, such that 4x−17y=1 and x<1000 how many integer values of y satisfy the given conditions?


Solution:

We first need to find out a solution for x and y. Once we get a solution, values of x would be in an AP with a common difference of 17 whereas values of y would be in an AP with a common difference of 4
Valid Solutions:


 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 74

A rectangular pool 20 meter wide and 60 meter long is surrounded by a walkway of uniform width. If the total area of the walkway is 516 square meter, how wide, in meter, is the walkway?


Solution:

Let the width of the path be x meters,

Given, Area of the path =516m2
Area of the path = Area of the outer rectangle - Area of the pool
Area of pool=60×20
Area of outer rectangle =(60+2x)(20+2x)
Therefore (60+2x)(20+2x)−60×20=516
1200+120x+40x+4x2−1200=516
4x2+160x−516=0
x2+40x−129=0
x2+43x−3x−129=0
x(x+43)−3(x+43)=0
(x−3)(x+43)=0
x=3,−43
x cannot be negative and hence x=3 meters. So the path is 3 meters wide.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 75

In a four-digit number, the sum of the first 2 digits is equal to that of the last 2 digits. The sum of the first and last digits is equal to the third digit. Finally, the sum of the second and fourth digits is twice the sum of the other 2 digits. What is the third digit of the number?


Solution:

Let the 4 digit no. be xyzw.
According to given conditions we have x+y=z+w, x+w=z,y+w=2x+2z
With help of these equations we deduce that y=2w,z=5x.
Now the minimum value x can take is 1 so z=5 and the no. is 1854, which satisfies all the conditions. 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 76

3 sin⁡x + 4cos⁡x + r is always greater than or equal to 0. What is the smallest value r can to take?


Solution:

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