CAT Verbal Mock Test - 2


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Attempt CAT Verbal Mock Test - 2 | 25 questions in 35 minutes | Mock test for CAT preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study CAT New for CAT Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

There is no better illustration to the life cycle of a civilization than The Course of Empire, a series of paintings by Thomas Cole that hang in the gallery of the New York Historical Society. Cole beautifully captured a theory to which most people remain in thrall to this day: the theory of cycles of civilization.

Each of the five imagined scenes depicts the mouth of a great river beneath a rocky outcrop. In the first, The Savage State, a lush wilderness is populated by a handful of hunter-gatherers eking out a primitive existence at the break of a stormy dawn. Imagine history from Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492 on through four more centuries as they savagely expanded across the continent. The second picture, ‘The Arcadian or Pastoral State,’ is of an agrarian idyll: the inhabitants have cleared the trees, planted fields, and built an elegant Greek temple.

The third and largest of the paintings is ‘The Consummation of Empire.’ Now, the landscape is covered by a magnificent marble entrepôt, and the contented farmer-philosophers of the previous tableau have been replaced by a throng of opulently clad merchants, proconsuls and citizen-consumers. It is midday in the life cycle.

Then comes ‘The Destruction of Empire,’ the fourth stage in Ferguson’s grand drama about the life-cycle of all empires. In ‘Destruction’ the city is ablaze, its citizens fleeing an invading horde that rapes and pillages beneath a brooding evening sky. Finally, the moon rises over the fifth painting, ‘Desolation,’ says Ferguson. There is not a living soul to be seen, only a few decaying columns and colonnades overgrown by briars and ivy.

Conceived in the mid-1830s, Cole’s pentaptych, a five-piece work of art, has a clear message: all civilizations, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall. The implicit suggestion was that the young American republic of Cole’s age would do better to stick to its bucolic first principles and resist the temptations of commerce, conquest and colonization. For centuries, historians, political theorists, anthropologists and the public at large have tended to think about the rise and fall of civilizations in such cyclical and gradual terms…

More recently, it is the anthropologist Jared Diamond who has captured the public imagination with a grand theory of rise and fall. His book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, is cyclical history for the Green Age: tales of societies, from 17th century Easter Island to 21st century China, that risked, or now risk, destroying themselves by abusing their natural environments. Diamond quotes John Lloyd Stevens, the American explorer and amateur archaeologist who discovered the eerily dead Mayan cities of Mexico: ‘Here were the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar people, who had passed through all the stages incident to the rise and fall of nations, reached their golden age, and perished.’ According to Diamond, the Maya fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support. More people meant more cultivation, but that means deforestation, erosion, drought and soil exhaustion. The result was civil war over dwindling resources and, finally, collapse.

Q. The Mayans were mentioned in the last para of the passage to signify that

Solution: The answer can be inferred from the sentence: ‘According to Diamond, the Maya fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population'. The Mayans were mentioned as an example of great societies that went through the cyclical pattern of societies that rise and fall.

Option A: This is what happened with the Mayans as mentioned in the example. But, the Mayans were mentioned not just to talk about cultivation and deforestation. If that were the case, the author wouldn't have extended the explanation to civil war. Hence, Option A is not the answer.

Option B: While civil war was the logical conclusion in case of Mayans, the author doesn't mention that every society destroys itself only through a civil war. The result may not always be a civil war. Hence, Option B is the answer.

Option C: This was mentioned with respect to Cole's painting earlier in the passage and not with respect to the Mayans. Also, the Mayans were mentioned to demonstrate the cycle of societies and civilisations and not to depict how that can be avoided. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: 'More recently, it is the anthropologist Jared Diamond who has captured the public imagination with a grand theory of rise and fall His book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, is cyclical history for the Green Age: tales of societies, from 17th century Easter Island to 21" century China, that risked, or now risk, destroying themselves bv abusing their natural environments. Diamond quotes John Lloyd Stevens, the American explorer and amateur archaeologist who discovered the eerily dead Mavan cities of Mexico: ‘Here were the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar people, who had passed through all the stages incident to the rise and fall of nations, reached their golden age. and perished.’ According to Diamond, the May fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support.

From the underlined portions above we can understand that Diamond quoted John Lloyd and spoke about Mayans to talk about how societies that rise also eventually fall, perishing because they grew in size and were unable to support their growing population after using up their environmental resources. Hence, Option D is the answer.

QUESTION: 2

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

There is no better illustration to the life cycle of a civilization than The Course of Empire, a series of paintings by Thomas Cole that hang in the gallery of the New York Historical Society. Cole beautifully captured a theory to which most people remain in thrall to this day: the theory of cycles of civilization.

Each of the five imagined scenes depicts the mouth of a great river beneath a rocky outcrop. In the first, The Savage State, a lush wilderness is populated by a handful of hunter-gatherers eking out a primitive existence at the break of a stormy dawn. Imagine history from Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492 on through four more centuries as they savagely expanded across the continent. The second picture, ‘The Arcadian or Pastoral State,’ is of an agrarian idyll: the inhabitants have cleared the trees, planted fields, and built an elegant Greek temple.

The third and largest of the paintings is ‘The Consummation of Empire.’ Now, the landscape is covered by a magnificent marble entrepôt, and the contented farmer-philosophers of the previous tableau have been replaced by a throng of opulently clad merchants, proconsuls and citizen-consumers. It is midday in the life cycle.

Then comes ‘The Destruction of Empire,’ the fourth stage in Ferguson’s grand drama about the life-cycle of all empires. In ‘Destruction’ the city is ablaze, its citizens fleeing an invading horde that rapes and pillages beneath a brooding evening sky. Finally, the moon rises over the fifth painting, ‘Desolation,’ says Ferguson. There is not a living soul to be seen, only a few decaying columns and colonnades overgrown by briars and ivy.

Conceived in the mid-1830s, Cole’s pentaptych, a five-piece work of art, has a clear message: all civilizations, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall. The implicit suggestion was that the young American republic of Cole’s age would do better to stick to its bucolic first principles and resist the temptations of commerce, conquest and colonization. For centuries, historians, political theorists, anthropologists and the public at large have tended to think about the rise and fall of civilizations in such cyclical and gradual terms…

More recently, it is the anthropologist Jared Diamond who has captured the public imagination with a grand theory of rise and fall. His book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, is cyclical history for the Green Age: tales of societies, from 17th century Easter Island to 21st century China, that risked, or now risk, destroying themselves by abusing their natural environments. Diamond quotes John Lloyd Stevens, the American explorer and amateur archaeologist who discovered the eerily dead Mayan cities of Mexico: ‘Here were the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar people, who had passed through all the stages incident to the rise and fall of nations, reached their golden age, and perished.’ According to Diamond, the Maya fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support. More people meant more cultivation, but that means deforestation, erosion, drought and soil exhaustion. The result was civil war over dwindling resources and, finally, collapse.

Q. Thomas Cole’s purpose in painting his pentaptych seems to be to highlight

Solution: From the two statements: ‘Cole beautifully captured a theory to which most people remain in thrall to this day: the theory of cycles of civilization’ and ‘Conceived in the mid-1830s, Coles pentaptych, a five-piece work of art, has a clear message: all civilizations, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall’ we can understand what was Cole’s purpose in painting the The Course of Empire, his pentaptych.

Option A: The purpose of the painting was probably to cover every civilization and not just a decadent’ (declining, decaying, rotten, deteriorating) civilisation. Hence, Option A is not the answer.

Option B: This is synonymous to all civilizations, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall’ mentioned in the passage. Hence, Option B is the answer.

Option C: The implicit suggestion was that the young American republic of Cole's age would do better to stick to its bucolic first principles and resist the temptations of commerce, conquest and colonization. As per the passage, it was an implicit suggestion (to the young American republic of Cole’s time) and not the main purpose of the painting series. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: The painting was about all civilizations and not just the ‘ambitious’ ones. Hence, Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 3

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

There is no better illustration to the life cycle of a civilization than The Course of Empire, a series of paintings by Thomas Cole that hang in the gallery of the New York Historical Society. Cole beautifully captured a theory to which most people remain in thrall to this day: the theory of cycles of civilization.

Each of the five imagined scenes depicts the mouth of a great river beneath a rocky outcrop. In the first, The Savage State, a lush wilderness is populated by a handful of hunter-gatherers eking out a primitive existence at the break of a stormy dawn. Imagine history from Columbus’ discovery of America in 1492 on through four more centuries as they savagely expanded across the continent. The second picture, ‘The Arcadian or Pastoral State,’ is of an agrarian idyll: the inhabitants have cleared the trees, planted fields, and built an elegant Greek temple.

The third and largest of the paintings is ‘The Consummation of Empire.’ Now, the landscape is covered by a magnificent marble entrepôt, and the contented farmer-philosophers of the previous tableau have been replaced by a throng of opulently clad merchants, proconsuls and citizen-consumers. It is midday in the life cycle.

Then comes ‘The Destruction of Empire,’ the fourth stage in Ferguson’s grand drama about the life-cycle of all empires. In ‘Destruction’ the city is ablaze, its citizens fleeing an invading horde that rapes and pillages beneath a brooding evening sky. Finally, the moon rises over the fifth painting, ‘Desolation,’ says Ferguson. There is not a living soul to be seen, only a few decaying columns and colonnades overgrown by briars and ivy.

Conceived in the mid-1830s, Cole’s pentaptych, a five-piece work of art, has a clear message: all civilizations, no matter how magnificent, are condemned to decline and fall. The implicit suggestion was that the young American republic of Cole’s age would do better to stick to its bucolic first principles and resist the temptations of commerce, conquest and colonization. For centuries, historians, political theorists, anthropologists and the public at large have tended to think about the rise and fall of civilizations in such cyclical and gradual terms…

More recently, it is the anthropologist Jared Diamond who has captured the public imagination with a grand theory of rise and fall. His book, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, is cyclical history for the Green Age: tales of societies, from 17th century Easter Island to 21st century China, that risked, or now risk, destroying themselves by abusing their natural environments. Diamond quotes John Lloyd Stevens, the American explorer and amateur archaeologist who discovered the eerily dead Mayan cities of Mexico: ‘Here were the remains of a cultivated, polished, and peculiar people, who had passed through all the stages incident to the rise and fall of nations, reached their golden age, and perished.’ According to Diamond, the Maya fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support. More people meant more cultivation, but that means deforestation, erosion, drought and soil exhaustion. The result was civil war over dwindling resources and, finally, collapse.

Q. Which of the following needs to be true to validate the last statement of the passage: ‘The result was civil war over dwindling resources and, finally, collapse’?

Solution: According to Diamond, the Maya fell into a classic Malthusian trap as their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support. More people meant more cultivation, but that means deforestation, erosion, drought and soil exhaustion. The result was civil war over dwindling resources and, finally, collapse.

To validate the conclusion that the result was a civil war, we need to understand the underlying assumptions that the author made. The author is of the opinion that more people leads to more cultivation and more deforestation, etc. leading to dwindling resources. This, the author states, leads to a civil war, assuming that shortage of resources leads to war.

Option A: This has been mentioned in the para by the author. But, the author didn’t use this statement to conclude that there will be a civil war. Hence, Option A is not the answer.

Option B: The author has directly mentioned this line in ‘their population grew larger than their fragile and inefficient agricultural system could support. That doesn't explain why the civil war has to be the eventual result. Hence, Option B is not the answer.

Option C: This option explains why there could be a civil war to resolve the issue of dwindling resources as people are more likely to use force than go for a peaceful sharing system. Hence, if Option C is true, the conclusion will hold. Option C is the answer.

Option D: This is a relationship that the author derived in the para, but it doesn't explain why there has to be a civil war. Hence, Option D can be eliminated.

QUESTION: 4

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The origins of the people of the Indus Valley civilization has prompted a long-running argument that has lasted for more than five decades.

Some scholars have suggested that they were originally migrants from upland plateaux to the west. Others have maintained the civilization was made up of indigenous local groups, while some have said it was a mixture of both, and part of a network of different communities in the region. Experts have also debated whether the civilization succumbed to a traumatic invasion by so-called “Aryans” whose chariots they were unable to resist, or in fact peaceably assimilated a series of waves of migration over many decades or centuries.

A new research will provide definitive answers, at least for the population of Rakhigarhi. It is a key site in the Indus Valley civilization which ruled a more than 1 million sq km swath of the Asian subcontinent during the bronze age and was as advanced and powerful as its better known contemporary counterparts in Egypt and Mesopotamia. “There is already evidence of intermarriage and mixing through trade and so forth for a long time and the DNA will tell us for sure,” said Vasant Shinde, an Indian archaeologist leading current excavations at Rakhigarhi.

Shinde’s conclusions will be published in the new year. They are based on DNA sequences derived from four skeletons excavated eight months ago and checked against DNA data from tens of thousands of people from all across the subcontinent, central Asia and Iran.

The conclusions from the new research on the skeletal DNA sample are likely to be controversial in a region riven by religious, ethnic and nationalist tensions. Hostile neighbours India and Pakistan have fought three wars since winning their independence from the British in 1947, and have long squabbled over the true centre of the Indus civilization, which straddles the border between the countries. Shinde said Rakhigarhi might have been a bigger city than either Mohenjodaro or Harappa, two sites in Pakistan previously considered the centre of the Indus civilization. Some in India will also be keen to claim any new research supports their belief that the Rig Veda, an ancient text sacred to Hindus compiled shortly after the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, is reliable as an historical record.

The question of links between today’s inhabitants of the area and those who lived, farmed, and died millennia ago has also prompted fierce argument. There are other mysteries too. The Indus Valley civilization flourished for three thousand years before disappearing suddenly around 1500 BC. Theories range from the drying up of local rivers to an epidemic. Recently, research has focused on climate change undermining the irrigation-based agriculture on which an advanced urban society was ultimately dependent. Soil samples around the skeletons from which samples were sent for DNA analysis have also been despatched. Traces of parasites, found in these skeletons, may tell archaeologists what the people of the Indus Valley civilization ate. Three-dimensional modelling technology will also allow a reconstruction of the physical appearance of the dead. “For the first time we will see the face of these people,” Shinde said.

In Rakhigarhi village, there are mixed emotions about the forthcoming revelations about the site. Chand, a self-appointed guide from Rakhigarhi, hopes the local government will finally fulfil long standing promises to build a museum, an auditorium and hotel for tourists there. “This is a neglected site and now that will change. This place should be as popular as the Taj Mahal. There should be hundreds, thousands of visitors coming,” Chand said.

Q. Which of the following could be a possible reason as to why Chand thinks Rakhigarhi is a neglected site?

Solution: From the statements: ‘Chand, a self-appointed guide from Rakhigarhi, hopes the local government will finally fulfil long standing promises to build a museum, an auditorium and hotel for tourists there. ‘This is a neglected site and now that will change. This place should be as popular as the Ta] Mahal. There should be hundreds, thousands of visitors coming,” Chand said’, we can understand that Chand thinks the place is neglected because of promises which were due for a long time.

Option A: Taj Mahal was an example given by Chand to compare Rakhigarhi's glory. But, his reason for calling it neglected is not because he thinks it should be as popular as Taj Mahal. Hence, Option A can be eliminated.

Option B: This statement agrees with the reason that has been mentioned and explained above, about how there are several unfulfilled/long standing promises. Hence, Option B is the answer.

Option C: This is a cause-effect fallacy. Chand thinks Rakhigarhi is not as popular because of the promises not getting fulfilled/because it is a neglected site. It is neglected is not because it is not so popular. Hence, Option C is not the answer. Option D: This is not true, since Option B does explain the reason why Chand thinks the place has been neglected.

QUESTION: 5

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The origins of the people of the Indus Valley civilization has prompted a long-running argument that has lasted for more than five decades.

Some scholars have suggested that they were originally migrants from upland plateaux to the west. Others have maintained the civilization was made up of indigenous local groups, while some have said it was a mixture of both, and part of a network of different communities in the region. Experts have also debated whether the civilization succumbed to a traumatic invasion by so-called “Aryans” whose chariots they were unable to resist, or in fact peaceably assimilated a series of waves of migration over many decades or centuries.

A new research will provide definitive answers, at least for the population of Rakhigarhi. It is a key site in the Indus Valley civilization which ruled a more than 1 million sq km swath of the Asian subcontinent during the bronze age and was as advanced and powerful as its better known contemporary counterparts in Egypt and Mesopotamia. “There is already evidence of intermarriage and mixing through trade and so forth for a long time and the DNA will tell us for sure,” said Vasant Shinde, an Indian archaeologist leading current excavations at Rakhigarhi.

Shinde’s conclusions will be published in the new year. They are based on DNA sequences derived from four skeletons excavated eight months ago and checked against DNA data from tens of thousands of people from all across the subcontinent, central Asia and Iran.

The conclusions from the new research on the skeletal DNA sample are likely to be controversial in a region riven by religious, ethnic and nationalist tensions. Hostile neighbours India and Pakistan have fought three wars since winning their independence from the British in 1947, and have long squabbled over the true centre of the Indus civilization, which straddles the border between the countries. Shinde said Rakhigarhi might have been a bigger city than either Mohenjodaro or Harappa, two sites in Pakistan previously considered the centre of the Indus civilization. Some in India will also be keen to claim any new research supports their belief that the Rig Veda, an ancient text sacred to Hindus compiled shortly after the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, is reliable as an historical record.

The question of links between today’s inhabitants of the area and those who lived, farmed, and died millennia ago has also prompted fierce argument. There are other mysteries too. The Indus Valley civilization flourished for three thousand years before disappearing suddenly around 1500 BC. Theories range from the drying up of local rivers to an epidemic. Recently, research has focused on climate change undermining the irrigation-based agriculture on which an advanced urban society was ultimately dependent. Soil samples around the skeletons from which samples were sent for DNA analysis have also been despatched. Traces of parasites, found in these skeletons, may tell archaeologists what the people of the Indus Valley civilization ate. Three-dimensional modelling technology will also allow a reconstruction of the physical appearance of the dead. “For the first time we will see the face of these people,” Shinde said.

In Rakhigarhi village, there are mixed emotions about the forthcoming revelations about the site. Chand, a self-appointed guide from Rakhigarhi, hopes the local government will finally fulfil long standing promises to build a museum, an auditorium and hotel for tourists there. “This is a neglected site and now that will change. This place should be as popular as the Taj Mahal. There should be hundreds, thousands of visitors coming,” Chand said.

Q. Which of the following statements about Rakhigarhi can be understood from the passage?

Solution: Option A: From the statements: ‘Shinde said Rakhigarhi might have been a bigger city than either Mohenjodaro or Harappa, two sites in Pakistan previously considered the centre of the Indus civilization’ it could be inferred that Rakhigarhi may be a bigger city. Hence, Option A is the answer.

Option B: Consider the statement: There is already evidence of intermarriage and mixing through trade and so forth for a Iong time and the DNA will tell us for sure,” said Vasant Shinde, an Indian archaeologist leading current excavations at Rakhigarhi’. From this we cannot infer that Rakhigarhi was the epicentre of trade. Hence, Option B is not the answer.

Option C: There is evidence’ cannot be equated to ‘it was famous for'. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: This option could possibly be a misreading of the statements: ‘A new research will provide definitive answers, at least for the population of Rakhigarhi. It is a key site in the Indus Valley civilization which ruled a more than 1 million sq km swath of the Asian subcontinent during the bronze age and was as advanced and powerful as its better known contemporary counterparts in Egypt and Mesopotamia’. Here, it is not Rakhigarhi but the Indus Valley Civilization which is being compared to Egypt and Mesopotamia. Hence, Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 6

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The origins of the people of the Indus Valley civilization has prompted a long-running argument that has lasted for more than five decades.

Some scholars have suggested that they were originally migrants from upland plateaux to the west. Others have maintained the civilization was made up of indigenous local groups, while some have said it was a mixture of both, and part of a network of different communities in the region. Experts have also debated whether the civilization succumbed to a traumatic invasion by so-called “Aryans” whose chariots they were unable to resist, or in fact peaceably assimilated a series of waves of migration over many decades or centuries.

A new research will provide definitive answers, at least for the population of Rakhigarhi. It is a key site in the Indus Valley civilization which ruled a more than 1 million sq km swath of the Asian subcontinent during the bronze age and was as advanced and powerful as its better known contemporary counterparts in Egypt and Mesopotamia. “There is already evidence of intermarriage and mixing through trade and so forth for a long time and the DNA will tell us for sure,” said Vasant Shinde, an Indian archaeologist leading current excavations at Rakhigarhi.

Shinde’s conclusions will be published in the new year. They are based on DNA sequences derived from four skeletons excavated eight months ago and checked against DNA data from tens of thousands of people from all across the subcontinent, central Asia and Iran.

The conclusions from the new research on the skeletal DNA sample are likely to be controversial in a region riven by religious, ethnic and nationalist tensions. Hostile neighbours India and Pakistan have fought three wars since winning their independence from the British in 1947, and have long squabbled over the true centre of the Indus civilization, which straddles the border between the countries. Shinde said Rakhigarhi might have been a bigger city than either Mohenjodaro or Harappa, two sites in Pakistan previously considered the centre of the Indus civilization. Some in India will also be keen to claim any new research supports their belief that the Rig Veda, an ancient text sacred to Hindus compiled shortly after the demise of the Indus Valley civilization, is reliable as an historical record.

The question of links between today’s inhabitants of the area and those who lived, farmed, and died millennia ago has also prompted fierce argument. There are other mysteries too. The Indus Valley civilization flourished for three thousand years before disappearing suddenly around 1500 BC. Theories range from the drying up of local rivers to an epidemic. Recently, research has focused on climate change undermining the irrigation-based agriculture on which an advanced urban society was ultimately dependent. Soil samples around the skeletons from which samples were sent for DNA analysis have also been despatched. Traces of parasites, found in these skeletons, may tell archaeologists what the people of the Indus Valley civilization ate. Three-dimensional modelling technology will also allow a reconstruction of the physical appearance of the dead. “For the first time we will see the face of these people,” Shinde said.

In Rakhigarhi village, there are mixed emotions about the forthcoming revelations about the site. Chand, a self-appointed guide from Rakhigarhi, hopes the local government will finally fulfil long standing promises to build a museum, an auditorium and hotel for tourists there. “This is a neglected site and now that will change. This place should be as popular as the Taj Mahal. There should be hundreds, thousands of visitors coming,” Chand said.

Q. According to the passage, which of the following can provide information about the people of Indus Valley civilization?

I. Soil samples around Rakhigarhi's contours.

II. DNA sequences derived from the four skeletons excavated near Rakhigarhi.

III. Traces of parasites found in the skeletal structures.

IV. Three-dimensional modelling technology.

Solution: I. From the statement Soil samples around the skeletons from which samples were sent for DNA analysis have also been despatched', we can understand that the soil around the skeletons, which are in Rakhigarhi (and not around Rakhigarhi) provides information about the people of the Indus Valley Civilization. Hence, this statement, which mentions soil samples around Rakhigarhi's contours, is incorrect.

II. From the statement Shinde's conclusions will be published in the new year. They are based on DNA sequences derived from four skeletons excavated eight months ago and checked against DNA', we can understand that II can provide information about the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.

III. From Traces of parasites, found in these skeletons, may tell archaeologists what the people of the Indus Valley civilization ate1, we can understand that III can provide information.

IV. From ‘Three-dimensional modelling technology will also allow a reconstruction of the physical appearance of the dead’, we can understand that IV can provide information about the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.

II, III and IV all provide information about the people of Indus Valley Civilization. Hence, Option C is the answer.

QUESTION: 7

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The issues and preoccupations of the 21st century present new and often fundamentally different types of challenges from those that faced the world in 1945, when the United Nations was founded. As new realities and challenges have emerged, so too have new expectations for action and new standards of conduct in national and international affairs. Since, for example, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon, it has become evident that the war against terrorism the world must now fight – one with no contested frontiers and a largely invisible enemy – is one like no other war before it.

Many new international institutions have been created to meet these changed circumstances. In key respects, however, the mandates and capacity of international institutions have not kept pace with international needs or modern expectations. Above all, the issue of international intervention for human protection purposes is a clear and compelling example of concerted action urgently being needed to bring international norms and institutions in line with international needs and expectations.

The current debate on intervention for human protection purposes is itself both a product and a reflection of how much has changed since the UN was established. The current debate takes place in the context of a broadly expanded range of state, non-state, and institutional actors, and increasingly evident interaction and interdependence among them. It is a debate that reflects new sets of issues and new types of concerns. It is a debate that is being conducted within the framework of new standards of conduct for states and individuals, and in a context of greatly increased expectations for action. And it is a debate that takes place within an institutional framework that since the end of the Cold War has held out the prospect of effective joint international action to address issues of peace, security, human rights and sustainable development on a global scale.

With new actors – not least new states, with the UN growing from 51 member states in 1945 to 189 today – has come a wide range of new voices, perspectives, interests, experiences and aspirations. Together, these new international actors have added both depth and texture to the increasingly rich tapestry of international society and important institutional credibility and practical expertise to the wider debate.

Prominent among the range of important new actors are a number of institutional actors and mechanisms, especially in the areas of human rights and human security. They have included, among others, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, both created in 1993, and its sister tribunals for Rwanda established in 1994 and Sierra Leone in 2001.

The International Criminal Court, whose creation was decided in 1998, will begin operation when 60 countries have ratified its Statute. In addition to the new institutions, established ones such as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and the ICRC and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have been ever more active.

Nearly as significant has been the emergence of many new non-state actors in international affairs – including especially a large number of NGOs dealing with global matters; a growing number of media and academic institutions with worldwide reach; and an increasingly diverse array of armed non-state actors ranging from national and international terrorists to traditional rebel movements and various organized criminal groupings. These new non-state actors, good or bad, have forced the debate about intervention for human protection purposes to be conducted in front of a broader public, while at the same time adding new elements to the agenda.

Q. A criticism that the author levies against international institutions is that

Solution: In the second paragraph of the passage, the author talks about how international institutions have not kept pace with “international needs or modern expectations". Option A: The author states that “In key respects, however, the mandates and capacity of international institutions have not kept pace with international needs or modern expectations”. However, he/she was not so harsh as to rephrase this as them not being capable of taking concerted action. Further, he asks for mandates and capacities to be brought in line with modern expectations and not the other way round. Hence, this option is incorrect.

Option B: When talking about how the international institutions have not “kept pace with international needs or modern expectations", the author does not limit himself to the newly established institutions. Note that he talks about “the mandates and capacity of international institutions’’ and not only about new international institutions. Hence, this option is incorrect.

Option C: The author does not talk about decentralizing the authority of international institutions in the passage. Hence, this is not the correct answer.

Option D: The mandates and capacities have not kept pace with modern expectations, according to the author. Hence, this is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 8

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The issues and preoccupations of the 21st century present new and often fundamentally different types of challenges from those that faced the world in 1945, when the United Nations was founded. As new realities and challenges have emerged, so too have new expectations for action and new standards of conduct in national and international affairs. Since, for example, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon, it has become evident that the war against terrorism the world must now fight – one with no contested frontiers and a largely invisible enemy – is one like no other war before it.

Many new international institutions have been created to meet these changed circumstances. In key respects, however, the mandates and capacity of international institutions have not kept pace with international needs or modern expectations. Above all, the issue of international intervention for human protection purposes is a clear and compelling example of concerted action urgently being needed to bring international norms and institutions in line with international needs and expectations.

The current debate on intervention for human protection purposes is itself both a product and a reflection of how much has changed since the UN was established. The current debate takes place in the context of a broadly expanded range of state, non-state, and institutional actors, and increasingly evident interaction and interdependence among them. It is a debate that reflects new sets of issues and new types of concerns. It is a debate that is being conducted within the framework of new standards of conduct for states and individuals, and in a context of greatly increased expectations for action. And it is a debate that takes place within an institutional framework that since the end of the Cold War has held out the prospect of effective joint international action to address issues of peace, security, human rights and sustainable development on a global scale.

With new actors – not least new states, with the UN growing from 51 member states in 1945 to 189 today – has come a wide range of new voices, perspectives, interests, experiences and aspirations. Together, these new international actors have added both depth and texture to the increasingly rich tapestry of international society and important institutional credibility and practical expertise to the wider debate.

Prominent among the range of important new actors are a number of institutional actors and mechanisms, especially in the areas of human rights and human security. They have included, among others, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, both created in 1993, and its sister tribunals for Rwanda established in 1994 and Sierra Leone in 2001.

The International Criminal Court, whose creation was decided in 1998, will begin operation when 60 countries have ratified its Statute. In addition to the new institutions, established ones such as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and the ICRC and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have been ever more active.

Nearly as significant has been the emergence of many new non-state actors in international affairs – including especially a large number of NGOs dealing with global matters; a growing number of media and academic institutions with worldwide reach; and an increasingly diverse array of armed non-state actors ranging from national and international terrorists to traditional rebel movements and various organized criminal groupings. These new non-state actors, good or bad, have forced the debate about intervention for human protection purposes to be conducted in front of a broader public, while at the same time adding new elements to the agenda.

Q. The author presents the example of the terrorists attacks of September 9, 2011 to

Solution: The author talks about the emergence of ‘new realities and challenges’ and the emergence of “new expectations for action and new standards of conduct”. He provides the example of September 9, 2011 terrorist attacks as an example of this. Option A: The author does not talk about terrorism in particular, when providing this example. He provides this as an example of the new realities (“the war against terrorism the world must now fight .. is one like no other war before it). Hence, this is not the correct answer.

Option B: This terrorist attack resulted in a war that is like no other war before it, with no contested frontiers and a largely invisible enemy. This emphasizes the new realities that the author talks about and the new expectations for facing these challenges. Hence, the statement given in this option is the reason for the author to present the example.

Option C: The example talks about a new non-state actor, which is mentioned in the last paragraph - ranging from national and international terrorists. However, in the last paragraph, the author does not refer to this example. If he did, we could have inferred that this example served a dual purpose - first, to highlight the change in reality and second, to emphasize the influence of non-state actors. Since the author does not refer to this example again in the passage, we cannot infer this option to be the purpose for citing this example.

Option D: The purpose of the author is not to highlight why terrorism has changed the world. In fact, he does not address this question (“why terrorism has brought about new realities and challenges in international affairs?”) anywhere in the passage. Therefore, this is not the correct answer. Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

QUESTION: 9

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The issues and preoccupations of the 21st century present new and often fundamentally different types of challenges from those that faced the world in 1945, when the United Nations was founded. As new realities and challenges have emerged, so too have new expectations for action and new standards of conduct in national and international affairs. Since, for example, the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 on the World Trade Centre and Pentagon, it has become evident that the war against terrorism the world must now fight – one with no contested frontiers and a largely invisible enemy – is one like no other war before it.

Many new international institutions have been created to meet these changed circumstances. In key respects, however, the mandates and capacity of international institutions have not kept pace with international needs or modern expectations. Above all, the issue of international intervention for human protection purposes is a clear and compelling example of concerted action urgently being needed to bring international norms and institutions in line with international needs and expectations.

The current debate on intervention for human protection purposes is itself both a product and a reflection of how much has changed since the UN was established. The current debate takes place in the context of a broadly expanded range of state, non-state, and institutional actors, and increasingly evident interaction and interdependence among them. It is a debate that reflects new sets of issues and new types of concerns. It is a debate that is being conducted within the framework of new standards of conduct for states and individuals, and in a context of greatly increased expectations for action. And it is a debate that takes place within an institutional framework that since the end of the Cold War has held out the prospect of effective joint international action to address issues of peace, security, human rights and sustainable development on a global scale.

With new actors – not least new states, with the UN growing from 51 member states in 1945 to 189 today – has come a wide range of new voices, perspectives, interests, experiences and aspirations. Together, these new international actors have added both depth and texture to the increasingly rich tapestry of international society and important institutional credibility and practical expertise to the wider debate.

Prominent among the range of important new actors are a number of institutional actors and mechanisms, especially in the areas of human rights and human security. They have included, among others, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, both created in 1993, and its sister tribunals for Rwanda established in 1994 and Sierra Leone in 2001.

The International Criminal Court, whose creation was decided in 1998, will begin operation when 60 countries have ratified its Statute. In addition to the new institutions, established ones such as the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and the ICRC and International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, have been ever more active.

Nearly as significant has been the emergence of many new non-state actors in international affairs – including especially a large number of NGOs dealing with global matters; a growing number of media and academic institutions with worldwide reach; and an increasingly diverse array of armed non-state actors ranging from national and international terrorists to traditional rebel movements and various organized criminal groupings. These new non-state actors, good or bad, have forced the debate about intervention for human protection purposes to be conducted in front of a broader public, while at the same time adding new elements to the agenda.

Q. Which of the following is true regarding the debate on intervention for human protection purposes?

Solution: The debate on intervention for human protection purposes has been mentioned in multiple places in the passage. It is introduced in the third paragraph of the passage, where the author talks about its impact. It also has been mentioned in the last paragraph of the passage, when talking about the emergence of non-state actors. Option A: In the last paragraph of the passage, the author mentions that “These new non-state actors, good or bad, have forced the debate ... to be conducted in front of a broader public”. From this we can infer that, the debate is not more accessible to the public than it was before. Hence, this can be inferred from the passage.

Option B: In the third para, the author states that “The current debate takes place in the context of a broadly expanded range of state, non-state, and institutional actors’. In the last para, the author states that “Nearly as significant has been the emergence of many new non-state actors”. The author compares the significance of the emergence of non-state actors with the “range of important new actors” (mentioned in the penultimate para). Combining these two, we can infer that the emergence of new non-state actors is nearly as significant as the range of new actors. But, we cannot infer from this that the role of non-state actors is as significant as the role of new institutional actors Hence, this option is incorrect.

Option C: In the third para, the author states that “it is a debate that takes place within an institutional framework that ... has held out the prospect of effective joint international action”. From this, we can infer that the institutional framework has made it possible to hope for effective joint international action. Therefore, the debate does not call for a change in institutional framework. It happens within this framework and this framework has "held out the prospect of effective joint international action". Therefore, this is not the correct answer.

Option D: In the last paragraph of the passage, the author mentions that these new non-state actors “good or bad, have forced the debate about intervention for human protection purposes to be conducted in front of a broader public, while at the same time adding new elements to the agenda.” We cannot infer from this that the change in the nature of the debate is an unwelcome one. Therefore, this is not the correct answer.

Hence, the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The first era of innovation – that of the lone inventor – encompassed much of human history. Innovators occasionally formed or latched on to companies to exploit the full potential of their ideas, but most seminal innovations developed before about 1915 are closely associated with the individuals behind them: Gutenberg’s press. Whitney’s cotton gin. Edison’s lightbulb. The Wright brothers’ plane. Ford’s assembly line (actually as much a business model as a technology).

With the perfection of the assembly line, a century ago, the increasing complexity and cost of innovation pushed it out of individuals’ reach, driving more company-led efforts. A combination of longer-term perspectives and less stifling corporate bureaucracies meant that many organizations would happily tolerate experimental efforts. Thus, the heroes of this second era worked in corporate labs, and corporations evolved from innovation exploiters into innovation creators. Many of the notable commercial inventions of the next 60 years came from these labs: DuPont’s miracle molecules (including nylon); Procter & Gamble’s Crest, Pampers, and Tide brands; the U-2 spy plane and SR-71 Blackbird fighter jet from Lockheed Martin’s famed Skunk Works.

The seeds of the third era were planted in the late 1950s and the 1960s, as companies started to become too big and bureaucratic to handle at-the-fringes exploration. The restless individualism of baby boomers clashed with increasingly hierarchical organizations. Innovators began to leave companies, band with like-minded “rebels,” and form new companies. Given the scale required to innovate, however, these rebels needed new forms of funding. Hence the emergence of the VC-backed start-up. The third era came into its own in the 1970s, with the establishment of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital. These and similar institutions helped to support the formation of Apple, Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Amazon, Facebook, and Google. Life became even harder for innovators in big companies as the capital markets’ expectations for short-term performance grew.

The technologies birthed during this era and the globalization of world markets have dramatically accelerated the pace of change. Over the past 50 years corporate life spans by some measures have decreased by close to 50%. Back in 2000, Microsoft was an unstoppable monopoly, Apple was playing at the fringes of the computer market, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg was a student at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Google was a technology in search of a business model.

This breathless pace, and the conditions and tools that enable it, bring us to the fourth era – when corporate catalysts can have a transformational impact. Whereas the inventions that characterized the first three eras were typically (but not always) technological breakthroughs, fourth-era innovations are likely to involve business models. One analysis shows that from 1997 to 2007 more than half of the companies that made it onto the Fortune 500 before their 25th birthdays – including Amazon, Starbucks, and AutoNation – were business model innovators.

Today it’s easier than ever to innovate, which may suggest that it’s an ideal time to start a business. After all, a wealth of low-cost or no-cost online tools, coupled with hyperconnected markets, put innovation capabilities into the hands of the masses and allow ideas to rapidly spread.

Q. All the following can be understood from the passage EXCEPT:

Solution: Option A: ‘Thus, the heroes of this second era worked in corporate labs, and corporations evolved from innovation exploiters into innovation creators.’ Corporations evolved from being ‘innovation exploiters’ - this part proves that in the second era corporations weren't exploiting the innovators. Hence, Option A cannot be understood. Option A is the answer.

Option B: ‘The seeds of the third era were planted in the late 1950s and the 1960s, as companies started to become too big and bureaucratic to handle at-the-fringes exploration. The restless individualism of baby boomers clashed with increasingly hierarchical organizations. Innovators began to leave companies, band with like-minded “rebels," and form new companies. Given the scale required to innovate, however, these rebels needed new forms of funding. Hence the emergence of the VC-backed start-up ' From the underscored line, this option can be understood. Hence, Option B is not the answer.

Option C: The first era of innovation—that of the lone inventor—encompassed much of human history.’ This option can be understood from the underscored line. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: This breathless pace, and the conditions and tools that enable it, bring us to the fourth era—when corporate catalysts can have a transformational impact. Whereas the inventions that characterized the first three eras typically fbut not always) technological breakthroughs, fourth-era innovations are likely to involve business models. From the underlined portions, this option can be understood. Hence, Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 11

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The first era of innovation – that of the lone inventor – encompassed much of human history. Innovators occasionally formed or latched on to companies to exploit the full potential of their ideas, but most seminal innovations developed before about 1915 are closely associated with the individuals behind them: Gutenberg’s press. Whitney’s cotton gin. Edison’s lightbulb. The Wright brothers’ plane. Ford’s assembly line (actually as much a business model as a technology).

With the perfection of the assembly line, a century ago, the increasing complexity and cost of innovation pushed it out of individuals’ reach, driving more company-led efforts. A combination of longer-term perspectives and less stifling corporate bureaucracies meant that many organizations would happily tolerate experimental efforts. Thus, the heroes of this second era worked in corporate labs, and corporations evolved from innovation exploiters into innovation creators. Many of the notable commercial inventions of the next 60 years came from these labs: DuPont’s miracle molecules (including nylon); Procter & Gamble’s Crest, Pampers, and Tide brands; the U-2 spy plane and SR-71 Blackbird fighter jet from Lockheed Martin’s famed Skunk Works.

The seeds of the third era were planted in the late 1950s and the 1960s, as companies started to become too big and bureaucratic to handle at-the-fringes exploration. The restless individualism of baby boomers clashed with increasingly hierarchical organizations. Innovators began to leave companies, band with like-minded “rebels,” and form new companies. Given the scale required to innovate, however, these rebels needed new forms of funding. Hence the emergence of the VC-backed start-up. The third era came into its own in the 1970s, with the establishment of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital. These and similar institutions helped to support the formation of Apple, Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Amazon, Facebook, and Google. Life became even harder for innovators in big companies as the capital markets’ expectations for short-term performance grew.

The technologies birthed during this era and the globalization of world markets have dramatically accelerated the pace of change. Over the past 50 years corporate life spans by some measures have decreased by close to 50%. Back in 2000, Microsoft was an unstoppable monopoly, Apple was playing at the fringes of the computer market, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg was a student at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Google was a technology in search of a business model.

This breathless pace, and the conditions and tools that enable it, bring us to the fourth era – when corporate catalysts can have a transformational impact. Whereas the inventions that characterized the first three eras were typically (but not always) technological breakthroughs, fourth-era innovations are likely to involve business models. One analysis shows that from 1997 to 2007 more than half of the companies that made it onto the Fortune 500 before their 25th birthdays – including Amazon, Starbucks, and AutoNation – were business model innovators.

Today it’s easier than ever to innovate, which may suggest that it’s an ideal time to start a business. After all, a wealth of low-cost or no-cost online tools, coupled with hyperconnected markets, put innovation capabilities into the hands of the masses and allow ideas to rapidly spread.

Q. Which of the following is not a reason mentioned in the passage that pushed innovators closer to organisations and corporate labs in the second era of innovation?

Solution: All the reasons mentioned in the passage that pushed innovators closer to organisations and corporate labs in the second era of innovation can be found in the following lines: ‘With the perfection of the assembly line a century ago, the increasing complexity and cost of innovation pushed it (the assembly line) out of individuals’ reach, driving more company-led efforts. A combination of longer-term perspectives and less stifling corporate bureaucracies meant that many organizations would happily tolerate experimental efforts Thus, the heroes of this second era worked in corporate labs, and corporations evolved from innovation exploiters into innovation creators.’

Option A: Less stifling corporate bureaucracies meant that organisations would happily tolerate experimental efforts - this leads us to understanding that their stance towards innovation was more encouraging. Hence, Option A is a reason pushing innovators close to organisations, and not the answer.

Option B: This was mentioned in the para (second underscored portion above), and hence a reason for innovators working for organisations. Option B is not the answer.

Option C: A less stifling environment created by corporations(this part is true) preferring guick experiments over long-term perspectives (this part is not true). Corporations were looking at longer-term perspectives according to the para. Hence, this option is not a reason mentioned in the passage. Option C is the answer.

Option D: The first line - with the perfection of the assembly line’ - justifies this option as a reason for innovators working for corporates. Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 12

DIRECTIONS for questions: The passage given below is accompanied by a set of three questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The first era of innovation – that of the lone inventor – encompassed much of human history. Innovators occasionally formed or latched on to companies to exploit the full potential of their ideas, but most seminal innovations developed before about 1915 are closely associated with the individuals behind them: Gutenberg’s press. Whitney’s cotton gin. Edison’s lightbulb. The Wright brothers’ plane. Ford’s assembly line (actually as much a business model as a technology).

With the perfection of the assembly line, a century ago, the increasing complexity and cost of innovation pushed it out of individuals’ reach, driving more company-led efforts. A combination of longer-term perspectives and less stifling corporate bureaucracies meant that many organizations would happily tolerate experimental efforts. Thus, the heroes of this second era worked in corporate labs, and corporations evolved from innovation exploiters into innovation creators. Many of the notable commercial inventions of the next 60 years came from these labs: DuPont’s miracle molecules (including nylon); Procter & Gamble’s Crest, Pampers, and Tide brands; the U-2 spy plane and SR-71 Blackbird fighter jet from Lockheed Martin’s famed Skunk Works.

The seeds of the third era were planted in the late 1950s and the 1960s, as companies started to become too big and bureaucratic to handle at-the-fringes exploration. The restless individualism of baby boomers clashed with increasingly hierarchical organizations. Innovators began to leave companies, band with like-minded “rebels,” and form new companies. Given the scale required to innovate, however, these rebels needed new forms of funding. Hence the emergence of the VC-backed start-up. The third era came into its own in the 1970s, with the establishment of Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital. These and similar institutions helped to support the formation of Apple, Microsoft, Cisco Systems, Amazon, Facebook, and Google. Life became even harder for innovators in big companies as the capital markets’ expectations for short-term performance grew.

The technologies birthed during this era and the globalization of world markets have dramatically accelerated the pace of change. Over the past 50 years corporate life spans by some measures have decreased by close to 50%. Back in 2000, Microsoft was an unstoppable monopoly, Apple was playing at the fringes of the computer market, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg was a student at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Google was a technology in search of a business model.

This breathless pace, and the conditions and tools that enable it, bring us to the fourth era – when corporate catalysts can have a transformational impact. Whereas the inventions that characterized the first three eras were typically (but not always) technological breakthroughs, fourth-era innovations are likely to involve business models. One analysis shows that from 1997 to 2007 more than half of the companies that made it onto the Fortune 500 before their 25th birthdays – including Amazon, Starbucks, and AutoNation – were business model innovators.

Today it’s easier than ever to innovate, which may suggest that it’s an ideal time to start a business. After all, a wealth of low-cost or no-cost online tools, coupled with hyperconnected markets, put innovation capabilities into the hands of the masses and allow ideas to rapidly spread.

Q. Google being in search of a business model in 2000 was mentioned by the author to

Solution: The technologies birthed during this era and the globalization of world markets have dramatically accelerated the pace of change. Over the past 50 years corporate life spans by some measures have decreased by close to 50%. Back in 2000, Microsoft was an unstoppable monopoly, Apple was playing at the fringes of the computer market, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg was a student at Phillips Exeter Academy, and Google was a technology in search of a business model. This breathless pace and the conditions and tools that enable it, bring us to the fourth era—when corporate catalysts can have a transformational impact.’

The biggest clue for this question lies in the pronoun — ‘this breathless pace’. So, the examples in the previous line were all testimony of how fast things have changed/are changing.

Option A: The examples presented all point to shortening of corporate life span and not just to the decline. Further, we can infer that the companies mentioned are poised to grow drastically (and not fall drastically). Therefore, this option can be eliminated. Option B: attribute globalization of worid markets to the birth of new technologies -According to the para globalization and birth of new technologies are two separate reasons that accelerated the pace of change. So, one cannot be the reason for the other (causation fallacy). Hence, Option B is easy to eliminate.

Option C: VC-backed start-ups were discussed for the third era of innovation. The context in which Google was mentioned was leading the reader to the fourth era of innovation. Hence, Option C can be eliminated.

Option D: As explained above, the author calls all these examples ‘this breathless pace'. So, the Google example was given to highlight how much things have changed in the recent past. Hence, Option D is the answer.

QUESTION: 13

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the questions consists of a paragraph with three blanks. For each blank choose one numbered word/ phrase from the corresponding column of choices that will best complete the text. Key in the appropriate numbers of the words/ phrases for each blank, in the correct sequential order, in the input box given below the question. For example, if you think that words/ phrases labelled (1), (5) and (9) can complete the text correctly, then enter 159 as your answer in the input box. (Note: Only one word/ phrase in each column can fill the respective blank correctly.)

Ecologists and economists made ________(i)__________ partners -- indeed, these disciplines have often appeared at odds with, and determined to ignore, each other. As Robert Costanza, the founding president of the International Society for Ecological Economics, acknowledged, "Ecology, as it is currently practiced, sometimes deals with human impacts on ecosystems, but the more common tendency is to stick to 'natural' systems." The modeling of ecological communities or systems seemed purposely to leave out the human economy. At the same time, economists either took for granted or ignored the principles, powers, or forces that ecologists believed ___________(ii)____________ the world's natural communities. The market mechanism, or competitive equilibrium, that mainstream economists studied assigned no role to the natural ecosystem. So the new discipline “Ecological economics” seeks to ___________(iii)____________ the study of economics within a larger understanding of how ecosystems work.

Solution:  

A clue for the first blank is available in the second half of the first sentence - often appeared at odds with, and determined to ignore, each other And also later on in the paragraph: modelling of ecological communities or systems seemed purposely to leave out the human economy. ... economists either took for granted or ignored the principles, powers, or forces that ecologists believed. From the list of words available for the first blank, only 'unlikely' can complete it meaningfully. Apposite means apt in the circumstances or in relation to something. Given the context, 'inapt’ or 'unsuitable' or 'inapposite' would have conveyed the sense of the idea correctly. 'Inscrutable' means impossible to understand or interpret and is contextually inappropriate. So the correct answer for the first blank is (3).

For the second blank, only ’governed' (regulated or controlled or impacted) will work. One cannot use the word ’undermined’ here - one cannot ignore the principles, powers, or forces that ecologists believed undermined the world's natural communities. Undermined means to weaken or to lessen the effectiveness, power, or ability of something. Abnegated means to renounce or reject (something desired or valuable). 'Ignored the principles' has a negative connotation already and so the use of another negative word like 'abnegated' makes the given sentence illogical. The correct answer for the second blank is (5).

The third blank is in the last sentence of the paragraph. The previous sentences of the paragraph have already discussed the limitations of the two independent disciplines -ecology and economics. The objective of the new discipline “Ecological economics" has been provided in the last sentence and it has a positive tone. So we need a positive word for the last blank. The only positive word for the last blank among those provided in the options is 'embed1, 'embed' means to 'fix firmly’. One should not ignore the principles related to the other field but must fix the study of one discipline firmly in the larger context of the other discipline. “Impugn" means to dispute the truth, validity, or honesty of (a statement or motive); call into question. “Impugn" would contradict the given context and is not suitable here. “Discountenance" is totally out of context. It means to refuse to approve of, to find unacceptable or to disturb the composure of. The correct answer for the second blank is (7). The required answer is 357.

QUESTION: 14

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the questions consists of a paragraph with three blanks. For each blank choose one numbered word/ phrase from the corresponding column of choices that will best complete the text. Key in the appropriate numbers of the words/ phrases for each blank, in the correct sequential order, in the input box given below the question. For example, if you think that words/ phrases labelled (1), (5) and (9) can complete the text correctly, then enter 159 as your answer in the input box. (Note: Only one word/ phrase in each column can fill the respective blank correctly.)

Many parts of India are familiar to us through their overexposure in the travel media, but images of the Taj Mahal bathed in the golden glow of sunrise offer a rather ___________(i)____________ view of a teeming, steaming, wild and wonderful country. This new, marvellous collection of photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson and Sebastiao Salgado corrects the balance, gathering together images from 150 years to provide a true representation of India's many facets. It explores every aspect of the country's modern history from the demise of the Mughal Empire to the rise of Bollywood. Overall the collection has achieved its aim of ___________(ii)____________ the social and cultural progress of India. An elegant introduction provides a historical narrative to accompany the photographs, while a noted photojournalist explains how the images were selected. Together, these elements form a timely and thought-provoking addition to the ever-expanding __________(iii)____________ of literature on India.

Solution: Notice the use of 'but' in the first sentence of the paragraph. We are familiar

because of overexposure but ... Hence the first blank needs an opposite sense of

'Familiarity' or 'true representation of India's many facets', 'sanitized' means to make (something) more palatable by removing elements that are likely to be unacceptable or controversial. So images of the Taj Mahal give us a palatable view of India but the new collection of photographs provides the true picture of the good and the 'not so good' aspects of the country. We also get this idea from “corrects the balance" and the examples: the demise of the Mughal Empire to the rise of Bollywood (the whole range of events). 'Sanitized' is the correct answer for the first blank, “unexpurgated" means complete and containing all the original material; uncensored. But the opposite sense is indicated here. Titillating means pleasantly stimulating or exciting (also erotic) and does not fit the blank. The correct answer for the first blank is (1).

Since we are referring to a collection of photographs, the only correct word that can fill the second blank is 'charting pictorially' i.e. exhibiting or representing through pictures. With the depiction through pictures, one cannot 'challenge metaphorically’. Also 'challenge' gives a negative connotation and is inappropriate here. Further, the idea of compartmentalizing the social and cultural progress of the country does not emerge. So (4) and (5) are easy eliminations. The correct answer for the second blank is (6). The collection of photographs is an addition to the ever-expanding available collection of literature on India. Now the word that could mean 'collection' is 'anthology'. 'Anthology' means “a collection of artistic works that have a similar form or subject, often those considered to be the best”. Poignancy (the quality of evoking a keen sense of sadness or regret; pathos) and endorsement (recommendation, approval, backing) do not collocate with 'literature' and are also inappropriate. So, the correct answer for the third blank is (8). The required answer is 168.

QUESTION: 15

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the questions consists of a paragraph with three blanks. For each blank choose one numbered word/ phrase from the corresponding column of choices that will best complete the text. Key in the appropriate numbers of the words/ phrases for each blank, in the correct sequential order, in the input box given below the question. For example, if you think that words/ phrases labelled (1), (5) and (9) can complete the text correctly, then enter 159 as your answer in the input box. (Note: Only one word/ phrase in each column can fill the respective blank correctly.)

At the individual level, elements of emotional intelligence can be identified, assessed, and upgraded. At the group level, it means fine-tuning the interpersonal dynamics that make groups smarter. At the organizational level, it means revising the value hierarchy to make emotional intelligence a priority – in the concrete terms of hiring, training and development, performance evaluation, and promotions. At the corporate level, emotional intelligence is no ___________(i)____________, no guarantee of more market share or a healthier bottom line. The ecology of a corporation is extraordinarily ___________(ii)____________ and complex, and no single intervention or change can fix every problem.

But, as the saying goes, “It's all done with people,” and if the human ___________(iii)_____________ is ignored, then nothing else will work as well as it might. In the years to come, companies in which people collaborate best will have a competitive edge.

Solution:

The paragraph discusses the application of emotional intelligence at the individual, group and organisational level. At the corporate level, Emotional intelligence is no guarantee of.... success? (a negative connotation). Hence we can use the term 'magic bullet’. Magic bullet means a medicine or other remedy with advanced or highly specific properties (panacea, quick-fix, solution). So 'emotional intelligence' is no remedy or antidote. Now 'mean feaf' and 'avowal' cannot fit the first blank. ’No mean feat' is an idiom which means a laudable triumph of great difficulty. .. Avowal means an open declaration, a statement in which you say or admit something that you believe, support, or intend to do. The correct answer for the first blank is (2).

The ecology of a corporation is extraordinarily complex, and no single intervention or change can fix every problem. This means that the ecology of a corporation is fluid or flexible or 'constantly changing'. Now, 'stochastic' means having a random probability distribution or pattern that may be analysed statistically but may not be predicted precisely and this word comes closest to the idea of fluidity’ or ’flexibility' needed for the second blank. Unimpeachable means not able to be doubted, questioned, or criticized; entirely trustworthy. 'Unimpeachable' cannot be used to describe the ecology of a corporation and also does not provide the correct sense of "fluid1. In fact, it provides an opposite sense of 'fluid'. 'Ostensive' means obviously or manifestly or directly demonstrative and is also incorrect. The correct answer for the second blank is (4).

The middle of the paragraph tells us that emotional intelligence is no guarantee but if the human angle or element is ignored, then nothing else will work as well as it might. Now, the word closest to 'human element' is 'human ingredient’. 'Ingredient 'means component or element, 'overstatement' or 'exaggeration' or 'overemphasis' is contextually incorrect, 'triteness' means lacking in freshness or effectiveness because of constant use or excessive repetition; hackneyed; stale. The use of 'overstatement' and "triteness’ is unwarranted here. The correct answer for the last blank is (8). The required answer is 248.

QUESTION: 16

DIRECTIONS for questions: In each of the following questions, the phrase in bold is used in four different sentences. Select the option in which the usage of the phrase is CORRECT or APPROPRIATE as your answer.

Sine qua non

Solution: Sine qua non means something absolutely indispensable or essential. The most common usage is of the form - A is a sine qua non for B implying A is essential for B.

Option A: The usage of the phrase in this sentence is incorrect. Submitting the assignment before the deadline might be a sine qua non (essential) for getting good grades. But using sine qua non to mean ‘without fail' is incorrect.

Option B: The politician contesting in the elections knew that repairing the roads was essential for his victory. This statement is correct in terms of the usage of sine qua non.

Option C: Over speeding might lead to traffic cops pulling you over. However, over speeding is not necessarily essential for traffic cops to pull you over. Hence, this statement is incorrect.

Option D: If the initial sales were impressive, its failure is less likely. However, the statement seems to imply that its failure is essential, which makes this sentence incorrect. Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

QUESTION: 17

DIRECTIONS for questions: In each of the following questions, the phrase in bold is used in four different sentences. Select the option in which the usage of the phrase is CORRECT or APPROPRIATE as your answer.

Carte blanche

Solution: Carte blanche means full discretionary power/complete freedom to act as one wishes.

Option A: The manager was given full discretionary powers to take the company in a new direction. Here the manager being given complete freedom fits the context. Hence, Option A is the answer.

Option B: 'Carte blanche of preordained laws' is not a logical construction because having complete freedom contradicts the meaning of 'preordained' laws.

Option C: Carte blanche is used as an adjective here, which is incorrect. It is used as a noun. Also, carte blanche mechanism is an illogical construction.

Option D: Carte blanche of its freedom struggle is an illogical construction since freedom struggle having complete discretion doesn't make sense. Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 18

DIRECTIONS for questions: In each of the following questions, the phrase in bold is used in four different sentences. Select the option in which the usage of the phrase is CORRECT or APPROPRIATE as your answer.

Prima facie

Solution: Prima fade means at first sight or at first glance.

Option A: The more John looked at his fiance the more he thought her beauty at first sight ethereal. This statement does not make logical sense. When he looked at her first, he could have found her beauty prima facie ethereal. But this sentence contradicts itself by using the word prima facie. Hence, this is not the correct answer.

Option B: Prima facie does not mean primary characteristic/necessity/ prerequisite as this statement seems to imply. Hence, this is not the correct answer

Option C: The leading singer of the band can be considered a prima donna but not prima facie. Choice C is incorrect.

Option D: The attorney found the agreement to be valid at first glance. This statement uses the phrase with its correct meaning. Hence, the correct answer is option D.

QUESTION: 19

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the following questions has a paragraph which is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the alternative that best captures the essence of the paragraph.

The apotheosis of the pop in postmodernism art marked a whole new marriage between high and low art. For the artistic viability of postmodernism was a direct consequence, again, not of any new facts about art, but of facts about the new importance of mass commercial culture. We seem no longer united so much by common beliefs as by common images: what binds us became what we stand witness to Nobody sees this as a good change.

Solution: Consider the para: The apotheosis (elevation) of the pop in postmodernism art marked a whole new marriage between high and low art For the artistic viability of post-modernism was a direct consequence, again, not of any new facts about art, but of facts about the new importance of mass commercial culture. We seem no longer united so much by common beliefs as by common images: what binds us became what we stand witness to. Nobody sees this as a good change-introduction - Pop in postmodernism art is the culmination of high and low art. Elaboration - The artistic viability (popularity/feasibility, etc.) is a consequence of growing importance of mass commercial culture.

Conclusion - What we witness binds us (and now what we believe in) but this is not a good(welcome) Change-

Option A: Postmodernism is a blend of high and low art (the first half has been depicted here), which enhanced its commercial value albeit lowering its image, (the commercial value has not been discussed. Only the ‘artistic' viability was discussed. ‘Commercial’ was used with respect to mass culture's objectives in the elaboration part. Hence, Option A is not the answer.

Option B: Postmodernism art as a union of high and low art (this is the introduction of the para depicted fairly accurately) became more feasible (this can be understood from the statement stub - 'the artistic viability of post-modernism was a direct consequence' - meaning postmodernism became more viable because of the new importance of mass commercial culture) because of the replacement of what we believe with what we witness. Option B is the answer.

Option C: The infusion of mass commercial culture into postmodernism art has enhanced the former's artistic viability, an unwelcome change. This is one of the easier options to eliminate. The former here refers to mass commercial culture. According to the passage, the artistic viability of postmodernism was the consequence of the increase in importance of mass commercial culture. Mass commercial culture's artistic viability has not been spoken about. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: What we see now binds us more than what we believe and the amalgamation of pop with postmodernism art made postmodernism more feasible. What became more feasible according to this option - the shift from what we believe binding us to what we see binding us. That shift has become more feasible because of amalgamation of pop with postmodernism art. According to the passage, that amalgamation has led to artistic feasibility of postmodernism because what we see now binds us (this is the cause and not the effect). Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 20

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the following questions has a paragraph which is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the alternative that best captures the essence of the paragraph.

The concept of personal rights and freedoms that guides our legal institutions is outdated. It is built on a model of a free individual who enjoys an untouchable inner life. Now, though, our thoughts can be invaded before they have even been developed – and in a way, perhaps this is nothing new. The Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman used to say that he thought with his notebook. Without a pen and pencil, a great deal of complex reflection and analysis would never have been possible. If the extended mind view is right, then even technologies such as those used in the smartphone would merit recognition and protection as a part of the essential toolkit of the mind.

Solution: Ideas mentioned in the para

1. The legal system is based on the concept of individual freedom.

2. This legal system is outdated because it doesn’t protect the technologies like smartphones.

3. These technologies make complex reflection possible.

4. By virtue of being an extension of our mind, the law should be extended to protect these technologies as well.

Option A: While there is legal protection for a free individual’s rights and freedoms (this is point 1), the laws have not evolved enough (point 2 about the laws being outdated) to protect those technologies which are just an extension of our mind (Point 4). This option misses out on Point 3. Hence, Option A doesn’t represent the essence of the para in the best possible way.

Option B: Our smartphone is just an extension of our mind and hence merits protection and recognition (Point 4) just the same way as legal institutions protect personal rights and freedoms (Point 1). The second and third sub-idea have not been mentioned in this option. Hence, Option B is not the best possible essence.

Option C: The idea of a free individual with a private inner life has been rendered obsolete bv technologies - The underlined portion is incorrect. The idea of a free individual with a private inner life has not been made obsolete by technology. (If that were the case, technology is being portrayed in a negative light, which is not what the para seems to do.) The concept of personal rights and freedoms that guides our laws is obsolete and that too, because it doesn’t consider technologies, which are nothing but extensions of our minds. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: Complex reflection is impossible without a technological toolkit acting as an extension of the mind (Point 3) and the legal system based on an obsolete concept of individual freedom (Point 1 & 2) must be enhanced to protect the same. (Point 4). All the points have been covered. Hence, Option D best represents the essence of the para.

QUESTION: 21

DIRECTIONS for questions: Each of the following questions has a paragraph which is followed by four alternative summaries. Choose the alternative that best captures the essence of the paragraph.

When Thomas Steitz, Ada Yonath, and Venkatraman Ramakrishnan were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their research, in 2009, they acknowledged a debt. Without the work of two of the Physics Laureates that year, the chemists would have lacked the CCD detectors, or high-quality imaging hardware, they used to model and image ribosomes, sites of protein synthesis within a cell. Collaboration in science has become commonplace today, and we’re seeing the benefits. But many of its fruits are unintended. As Ramakrishnan points out, inventions in one discipline can build on – and spur – basic research in many others, often unwittingly. It’s a virtuous cycle, and scientists take joy in exploiting all of it. “Scientists are very promiscuous,” he says, “and the good ones are the most promiscuous.”

Solution: Ideas mentioned in the para

1. Collaboration is important and common in science.

2. However, not all consequences are intentional.

3. Developments in one field trigger developments in another, unintentionally.

4. Good scientists are promiscuous enough to exploit all those developments.

Option A: Collaboration (Point 1) has unexpected windfalls (Point 2) in that inventions in one discipline of science trigger research in other disciplines (Point 3), and good scientists know how to exploit that (Point 4). All the ideas have been represented in the passage. Hence, Option A is the answer.

Option B: Only point 4 is mentioned. Also, good scientists don't exploit developments unwittingly’. They do it deliberately. Hence, Option B is easy to eliminate.

Option C: There is misrepresentation of information because of the dependency of the two events. Good scientists exploit developments in science. We cannot reverse it to say scientists can find success only by exploiting developments. Hence, Option C can be eliminated.

Option D: Narrowing the moral down to just Nobel Prize winners is incorrect. Also, the para changes the essence and focuses on how acknowledging the importance of other developments is more important. The idea of the para was not the importance of acknowledgment (it was only mentioned as part of an example) but the importance of collaboration. Hence, Option D is not the answer.

QUESTION: 22

DIRECTIONS for questions: Read each of the following paragraphs and answer the question given below it.

When asked to account for the cultural backwardness of Aboriginal Australians, many white Australians have a simple answer: supposed deficiencies of the Aborigines themselves. How else can one account for the fact that white English colonists created a literate, food producing, industrial democracy within a few decades of colonizing a continent whose inhabitants after more than 40000 years were still nonliterate hunter-gatherers. It seems like a perfectly controlled experiment in the evolution of human societies. The continent was the same; only the people were different. The explanation for the differences between Native Australian and European-Australian societies must lie in the different people composing them. The logic behind this racist conclusion appears compelling. However, it contains a simple error.

Q. Which of the following, if true, most likely highlights that error?

Solution: The underlying logic of the racist explanation is that in the same land, colonists were able to create an evolved society whereas Aborigines living there for thousands of years couldn't.

Option A: This will be the error, only if the underlying assumption is that ‘outside contact' is what increases the chances of evolution, and the colonists once they arrived had outside contact, which has not been mentioned in the passage. Also, accelerated the evolution - signifies there was an evolutionary process in place. Option A doesn’t highlight the flaw.

Option B: This will be the error, only if the underlying assumption is that the colonists were more in number than the present native population. However, numbers have not been mentioned in the para. Hence, Option B is not the answer.

Option C: This indicates that the Aborigines couldn’t get around the constraints of their environment, which strengthens the racist logic that colonists who came in could do better than natives. Hence, Option C is not the answer.

Option D: This option states that the assumption that the colonists were racially superior is flawed. They cannot be credited for doing in a few decades what the Aborigines couldn’t do in thousands of years. That is because they may not have really done anything excepting using what was already available to them from the outside world. This is the flaw in the racist logic.

Option D and Option A are particularly close, and one needs to understand that while D directly talks about importing whatever is a sign of evolution, A only talks about ‘outside contact’, which is vague and doesn’t really demonstrate the nature of the flaw in the racist logic.

QUESTION: 23

DIRECTIONS for questions: Read each of the following paragraphs and answer the question given below it.

A large group of students were each given a headset and told that a company making high-tech headphones wanted to test how well they worked when the listener was in motion or moving his or her head. All of the students listened to the same songs and then heard a radio editorial arguing that tuition at their university should be raised from its present level of $587 to $750. A third was told that while they listened to the taped radio editorial they should nod their heads vigorously up and down, an action usually associated with approval; the next third to shake their heads from side to side, an action usually associated with refusal; the final third to keep their heads still. Later, the students were given a questionnaire asking them questions about the quality of the songs and effect of the shaking on the quality. Slipped in at the end was the question the experimenters really wanted an answer to: “What do you feel would be an appropriate dollar amount for undergraduate tuition per year?” Which of the following combinations of statements, if true, would point to a conclusion that the mere act of nodding their head or shaking their head would positively or adversely affect their estimation of the persuasiveness of the radio editorial, respectively?

I. Those who were told to nod their heads wanted the tuition to rise to $646, on average.

II. Those who were told to nod their heads wanted the tuition to fall on average to $467 a year.

III. Those who were told to shake their heads wanted the tuition to rise to $646, on average.

IV. Those who were told not to move their heads on an average guessed that $585 would be appropriate for the tuition, just about where the tuition was already.

Solution: The conclusion is that the head movement affected the perception of the survey-taker towards the radio editorial. Those who were nodding their head (associated with approval) should agree with the radio editorial (if the conclusion is to be true) and hence accept a higher tuition fee. Similarly, those who were shaking their head side to side (associated with refusal) should go against raising the tuition fee. The control group (those who weren’t shaking their head should not ask for increase or decrease in the tuition fee) - however, just the control group’s data will not suffice to prove the conclusion, as it is possible that they don’t change their opinion in any of the three cases. We need a combination of control group data and another option where either nodding led to agreement to raising the fee or shaking of head led to disagreement with the radio editorial.

I. Those who were told to nod should agree for a raise in the tuition fee. This statement fits the intended conclusion.

II. Those who were told to nod should agree for a raise in the tuition fee. In this statement, they want the tuition fee to fall, contradicting the conclusion. Hence, this statement cannot support the conclusion. II shouldn't be part of the answer.

III. Those who were asked to shake their head side to side should refuse the proposal in the radio editorial if the conclusion were to be true. However, according to the option they want a raise, which means they agree with the radio editorial. This contradicts the conclusion. Ill shouldn't be part of the answer.

IV. This represents information about the control group which doesn't help in ascertaining the conclusion directly but is needed to ascertain that nodding/shaking the head actually produced a different result from the one produced when not shaking the head. Hence, IV should be part of the answer. Option A gives us a combination of I and IV.

QUESTION: 24

DIRECTIONS for questions: Read each of the following paragraphs and answer the question given below it.

It's perhaps ironic that Fermat’s greatest fame rests on a theorem that he almost certainly didn’t prove. He apparently claimed a proof and the result is now known to be true, but the verdict of history is that the methods available to him weren’t up to the task. His claim to possess a proof exists only as a marginal note in a book, which doesn’t even survive as an original document, so it could have been made prematurely.

In mathematical research it’s not unusual to wake up in the morning convinced you’ve proved something important only to see the proof evaporate by noon when you find a mistake.

Q. Which of the following, if proven to be true, would strengthen the case for Fermat proving his most famous theorem?

Solution: Option A: This shows that Fermat couldn't possibly have proven his theorem. Hence, Option A does not strengthen the case for his proving the theorem. Option A is not the answer.

Option B: This shows that ‘verdict of history is that the methods available to him weren’t up to the task' doesn’t hold water, and that it is possible Fermat had a proof, because we cannot judge whether he really had the methods he needed to prove the theorem. Hence, Option B strengthens Fermat's case for his proving the theorem. Option B is the answer.

Option C: This shows that the evidence cited to strengthen Fermat's case may not even be his claim, and could be someone else’s. Hence, Option C does not strengthen the case for his proving the theorem. Option C is not the answer.

Option D: This shows that Fermat may not have been able to prove his theorem at the point of time of developing it, because he often found mistakes later. Hence, Option D is not the answer, as it does not strengthen the case for his proving the theorem.

QUESTION: 25

DIRECTIONS for questions: Five sentences are given with a blank in the following question. Four words are also given below the sentences. The blank in each sentence can be filled by one or more of the five words given. Each word can go into any number of sentences. Note that the sentence can change contexts depending on the use of different words which can be appropriate. Identify the number of sentences each word can go into and enter the maximum number of sentences that any word can fit in. For example, if you think that a word goes into a maximum of three sentences, then enter 3 as your answer in the input box given below the question.

i. All radars are programmed to ______________________ the satellite's progress across the stratosphere.

ii. Meteorologists _______________ an active hurricane season because of warmer ocean-surface temperatures.

iii. The new principal of the college thought it necessary to _______________ regular tests for students.

iv. The ideological group is driven by local grievances yet has global aspirations, helping to ________________ rebellion in such troubled places as northern Nigeria and Yemen.

v. It is difficult to _____________ the movement of stocks in the share market without using fundamental and technical indicators.

Solution: The word 'track' can fit in sentences i and v.

The word 'stoke' can fit in sentence iv.

The word 'predict' can fit in sentences i, ii and v.

The word 'mandate' can fit in sentence iii.

Since the word 'predict1 fits in a maximum of three sentences, the correct answer is c.

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