CLAT Mock Test- 10


150 Questions MCQ Test Mock Test Series for CLAT 2021 | CLAT Mock Test- 10


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This mock test of CLAT Mock Test- 10 for CLAT helps you for every CLAT entrance exam. This contains 150 Multiple Choice Questions for CLAT CLAT Mock Test- 10 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this CLAT Mock Test- 10 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CLAT students definitely take this CLAT Mock Test- 10 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other CLAT Mock Test- 10 extra questions, long questions & short questions for CLAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
India really cannot handle tension in West Asia right now.
That may seem obvious: after all, any escalation in hostilities between Iran and the United States, after the latter killed top Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani, will have a huge impact across the region and beyond. It's not for nothing that "World War 3" trended on Twitter on Friday.
There are two primary dangers for India, other than the extremely destabilising effects of any outright war in the region.
One, there are 8 million Indians living and working in West Asia, the vast majority of whom live in the Arabian Gulf.
Conflict would put them all in danger, as it did at the start of the 1990s, when the US went to war with Iraq and New Delhi had to arrange an airlift of more than 110,0 Indian ci tizens.
But even if there isn't all-out conflict, heightened tensions could hurt the economies of the region, and endanger the jobs of many Indians. Already the events of the last few years, including inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.
Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return. A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to, and also endanger the $40 billion in remittances India receives from West Asia - more than 50% of all remittances to the country, a key source of foreign exchange.
Then there is the question of oil prices. Though international prices have gone up by 4% since the strike on Soleimani, analysts do not currently expect them to get much higher -presuming it is in no one's interests for that to happen and that both the US and Iran will back down from outright conflict.
Yet if that presumption is wrong, India will face some difficult times. Although India does not now import much oil from Iran, it is still heavily reliant on the Strait of Hormuz - the tiny span of water through which a quarter of the world's oil and a third of its natural gas travels. Higher oil prices would automatically mean inflation in India, where analysts are already worried about rising food prices. Even if India's economy were on a more stable footing, conflict in the region would be dangerous. But the current tensions, coming as they do when the Indian economy seems poised on a
precipice, should be even more alarming for policymakers. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Here's what an Iran-US conflict would mean for India", by Rohan Venkataraman, Scroll, January 2020.]

What does the word 'precipice' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

This question can be answered if you know the meaning of the word precipice - "a dangerous situation".
If you not aware of its meaning, you can infer the meaning from the context in which it is used in the passage. The passage says that the Indian economy seems poised on a precipice which should be even more alarming for policymakers. Since it should more alarming, it can be inferred that the situation is not very bright. The only answer choice that has that tone is (b).
Incorrect Answers (a) , (c) and (d) does not say the situation is negative. In fact, each of these answer choices has a positive connotation which goes against the tone in which the sentence in the passage is framed.

QUESTION: 2

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
India really cannot handle tension in West Asia right now.
That may seem obvious: after all, any escalation in hostilities between Iran and the United States, after the latter killed top Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani, will have a huge impact across the region and beyond. It's not for nothing that "World War 3" trended on Twitter on Friday.
There are two primary dangers for India, other than the extremely destabilising effects of any outright war in the region.
One, there are 8 million Indians living and working in West Asia, the vast majority of whom live in the Arabian Gulf.
Conflict would put them all in danger, as it did at the start of the 1990s, when the US went to war with Iraq and New Delhi had to arrange an airlift of more than 110,0 Indian ci tizens.
But even if there isn't all-out conflict, heightened tensions could hurt the economies of the region, and endanger the jobs of many Indians. Already the events of the last few years, including inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.
Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return. A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to, and also endanger the $40 billion in remittances India receives from West Asia - more than 50% of all remittances to the country, a key source of foreign exchange.
Then there is the question of oil prices. Though international prices have gone up by 4% since the strike on Soleimani, analysts do not currently expect them to get much higher -presuming it is in no one's interests for that to happen and that both the US and Iran will back down from outright conflict.
Yet if that presumption is wrong, India will face some difficult times. Although India does not now import much oil from Iran, it is still heavily reliant on the Strait of Hormuz - the tiny span of water through which a quarter of the world's oil and a third of its natural gas travels. Higher oil prices would automatically mean inflation in India, where analysts are already worried about rising food prices. Even if India's economy were on a more stable footing, conflict in the region would be dangerous. But the current tensions, coming as they do when the Indian economy seems poised on a
precipice, should be even more alarming for policymakers. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Here's what an Iran-US conflict would mean for India", by Rohan Venkataraman, Scroll, January 2020.]

Why does the author believe that the heightened tension (fourth paragraph) could jeopardise jobs of Indian working abroad?

Solution:

This question asks you to identify the reason as to why the author believes that the Iran conflict could jeopardise jobs of Indians. This is mentioned in paragraph 4. Author justifies this claim by alluding to the events in the past - "inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.". The author apparently believes that since certain events in the region had hurt Indian jobs in the past, the current conflict is also likely to hurt the Indian jobs. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answer (a) - The problem with this answer choice is the mention of "outright war". A possibility of outright war is mentioned by the author (paragraph 3). However, this question specifically asks about the impact of "heightened tension" (paragraph 4). Since this answer choice does not address the question at hand, it is an incorrect answer choice. (b) - This answer choice has the same problem as answer choice (a). The impact of oil prices is discussed much later. (d) - Whether or not India can handle the tension is irrelevant to the discussion at hand. The question specifically asks to identify the reason for an author's claim. Author DOES NOT say that India's inability to handle the tension is the reason for the impact on jobs.

QUESTION: 3

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
India really cannot handle tension in West Asia right now.
That may seem obvious: after all, any escalation in hostilities between Iran and the United States, after the latter killed top Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani, will have a huge impact across the region and beyond. It's not for nothing that "World War 3" trended on Twitter on Friday.
There are two primary dangers for India, other than the extremely destabilising effects of any outright war in the region.
One, there are 8 million Indians living and working in West Asia, the vast majority of whom live in the Arabian Gulf.
Conflict would put them all in danger, as it did at the start of the 1990s, when the US went to war with Iraq and New Delhi had to arrange an airlift of more than 110,0 Indian ci tizens.
But even if there isn't all-out conflict, heightened tensions could hurt the economies of the region, and endanger the jobs of many Indians. Already the events of the last few years, including inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.
Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return. A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to, and also endanger the $40 billion in remittances India receives from West Asia - more than 50% of all remittances to the country, a key source of foreign exchange.
Then there is the question of oil prices. Though international prices have gone up by 4% since the strike on Soleimani, analysts do not currently expect them to get much higher -presuming it is in no one's interests for that to happen and that both the US and Iran will back down from outright conflict.
Yet if that presumption is wrong, India will face some difficult times. Although India does not now import much oil from Iran, it is still heavily reliant on the Strait of Hormuz - the tiny span of water through which a quarter of the world's oil and a third of its natural gas travels. Higher oil prices would automatically mean inflation in India, where analysts are already worried about rising food prices. Even if India's economy were on a more stable footing, conflict in the region would be dangerous. But the current tensions, coming as they do when the Indian economy seems poised on a
precipice, should be even more alarming for policymakers. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Here's what an Iran-US conflict would mean for India", by Rohan Venkataraman, Scroll, January 2020.]

Which one of the following CANNOT be inferred from the information given in the fifth paragraph?

Solution:

You are asked to identify the statement which cannot be inferred from the passage. The passage says that West Asia contributes to more than 50% of the total remittance to India. It is not necessary that more than 50% of Indians work in that region. There is no data which can help us arrive at that claim. [Consider this example: Say there are two countries A and B. Remittance from A is 100 and remittance from B is 50. If there are 20 people in A and 50 people in B (each person in A sends 5 and each person in B sends 1), it is possible that there can be less number of Indians working in A than in B even though the remittance from A is higher] Since answer choice (d) cannot be inferred, it is the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (a) - Refer to this sentence: "Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return.". "many more will return" suggests that there have been people who have returned in the past. Answer choice (a) can be inferred. (b) - The author states that "A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to..." The author states that the places Indians return to will be under pressure if there is a sudden jolt. Answer choice (b) can be inferred. (c) The author states that more than 50% of all remittances to India is from West Asia. So, all the other region put together would be less than 50% and therefore it would be less than the remittance from West Asia. Answer choice (c) can be inferred.

QUESTION: 4

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
India really cannot handle tension in West Asia right now.
That may seem obvious: after all, any escalation in hostilities between Iran and the United States, after the latter killed top Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani, will have a huge impact across the region and beyond. It's not for nothing that "World War 3" trended on Twitter on Friday.
There are two primary dangers for India, other than the extremely destabilising effects of any outright war in the region.
One, there are 8 million Indians living and working in West Asia, the vast majority of whom live in the Arabian Gulf.
Conflict would put them all in danger, as it did at the start of the 1990s, when the US went to war with Iraq and New Delhi had to arrange an airlift of more than 110,0 Indian ci tizens.
But even if there isn't all-out conflict, heightened tensions could hurt the economies of the region, and endanger the jobs of many Indians. Already the events of the last few years, including inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.
Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return. A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to, and also endanger the $40 billion in remittances India receives from West Asia - more than 50% of all remittances to the country, a key source of foreign exchange.
Then there is the question of oil prices. Though international prices have gone up by 4% since the strike on Soleimani, analysts do not currently expect them to get much higher -presuming it is in no one's interests for that to happen and that both the US and Iran will back down from outright conflict.
Yet if that presumption is wrong, India will face some difficult times. Although India does not now import much oil from Iran, it is still heavily reliant on the Strait of Hormuz - the tiny span of water through which a quarter of the world's oil and a third of its natural gas travels. Higher oil prices would automatically mean inflation in India, where analysts are already worried about rising food prices. Even if India's economy were on a more stable footing, conflict in the region would be dangerous. But the current tensions, coming as they do when the Indian economy seems poised on a
precipice, should be even more alarming for policymakers. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Here's what an Iran-US conflict would mean for India", by Rohan Venkataraman, Scroll, January 2020.]

Why do the analysts expect that the international price of oil will not increase substantially?

Solution:

Paragraph 6 discusses oil price. The author states that the analysts do not expect the oil price to get much further based on the assumption that it not in the interest of both US and Iran. This is captured in answer choice (a).
Incorrect Answers (b) - The stability of the price before the war is not discussed in the passage. (c) - The author does not specifically mention World War 3 in paragraph 6. What is mentioned is that the countries want to avoid an outright conflict. This outright conflict does not refer to World War 3. Hence answer choice (c)is incorrect. (d) - While it is true that an outright war would cause destabilising effect in the region, the question is specifically asking the reason why analysts believe that the price would not get much higher. Not just the destabilising effect in the region - the analyst presume that it will impact US as well. This answer does not capture the specific reason stated by the author. Hence answer choice (d) is incorrect.

QUESTION: 5

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
India really cannot handle tension in West Asia right now.
That may seem obvious: after all, any escalation in hostilities between Iran and the United States, after the latter killed top Iranian military commander Qassem Soleimani, will have a huge impact across the region and beyond. It's not for nothing that "World War 3" trended on Twitter on Friday.
There are two primary dangers for India, other than the extremely destabilising effects of any outright war in the region.
One, there are 8 million Indians living and working in West Asia, the vast majority of whom live in the Arabian Gulf.
Conflict would put them all in danger, as it did at the start of the 1990s, when the US went to war with Iraq and New Delhi had to arrange an airlift of more than 110,0 Indian ci tizens.
But even if there isn't all-out conflict, heightened tensions could hurt the economies of the region, and endanger the jobs of many Indians. Already the events of the last few years, including inter-regional conflict between Saudi Arabia and Qatar, employment nationalisation drives in a number of countries and Dubai's struggles to recover from economic crisis, have hurt the diaspora.
Kerala has already begun coming to terms with the idea that many more will return. A sudden jolt would put pressure on the places Indians return to, and also endanger the $40 billion in remittances India receives from West Asia - more than 50% of all remittances to the country, a key source of foreign exchange.
Then there is the question of oil prices. Though international prices have gone up by 4% since the strike on Soleimani, analysts do not currently expect them to get much higher -presuming it is in no one's interests for that to happen and that both the US and Iran will back down from outright conflict.
Yet if that presumption is wrong, India will face some difficult times. Although India does not now import much oil from Iran, it is still heavily reliant on the Strait of Hormuz - the tiny span of water through which a quarter of the world's oil and a third of its natural gas travels. Higher oil prices would automatically mean inflation in India, where analysts are already worried about rising food prices. Even if India's economy were on a more stable footing, conflict in the region would be dangerous. But the current tensions, coming as they do when the Indian economy seems poised on a
precipice, should be even more alarming for policymakers. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "Here's what an Iran-US conflict would mean for India", by Rohan Venkataraman, Scroll, January 2020.]

Which one of the following best expresses the main idea of the passage?

Solution:

In the passage the author raises the concern that the US-Iran conflict will have for India. In the passage the author discusses the impact it will have on Indians working in the region and the danger it poses to Indian economy. Answer choice (c) captures this idea completely and accurately.
Incorrect Answers (a) - This answer choice only considers the impact on Indian worker and leaves out the impact on Indian economy. (b) - The issue of remittance is a specific issue that the author discusses in the passage. It is a supporting detail of the argument put forth by the author. (d) - This looks to be a good option; however, it is misleading. The problem is with the word 'unnecessary'. Whether or not the military intervention is unnecessary is something that the author does not discuss. The author talks about the impact of the conflict with regards to India. Author does not make a judgement on whether the conflict was necessary or unnecessary. This makes answer choice (d) incorrect.

QUESTION: 6

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Since 2005, the NGO Pratham's Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) have shone a light on a critical failure of India's education system: A large number of school-going children across the country are short on basic learning skills. These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system. The latest edition of ASER, released on Tuesday, directs attention to children between four and eight years of age, and suggests that India's learning crisis could be linked to the weakness of the country's pre-primary system. More than 20 per cent of students in Standard I are less than six, ASER 2019 reveals - they should ideally be in pre-school. At the same time, 36 per cent students in Standard 1 are older than the RTE-mandated age of six. "Even within Standard I, children's performance on cognitive, early language, early numeracy, and social and emotional learning tasks is strongly related to their age. Older children do better on all tasks," the report says. This is a significant finding and should be the starting point for a substantive debate on the ideal entry- level age to primary school. In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problem-solving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge". ASER 2019 talks about leveraging the existing network of anganwadi centres to implement school readiness. The core structure of the anganwadis was developed more than 40 years ago as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Pre-school education is part of their mandate. But at the best of times, these centres do no more than implement the government's child nutrition schemes. A number of health crises - including last year's AES outbreak in Bihar - have bared the inadequacies of the system. A growing body of scholarly work has also shown
that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer. The ASER report is alive to such shortcomings. "There is a need to expand and upgrade anganwadis to ensure that children get adequate and correct educational inputs of the kind that are not modeled after the formal school," it notes. The government would do well to act on this recommendation -especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system.
[Extracted with edits from: "Before school", Editorial of Indian Express, January 2020.]

Each of the following is a reason as to why angawadi workers are not as effective as they should be EXCEPT:

Solution:

The question asks to identify something that is NOT a reason as to why angawadi workers are not effective. The passage DOES NOT say that the workers are not concerned with the welfare of the students. Hence answer choice (c) is the correct answer to the question.
Incorrect Answers (a) , (b) and (d) - The passage mentions the following: "A growing body of scholarly work has also shown that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer."
The reasons are that they are poorly paid (captured in answer choice (b)), they are demoralised (captured in answer choice (a)) and they lack autonomy (captured in answered choice (d)).

QUESTION: 7

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Since 2005, the NGO Pratham's Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) have shone a light on a critical failure of India's education system: A large number of school-going children across the country are short on basic learning skills. These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system. The latest edition of ASER, released on Tuesday, directs attention to children between four and eight years of age, and suggests that India's learning crisis could be linked to the weakness of the country's pre-primary system. More than 20 per cent of students in Standard I are less than six, ASER 2019 reveals - they should ideally be in pre-school. At the same time, 36 per cent students in Standard 1 are older than the RTE-mandated age of six. "Even within Standard I, children's performance on cognitive, early language, early numeracy, and social and emotional learning tasks is strongly related to their age. Older children do better on all tasks," the report says. This is a significant finding and should be the starting point for a substantive debate on the ideal entry- level age to primary school. In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problem-solving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge". ASER 2019 talks about leveraging the existing network of anganwadi centres to implement school readiness. The core structure of the anganwadis was developed more than 40 years ago as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Pre-school education is part of their mandate. But at the best of times, these centres do no more than implement the government's child nutrition schemes. A number of health crises - including last year's AES outbreak in Bihar - have bared the inadequacies of the system. A growing body of scholarly work has also shown
that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer. The ASER report is alive to such shortcomings. "There is a need to expand and upgrade anganwadis to ensure that children get adequate and correct educational inputs of the kind that are not modeled after the formal school," it notes. The government would do well to act on this recommendation -especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system.
[Extracted with edits from: "Before school", Editorial of Indian Express, January 2020.]

In the last paragraph, why does the author states that the government should act on the recommendation based on the ASER report?

Solution:

The answer can be found in the last sentence of the passage. "The government would do well to act on this recommendation - especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system."
The author reasons that the Draft Education Policy that was put for public discussion had raised the same issue. Hence, the government should act on the recommendation. This makes answer choice (a) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (b) and (c) - The reason given in each of the answer choices (b) and (c) is not mentioned in the passage.
What is mentioned in the passage is that the report was created by an NGO called Pratham. Nowhere in the passage does the author say that the report was endorsed by various NGOs.
Similarly, nowhere in the passage does the author talks about taxpayers' money. (d) - While it is true that the angawadis were developed as a part of ICDS, it is not the reason given for endorsing the recommendation.

QUESTION: 8

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Since 2005, the NGO Pratham's Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) have shone a light on a critical failure of India's education system: A large number of school-going children across the country are short on basic learning skills. These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system. The latest edition of ASER, released on Tuesday, directs attention to children between four and eight years of age, and suggests that India's learning crisis could be linked to the weakness of the country's pre-primary system. More than 20 per cent of students in Standard I are less than six, ASER 2019 reveals - they should ideally be in pre-school. At the same time, 36 per cent students in Standard 1 are older than the RTE-mandated age of six. "Even within Standard I, children's performance on cognitive, early language, early numeracy, and social and emotional learning tasks is strongly related to their age. Older children do better on all tasks," the report says. This is a significant finding and should be the starting point for a substantive debate on the ideal entry- level age to primary school. In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problem-solving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge". ASER 2019 talks about leveraging the existing network of anganwadi centres to implement school readiness. The core structure of the anganwadis was developed more than 40 years ago as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Pre-school education is part of their mandate. But at the best of times, these centres do no more than implement the government's child nutrition schemes. A number of health crises - including last year's AES outbreak in Bihar - have bared the inadequacies of the system. A growing body of scholarly work has also shown
that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer. The ASER report is alive to such shortcomings. "There is a need to expand and upgrade anganwadis to ensure that children get adequate and correct educational inputs of the kind that are not modeled after the formal school," it notes. The government would do well to act on this recommendation -especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system.
[Extracted with edits from: "Before school", Editorial of Indian Express, January 2020.]

Which one of the following statements is the author most likely to agree with?

Solution:

Refer: "In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through play-based activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problemsolving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge""
The author proposes play-based activities based on the ASER 2019 report which says that the focus should be on developing problem-solving faculties and not content knowledge. The author assumes that play-based activities are based on problem solving skill and not on content knowledge. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (a) - The author mentions that the children between 4 and 8 should be taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. That does NOT mean that the playbased activities are not applicable for children above 8.
(b) - The problem in this answer choice is "strengthen their knowledge". It is clearly mentioned that the focus should not be on content knowledge. (d) - Just because play-based activities are a good approach for younger children, that does not mean that younger children would be better at it than older children.

QUESTION: 9

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Since 2005, the NGO Pratham's Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) have shone a light on a critical failure of India's education system: A large number of school-going children across the country are short on basic learning skills. These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system. The latest edition of ASER, released on Tuesday, directs attention to children between four and eight years of age, and suggests that India's learning crisis could be linked to the weakness of the country's pre-primary system. More than 20 per cent of students in Standard I are less than six, ASER 2019 reveals - they should ideally be in pre-school. At the same time, 36 per cent students in Standard 1 are older than the RTE-mandated age of six. "Even within Standard I, children's performance on cognitive, early language, early numeracy, and social and emotional learning tasks is strongly related to their age. Older children do better on all tasks," the report says. This is a significant finding and should be the starting point for a substantive debate on the ideal entry- level age to primary school. In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problem-solving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge". ASER 2019 talks about leveraging the existing network of anganwadi centres to implement school readiness. The core structure of the anganwadis was developed more than 40 years ago as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Pre-school education is part of their mandate. But at the best of times, these centres do no more than implement the government's child nutrition schemes. A number of health crises - including last year's AES outbreak in Bihar - have bared the inadequacies of the system. A growing body of scholarly work has also shown
that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer. The ASER report is alive to such shortcomings. "There is a need to expand and upgrade anganwadis to ensure that children get adequate and correct educational inputs of the kind that are not modeled after the formal school," it notes. The government would do well to act on this recommendation -especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system.
[Extracted with edits from: "Before school", Editorial of Indian Express, January 2020.]

Which one of the following best describes the essence of the passage?

Solution:

In the first paragraph it is mentioned that the ASER report links the weakness in India's education system to how children between ages four and eight(preprimary) are taught. The second paragraph explains the problem in the current curriculum of those agegroup and suggests certain changes. The last paragraph focuses on the issues specifically in angawadi centres.
The passage addresses two things - (1) the issue with pre-primary education and (2) the issue at angawadi centres. This makes answer choice (a) the correct answer. (b) - The passage does not refer to early language and numerical tasks. (c) - This is a supporting detail and not the essence of the passage.

Incorrect Answers (d) - This answer choice only addresses the issue with angawadi and misses the issue with regards to pre-primary education.

QUESTION: 10

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Since 2005, the NGO Pratham's Annual Status of Education Reports (ASER) have shone a light on a critical failure of India's education system: A large number of school-going children across the country are short on basic learning skills. These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system. The latest edition of ASER, released on Tuesday, directs attention to children between four and eight years of age, and suggests that India's learning crisis could be linked to the weakness of the country's pre-primary system. More than 20 per cent of students in Standard I are less than six, ASER 2019 reveals - they should ideally be in pre-school. At the same time, 36 per cent students in Standard 1 are older than the RTE-mandated age of six. "Even within Standard I, children's performance on cognitive, early language, early numeracy, and social and emotional learning tasks is strongly related to their age. Older children do better on all tasks," the report says. This is a significant finding and should be the starting point for a substantive debate on the ideal entry- level age to primary school. In this context, policymakers would also do well to go back to the pedagogical axiom which underlines that children between four and eight are best taught cognitive skills through playbased activities. The emphasis, as ASER 2019 emphasises, should be on "developing problem-solving faculties and building memory of children, and not content knowledge". ASER 2019 talks about leveraging the existing network of anganwadi centres to implement school readiness. The core structure of the anganwadis was developed more than 40 years ago as part of the Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). Pre-school education is part of their mandate. But at the best of times, these centres do no more than implement the government's child nutrition schemes. A number of health crises - including last year's AES outbreak in Bihar - have bared the inadequacies of the system. A growing body of scholarly work has also shown
that the anganwadi worker is poorly-paid, demoralised and lacks the autonomy to be an effective nurturer. The ASER report is alive to such shortcomings. "There is a need to expand and upgrade anganwadis to ensure that children get adequate and correct educational inputs of the kind that are not modeled after the formal school," it notes. The government would do well to act on this recommendation -especially since the Draft Education Policy that was put up for public discussion last year, also stresses on the preschool system.
[Extracted with edits from: "Before school", Editorial of Indian Express, January 2020.]

What does the word "seminal" mean as used in the first paragraph passage?

Solution:

The meaning of seminal is something that has a great influence on later developments.
This can be inferred from the passage as well. "These reports have led to debates on seminal policy interventions such as the Right to Education Act and have been catalysts for meaningful conversations on the pedagogical deficiencies of the formal school system."
The author mentions that the ASER reports have led to something positive. (Note the term - meaningful).
So, the word must have a positive connotation. The only answer choice that has a positive connotation is answer choice (c). Incorrect Answers (a), (b) and (d) - all have negative connotation and go against the tone in which the author has used the word.

QUESTION: 11

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Like many Indian children, I grew up on the vast, varied, and fascinating tales of the Mahabharat.
At the core of the epic lies the fierce rivalry between two branches of the Kuru dynasty, the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The lifelong struggle between the cousins for the throne of Hastinapur culminates in the bloody battle of Kurukshetra, in which most kings of that period participated and perished. But numerous other characters people the world of the Mahabharat and contribute to its magnetism and continuing relevance. These larger-than-life heroes, epitomizing inspiring virtues and deadly vices, etched many cautionary morals into my child-consciousness. Some of my favorites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions, are: Vyasa the sage; Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu and mentor to the Pandavas; Bheeshma, the patriarch ; Drona, the brahmin-warrior; Drupad, the king of Panchaal; and Karna, the great warrior.
But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharat as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather's village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leatherbound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn't as though the epic didn't have powerful, complex women characters that affected the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas, who dedicates her life to making sure her sons became kings. There was Gandhari, wife of the sightless Kaurava king, who chooses to blindfold herself at marriage, thus relinquishing her power as queen and mother. And most of all, there was Panchaali (also known as Draupadi), King Drupad's beautiful daughter, who has the unique distinction of being married to five men at the same time-the five Pandava brothers, the greatest heroes of their time.
Panchaali who, some might argue, by her headstrong actions helps to bring about the destruction of the Third Age of Man.
But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thoughts and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons.
If I ever wrote a book, I remember thinking, I would place the women in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.
Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her
heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it. And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Author's Note of her novel "The Palace of Illusion", by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakumari, 2008]

What does the word 'subservient' as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

All the answer choices are different meanings of the word 'subservient'. We need to understand the meaning of the word in the context of the passage. In the passage, the author discusses how the women in Mahabarat are not in the forefront and that they remain as shadowy figurse. It is in this context that the author mentions - "their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons." The answer choice that best captures the intended meaning is answer choice (d) -that they are portrayed as acting in a subordinate capacity.
Incorrect Answers
(a) - The author does not hint in any way that the women are like slaves or servants.
(b) - This suggests that the women have an inferior role and that they are useful in that inferior role. This has a negative connotation for women, one that is not what the author is suggesting.
(c) - Whether or not the women were willing to obey without question is not suggested by the author.

QUESTION: 12

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Like many Indian children, I grew up on the vast, varied, and fascinating tales of the Mahabharat.
At the core of the epic lies the fierce rivalry between two branches of the Kuru dynasty, the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The lifelong struggle between the cousins for the throne of Hastinapur culminates in the bloody battle of Kurukshetra, in which most kings of that period participated and perished. But numerous other characters people the world of the Mahabharat and contribute to its magnetism and continuing relevance. These larger-than-life heroes, epitomizing inspiring virtues and deadly vices, etched many cautionary morals into my child-consciousness. Some of my favorites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions, are: Vyasa the sage; Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu and mentor to the Pandavas; Bheeshma, the patriarch ; Drona, the brahmin-warrior; Drupad, the king of Panchaal; and Karna, the great warrior.
But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharat as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather's village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leatherbound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn't as though the epic didn't have powerful, complex women characters that affected the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas, who dedicates her life to making sure her sons became kings. There was Gandhari, wife of the sightless Kaurava king, who chooses to blindfold herself at marriage, thus relinquishing her power as queen and mother. And most of all, there was Panchaali (also known as Draupadi), King Drupad's beautiful daughter, who has the unique distinction of being married to five men at the same time-the five Pandava brothers, the greatest heroes of their time.
Panchaali who, some might argue, by her headstrong actions helps to bring about the destruction of the Third Age of Man.
But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thoughts and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons.
If I ever wrote a book, I remember thinking, I would place the women in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.
Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her
heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it. And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Author's Note of her novel "The Palace of Illusion", by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakumari, 2008]

It can be inferred from the passage that the novel "The Palace of Illusions" is most likely to be:

Solution:

In the last paragraph, the author mentions that "Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself..."
And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions."
Author wanted the story to be told by Panchaali.
Therefore, it is inferred that the novel is a first-person narrative by Paanchali. A first-person narrative is a mode of storytelling in which a narrator relays events from their own point of view using the first person.
Hence answer choice (a) is the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (b) , (c) and (d) - The novel is not a narrative by various women characters; the novel is not a thirdperson narrative; and the novel is not an amalgamation of various stories. It is clear from the passage that the novel is a narrative told by Panchaali.

QUESTION: 13

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Like many Indian children, I grew up on the vast, varied, and fascinating tales of the Mahabharat.
At the core of the epic lies the fierce rivalry between two branches of the Kuru dynasty, the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The lifelong struggle between the cousins for the throne of Hastinapur culminates in the bloody battle of Kurukshetra, in which most kings of that period participated and perished. But numerous other characters people the world of the Mahabharat and contribute to its magnetism and continuing relevance. These larger-than-life heroes, epitomizing inspiring virtues and deadly vices, etched many cautionary morals into my child-consciousness. Some of my favorites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions, are: Vyasa the sage; Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu and mentor to the Pandavas; Bheeshma, the patriarch ; Drona, the brahmin-warrior; Drupad, the king of Panchaal; and Karna, the great warrior.
But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharat as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather's village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leatherbound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn't as though the epic didn't have powerful, complex women characters that affected the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas, who dedicates her life to making sure her sons became kings. There was Gandhari, wife of the sightless Kaurava king, who chooses to blindfold herself at marriage, thus relinquishing her power as queen and mother. And most of all, there was Panchaali (also known as Draupadi), King Drupad's beautiful daughter, who has the unique distinction of being married to five men at the same time-the five Pandava brothers, the greatest heroes of their time.
Panchaali who, some might argue, by her headstrong actions helps to bring about the destruction of the Third Age of Man.
But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thoughts and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons.
If I ever wrote a book, I remember thinking, I would place the women in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.
Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her
heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it. And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Author's Note of her novel "The Palace of Illusion", by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakumari, 2008]

Why did the author place the women in the forefront of action in her novel "The Palace of Illusions"?

Solution:

In the second paragraph, the author discusses that the women remained shadowy figures in Maharbarat.
Their motives were not known, and their emotions were portrayed only when it affected the life of the male heroes. Then the author says in the last paragraph that she wanted to place the women in the forefront of action. So, the reason for the same is that in some sense the author believed that the portrayal of women did not do justice to the women and they were overshadowed by the male characters. This makes answer choice (b) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (a) - Even though Mahabarat has inspired the author, the inspiration of Mahabarat is not the reason as to why the author placed the women in the forefront of action. (c) - It is true that there are many powerful women in Mahabarat. However, there being many powerful women in itself is not the author's reason as to why she placed them in the forefront. (d) - The problem with this answer choice is the use of word 'only'. The author does not suggest that the only way to bring out the complexities of women is by placing them at the forefront.

QUESTION: 14

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Like many Indian children, I grew up on the vast, varied, and fascinating tales of the Mahabharat.
At the core of the epic lies the fierce rivalry between two branches of the Kuru dynasty, the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The lifelong struggle between the cousins for the throne of Hastinapur culminates in the bloody battle of Kurukshetra, in which most kings of that period participated and perished. But numerous other characters people the world of the Mahabharat and contribute to its magnetism and continuing relevance. These larger-than-life heroes, epitomizing inspiring virtues and deadly vices, etched many cautionary morals into my child-consciousness. Some of my favorites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions, are: Vyasa the sage; Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu and mentor to the Pandavas; Bheeshma, the patriarch ; Drona, the brahmin-warrior; Drupad, the king of Panchaal; and Karna, the great warrior.
But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharat as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather's village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leatherbound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn't as though the epic didn't have powerful, complex women characters that affected the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas, who dedicates her life to making sure her sons became kings. There was Gandhari, wife of the sightless Kaurava king, who chooses to blindfold herself at marriage, thus relinquishing her power as queen and mother. And most of all, there was Panchaali (also known as Draupadi), King Drupad's beautiful daughter, who has the unique distinction of being married to five men at the same time-the five Pandava brothers, the greatest heroes of their time.
Panchaali who, some might argue, by her headstrong actions helps to bring about the destruction of the Third Age of Man.
But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thoughts and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons.
If I ever wrote a book, I remember thinking, I would place the women in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.
Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her
heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it. And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Author's Note of her novel "The Palace of Illusion", by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakumari, 2008]

In the novel "The Palace of Illusions", some of the male characters of Mahabarat:

Solution:

Refer to these lines from the second paragraph: "Some of my favourites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions,." The author mentions that some her favourite male characters play an important role in "The Palace of Illusions". Therefore, answer choice (c) is correct.
Incorrect Answers (a) and (b) - How the male characters are portrayed vis-a-vis female characters is not mentioned in the passage. (d) - There is no evidence from the passage to suggest anything about how the male characters are portrayed.

QUESTION: 15

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Like many Indian children, I grew up on the vast, varied, and fascinating tales of the Mahabharat.
At the core of the epic lies the fierce rivalry between two branches of the Kuru dynasty, the Pandavas and the Kauravas. The lifelong struggle between the cousins for the throne of Hastinapur culminates in the bloody battle of Kurukshetra, in which most kings of that period participated and perished. But numerous other characters people the world of the Mahabharat and contribute to its magnetism and continuing relevance. These larger-than-life heroes, epitomizing inspiring virtues and deadly vices, etched many cautionary morals into my child-consciousness. Some of my favorites, who play prominent roles in The Palace of Illusions, are: Vyasa the sage; Krishna, an incarnation of Vishnu and mentor to the Pandavas; Bheeshma, the patriarch ; Drona, the brahmin-warrior; Drupad, the king of Panchaal; and Karna, the great warrior.
But always, listening to the stories of the Mahabharat as a young girl in the lantern-lit evenings at my grandfather's village home, or later, poring over the thousand-page leatherbound volume in my parents' home in Kolkata, I was left unsatisfied by the portrayals of the women. It wasn't as though the epic didn't have powerful, complex women characters that affected the action in major ways. For instance, there was the widowed Kunti, mother of the Pandavas, who dedicates her life to making sure her sons became kings. There was Gandhari, wife of the sightless Kaurava king, who chooses to blindfold herself at marriage, thus relinquishing her power as queen and mother. And most of all, there was Panchaali (also known as Draupadi), King Drupad's beautiful daughter, who has the unique distinction of being married to five men at the same time-the five Pandava brothers, the greatest heroes of their time.
Panchaali who, some might argue, by her headstrong actions helps to bring about the destruction of the Third Age of Man.
But in some way, they remained shadowy figures, their thoughts and motives mysterious, their emotions portrayed only when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their roles ultimately subservient to those of their fathers or husbands, brothers or sons.
If I ever wrote a book, I remember thinking, I would place the women in the forefront of the action. I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.
Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her
heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it. And who could be better suited for this than Panchaali? It is her life, her voice, her questions, and her vision that I invite you into in The Palace of Illusions.
[Extracted, with edits and revisions, from Author's Note of her novel "The Palace of Illusion", by Chitra Lekha Banerjee Divakumari, 2008]

Consider this line from the passage: "I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits.". What is invisible?

Solution:

Refer to these sentences: "I would uncover the story that lay invisible between the lines of the men's exploits. Better still, I would have one of them tell it herself, with all her joys and doubts, her struggles and her triumphs, her heartbreaks, her achievements, the unique female way in which she sees her world and her place in it."
Here the author mentions that she wants to tell the story from the perspective of a woman - something that was missing in Mahabarat. So, what was invisible in Mahabarat was the perspective or the viewpoint of women. Hence, answer choice (d) is correct.
Incorrect Answers:
(a) - 'fearlessness' of women was not suggested by the author as the thing that was invisible;
(b) - the narratives or stories of the women in not what was invisible.
(c) - though achievement of women is one of the aspects that the author shares in her novel, the author does not suggest that the specifically heroic acts of women was invisible.

QUESTION: 16

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.
Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,0 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.
In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself- apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.
Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.
Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.
Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication. In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages. Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent. [Extracted with edits from: "How to Sell Climate Denial", by Liyia Gershon, JSTOR Daily, November 2019.]

In the second paragraph the author mentions "trick" in quotes in order to highlight that the adjusting of data was:

Solution:

The author says that the scientists adjusted the data using "trick". This was a mathematical jargon used by the scientist which was misinterpreted by some to be a deception. So, the author puts "trick" in quotes to highlight that the word trick does not literally mean a trick. Hence answer choice (a) is correct.
Incorrect Answers (b) - The deception is what the commentators thought. "Trick" for the scientist was a mathematical jargon. (c) and (d) - It was neither a mistake nor an error.
The scientists merely adjusted the data and used the jargon "trick" to call the adjustment that they made.

QUESTION: 17

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.
Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,0 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.
In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself- apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.
Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.
Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.
Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication. In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages. Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent. [Extracted with edits from: "How to Sell Climate Denial", by Liyia Gershon, JSTOR Daily, November 2019.]

Why did some of the conservative users add the suffix -gate in climategate?

Solution:

The author mentions that the suffix -gate refers to Watergate which was another scandal. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer. [Watergate - The Watergate scandal was a major federal political scandal in the United States involving the administration of President Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1974]
Incorrect Answers
(a) and (d) - There is no evidence in the passage for these suggestions. (b) - While it is mentioned that "they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases", that does not mean that the phrases were easy to explain. The question specifically asks as to why the suffix -gate was used and this suffix was borrowed from Watergate which was another scandal.

QUESTION: 18

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.
Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,0 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.
In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself- apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.
Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.
Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.
Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication. In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages. Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent. [Extracted with edits from: "How to Sell Climate Denial", by Liyia Gershon, JSTOR Daily, November 2019.]

Why did the climate change deniers use the analogy of science as a religion?

Solution:

The author points out a theme used by some of the climate change deniers - "science is religion". They claimed that the climate change had become a faithbased cult which was not based on evidence. So, just like how religion is based on faith and not on evidence, climate change is also not based on evidence. Hence (b) is the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers
(a) - There is nothing to suggest that those who criticize climate change say that climate change is based on moral arguments.
(c) - There is no evidence to suggest that the climate change deniers believe that religion denies climate change.
(d) - This is plainly wrong. This is a positive statement about science. However, the deniers hold an opposite view when it comes to climate change.

QUESTION: 19

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.
Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,0 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.
In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself- apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.
Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.
Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.
Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication. In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages. Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent. [Extracted with edits from: "How to Sell Climate Denial", by Liyia Gershon, JSTOR Daily, November 2019.]

Why does the author mention that the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent?

Solution:

The author, in the last paragraph, mentions that in April 2010 an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing. However, the controversy did have a negative impact on public opinion albeit temporarily. To justify that claim, the author presents the data of Feb 2010 that the percentage of British adults who believed that climate change was a reality dropped. Since the data was used to justify the claim that the climategate changed the public opinion temporarily answer choice (b) is the correct answer.
Incorrect answers
(a) - The author is not trying to reason as to why British adults think climate change is not real. The data was used to highlight the fact that climate gate had a negative impact on public perception.
(c) - The data is not being used to argue that climate change is real. While the author may hold that belief, the question is specifically asking as to why the data is used in the passage.
(d) - This is not the view of the author anyways. The climate change is a hoax was the view of the proponents of climategate.

QUESTION: 20

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Why on Earth is it taking so long for the world's richest countries to take action on climate change? For a partial answer, we can look back to the controversy that started a decade ago this November, which came to be known as Climategate. In a 2010 paper in the journal Environmental Values, the sociologist Brigitte Nerlich looked at what happened.
Climategate began with the leaking of emails sent to and from climate scientists at the University of East Anglia, in the UK. The leaked file included more than 1,0 emails, but climate skeptics quickly seized on just a few of them: some messages in which scientists debated the publication of potentially flawed work, and some others in which they discussed adjusting data using a "trick"-a piece of mathematical jargon that commentators misinterpreted as an effort to deceive the public.
In the U.S. and UK, conservative bloggers quickly latched onto the messages as proof of dishonesty among climate scientists. Nerlich writes that they effectively reached their audiences with a few specific phrases. One of these was the word "climategate" itself- apparently first used by conservative UK writer James Delingpole. The -gate suffix, referring back to Watergate, is a familiar method used by partisans and members of the media to indicate a serious scandal.
Looking at the messaging in blog posts about climategate, Nerlich found that another common theme was "science as a religion." Climate change deniers accused environmentalists and scientists of irrationally clinging to their belief in human-made climate change in the face of what they saw as evidence that it was a hoax. "The Global Warming religion is as virulent and insidious as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude, and yet it has become mainstream orthodoxy and infallible spirituality faster than any faith-based cult in history," as one blogger put it.
Nerlich notes that, when it comes to scientists' levels of certainty, climate change deniers wanted to have it both ways. Any hint of uncertainty-which is almost always a factor in scientific analyses, especially concerning predictions about complex systems-was presented as a reason not to believe that change was happening at all. But too much certainty became proof that scientists were no longer operating from evidence, but instead trying to justify a cult-like faith.
Ultimately, Climategate was shown to be a fabrication. In April 2010, an independent panel cleared the climate scientists of any wrongdoing in the leaked messages. Yet the controversy apparently succeeded in changing public opinion, at least temporarily. In February of 2010, the Guardian reported that, in the previous year, the proportion of British adults who believed that climate change was "definitely" a reality had dropped from 44 to 31 percent. [Extracted with edits from: "How to Sell Climate Denial", by Liyia Gershon, JSTOR Daily, November 2019.]

Which one of the following can replace the phrase "absolute certitude" as used in the fourth paragraph?

Solution:

Certitude means absolute conviction or unquestioning belief in something.
This has reference to the view held by a climate skeptic blogger who commented "...as all mindbending cults of absolute certitude". Cults are groups (usually religious) that have extreme beliefs based on blind faith. This makes answer choice (c) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers
(a) - Though one may consider cults are completely stupid, the reference cults here is to explain faith without any form of evidence. The climate skeptics believe that climate change is a hoax and those who believe in climate change, believed in that without any evidence.
(b) - cult members do not have distrust; in fact, it is quite the opposite - they exhibit blind trust.
(d) - "tentative" is a wrong word - absolute cannot be tentative.

QUESTION: 21

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports. One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport. At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.
The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways. Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.
[Extracted, with edits, from: "Human Enhancement", Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, revised in May 2019]

According to the passage, one of the reasons as to why athletic performance enhancements get so much attention is:

Solution:

Refer: "One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport."
Currency here refers to: "the fact or quality of being generally accepted or in use."
Answer choice (d) is correct answer Incorrect Answers (a) - currency here does not refer to money. (b) - The improvement of athletic performance is not the reason why it got so much attention. The reason is that it is an epidemic - used commonly. (c) - It is not because it is regarded as cheating that it is getting attention. Whether or not it amounts to cheating is something that the author discusses later in the passage.

QUESTION: 22

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports. One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport. At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.
The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways. Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.
[Extracted, with edits, from: "Human Enhancement", Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, revised in May 2019]

"Super Olympics", as per the passage:

Solution:

This is the relevant part from the last paragraph: If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem.
For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements?
Answer choice (b) is correct. ""Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements".
Incorrect Answers
(a) - What is mentioned in the passage is that it's a mirror image of Special Olympics. It is NOT a counter.
Mirror image is a thing that closely resembles another. Author is merely saying that just like Special Olympics create a level playing ground, Super Olympics also creates a level playing ground. Counter means opposition.
(c) - The author contemplates the question of fairness. If rules can be tweaked to create Super Olympics, can it be called unfair? She uses this example to claim that a broader understanding of cheating is needed. Author, therefore, does not suggest that it is unfair. So, to say that Super Olympics is unfair would be inaccurate.

QUESTION: 23

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports. One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport. At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.
The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways. Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.
[Extracted, with edits, from: "Human Enhancement", Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, revised in May 2019]

Which of the following is analogous to the example of equatorial countries' inability to complete in skicompetitions?

Solution:

The example of equatorial countries is used to illustrate the concept of - "unfortunate but not unfair".
Equatorial countries do not have snow. So, they are not able to compete effectively with northern countries in skiing competitions. Author says this not a 'fairness' issue. Neither can we stop skiing competition because of equatorial countries not having a levelplaying ground nor can we give snow to equatorial countries! So, it is unfortunate not unfair.
We are looking an example like that - unfortunate but not unfair.
Answer choice (c) is an accurate analogy. Some candidates may have lot of money to spend in elections. That is allowed and there is nothing wrong with that. So, if some other candidates do not have resources, then it is unfortunate not unfair.
Incorrect Answers (a) - This is out and out cheating. It is definitely unfair. (b) - This is also unfair. It is clearly mentioned - the shopkeeper uses UNFAIR practices (d) - This is unfair. Billing a patient just to make more money is unfair.

QUESTION: 24

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports. One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport. At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.
The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways. Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.
[Extracted, with edits, from: "Human Enhancement", Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, revised in May 2019]

In the last paragraph, what is the author's appeal to the critics of biomedical enhancements?

Solution:

The author's appeal is in the last sentence. "For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices."
The author asks critics to have a deeper and broader understanding of cheating to evaluate the negative impact of biomedical enhancements. This is captured in answer choice (d)
Incorrect Answers
(a) - Author does not merely suggests that the debate should be improved. S/he gives a clear direction as to what needs to be done - to have a broader understanding of cheating.
(b) - The author does not ask critics to collect facts.
(c) - The author does not suggest that the critics should correlate various impacts. S/he recommend that critics understand what 'cheating' is.

QUESTION: 25

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
One of the kinds of human enhancement that has received extensive philosophical attention in recent years is the use of biomedical interventions to improve the physical performance of athletes in the context of sports. One reason athletic performance enhancement garners so much attention is because of its currency, given the epidemic of "doping" scandals in contemporary sport. At first impression, the ethical problem with performance enhancement in sport would seem to be simply a problem of cheating. If the rules of sport forbid the use of performance enhancements, then their illicit use confers an advantage to users against other athletes. That advantage, in turn, can create pressure for more athletes to cheat in the same way, undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap between those who can afford enhancements and those who cannot.
The rules of a game can be changed. In sports, novel forms of performance enhancing equipment and training are routinely introduced as athletic technology and expertise evolve. Where issues of athletes' equitable access arise, they can be dealt with in one of two ways. Sometimes it is possible to ensure fair distribution, as for example, when the International Olympic Committee negotiated an agreement with the manufacturer of the new "FastSkin" swimming suit to provide suits to all the teams at the Sydney Olympics. In other cases, inequalities may simply come to be accepted as unfortunate but not unfair. This is, for example, how many people would view a story about an equatorial country that could not afford year-round artificial snow for its ski team, and so could not compete evenly with the ski teams of northern countries. If enhancement interventions can either be distributed fairly or the inequities they create can be written into the rules of the social game in question as part of the given advantages of the more fortunate, then individual users no longer face a fairness problem. For those who can afford it, for example, what would be ethically suspect about mounting a mirror image of the "Special Olympics" for athletes with disabilities: a "Super Olympics", featuring athletes universally equipped with the latest modifications and enhancements? For answers to that challenge, the critics of biomedical enhancement have to dig beyond concerns about the fair governance of games to a deeper and broader sense of "cheating", in terms of the corrosive effects of enhancement on the integrity of admirable human practices.
[Extracted, with edits, from: "Human Enhancement", Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, revised in May 2019]

What does the meaning of the word "exacerbate" as used in the passage mean?

Solution:

The meaning of exacerbate is to make something more severe.
The passage mentions - "... undermining the basis for the competitions at stake and exacerbating the gap.".
Here the author says that the pressure to perform will make the athletics cheat and that in turn will increase the gap between those who have advantage and those who don't.
Incorrect answers (a) , (b) and (d) are incorrect. (a) and (d) are opposites. In answer choice (b) 'tense' is not the correct meaning.

QUESTION: 26

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
There's been an incredible outpouring of grief across Canada since Ukraine International Airlines Flight PS752 was shot down by Iran, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.
We have learned that among the 57 Canadians killed, there were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers. Children, newlyweds and entire families perished. Many of them have been described by Canadian news media and leaders as "exceptional." They belonged to Canada's vibrant Iranian communities and are being remembered as such in tributes and memorial services across the nation.
I've spent more than a dozen years researching public memory of another air disaster that resulted in an even greater number of Canadian casualties-the Air India tragedy.
Indeed, news of PS752 is triggering memories of June 23, 1985, when Air India Flight 182 fell into the Atlantic Ocean near Cork, Ireland, after a bomb hidden in the luggage exploded. All 329 passengers and crew on board that flight were killed. Among them were 280 Canadians, the majority from Indian-Canadian families, as reported by the official inquiry by Public Safety Canada. Winnipeg resident Nicky Mehta was 13 at the time that her uncle, aunt and two young cousins were killed on the Air India flight. On the day after Flight PS752 crashed, she woke up to an abbreviated list of "deadly plane crashes that killed Canadians" published in the Winnipeg Free Press that did not include Air India. "I felt gutted," she told me. "It was re-traumatising to see that Air India was not even worth a mention here."
The article has since been removed.
Back in 1985, there was no collective outpouring of grief or statement of national solidarity for the victims of Air India Flight 182. Were these victims not "exceptional" enough?
In fact, they too were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers, as well as homemakers, teachers, civil servants and more. Notoriously, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney offered his condolences to Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi for India's loss instead of addressing his own citizens. It is clear that for many Canadians (not just Mulroney) the Air India bombing was unthinkable-and thus unmemorable-as a tragedy of national consequence due to the dominant assumption that Canadian identity is synonymous with whiteness. Indeed, critics, as well as relatives of the dead, have raised the obvious question: would there have been such trouble recognising the bombing as a national tragedy if the majority of those killed were white rather than brown Canadians?
[Extracted, with edits, from: "A 35-year-old Air India tragedy suggests Canada will soon forget the Ukraine crash victims", by Angela Failler, Quartz, January 2020]

The question raised in the last sentence reiterates the main presumption that the national identity of Canada:

Solution:

It is mentioned in the last paragraph that for many Canadians, the dominant assumption is that the Canadian identity is based on whiteness. The whiteness here refers to the white or Caucasian race.
The author suggests that it is for this reason that the Air India tragedy is not regarded as tragedy while the current bombing is regarded as one. The last sentence raises that concern. This makes answer choice (a) the correct answer.
Incorrect Answers (b) , (c) and (d) - it is not based on citizenship, equality or religion.

QUESTION: 27

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
There's been an incredible outpouring of grief across Canada since Ukraine International Airlines Flight PS752 was shot down by Iran, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.
We have learned that among the 57 Canadians killed, there were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers. Children, newlyweds and entire families perished. Many of them have been described by Canadian news media and leaders as "exceptional." They belonged to Canada's vibrant Iranian communities and are being remembered as such in tributes and memorial services across the nation.
I've spent more than a dozen years researching public memory of another air disaster that resulted in an even greater number of Canadian casualties-the Air India tragedy.
Indeed, news of PS752 is triggering memories of June 23, 1985, when Air India Flight 182 fell into the Atlantic Ocean near Cork, Ireland, after a bomb hidden in the luggage exploded. All 329 passengers and crew on board that flight were killed. Among them were 280 Canadians, the majority from Indian-Canadian families, as reported by the official inquiry by Public Safety Canada. Winnipeg resident Nicky Mehta was 13 at the time that her uncle, aunt and two young cousins were killed on the Air India flight. On the day after Flight PS752 crashed, she woke up to an abbreviated list of "deadly plane crashes that killed Canadians" published in the Winnipeg Free Press that did not include Air India. "I felt gutted," she told me. "It was re-traumatising to see that Air India was not even worth a mention here."
The article has since been removed.
Back in 1985, there was no collective outpouring of grief or statement of national solidarity for the victims of Air India Flight 182. Were these victims not "exceptional" enough?
In fact, they too were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers, as well as homemakers, teachers, civil servants and more. Notoriously, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney offered his condolences to Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi for India's loss instead of addressing his own citizens. It is clear that for many Canadians (not just Mulroney) the Air India bombing was unthinkable-and thus unmemorable-as a tragedy of national consequence due to the dominant assumption that Canadian identity is synonymous with whiteness. Indeed, critics, as well as relatives of the dead, have raised the obvious question: would there have been such trouble recognising the bombing as a national tragedy if the majority of those killed were white rather than brown Canadians?
[Extracted, with edits, from: "A 35-year-old Air India tragedy suggests Canada will soon forget the Ukraine crash victims", by Angela Failler, Quartz, January 2020]

What is the most likely reason as to why the author used the word "notoriously" in the seventh paragraph?

Solution:

In the last few paragraphs the author raises a concern that the Air India tragedy did not receive the same solidarity as the Flight PS752 tragedy. It is in that context that the author mentions Canadian Prime Minister who did not address his own citizens during the Air India Tragedy. Answer choice (d) captures that idea most effectively.
Incorrect Answers (a) - The author's issue is not with the fact that the Canadian PM offered condolences to his Indian counterpart. The issue is that the PM did not address his own citizens who were affected by the tragedy. (b) - There is no mention of any political gain in the passage. (c) - The victims of tragedy where not Indian citizens. Those were Canadian citizens of Indian origin.

QUESTION: 28

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
There's been an incredible outpouring of grief across Canada since Ukraine International Airlines Flight PS752 was shot down by Iran, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.
We have learned that among the 57 Canadians killed, there were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers. Children, newlyweds and entire families perished. Many of them have been described by Canadian news media and leaders as "exceptional." They belonged to Canada's vibrant Iranian communities and are being remembered as such in tributes and memorial services across the nation.
I've spent more than a dozen years researching public memory of another air disaster that resulted in an even greater number of Canadian casualties-the Air India tragedy.
Indeed, news of PS752 is triggering memories of June 23, 1985, when Air India Flight 182 fell into the Atlantic Ocean near Cork, Ireland, after a bomb hidden in the luggage exploded. All 329 passengers and crew on board that flight were killed. Among them were 280 Canadians, the majority from Indian-Canadian families, as reported by the official inquiry by Public Safety Canada. Winnipeg resident Nicky Mehta was 13 at the time that her uncle, aunt and two young cousins were killed on the Air India flight. On the day after Flight PS752 crashed, she woke up to an abbreviated list of "deadly plane crashes that killed Canadians" published in the Winnipeg Free Press that did not include Air India. "I felt gutted," she told me. "It was re-traumatising to see that Air India was not even worth a mention here."
The article has since been removed.
Back in 1985, there was no collective outpouring of grief or statement of national solidarity for the victims of Air India Flight 182. Were these victims not "exceptional" enough?
In fact, they too were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers, as well as homemakers, teachers, civil servants and more. Notoriously, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney offered his condolences to Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi for India's loss instead of addressing his own citizens. It is clear that for many Canadians (not just Mulroney) the Air India bombing was unthinkable-and thus unmemorable-as a tragedy of national consequence due to the dominant assumption that Canadian identity is synonymous with whiteness. Indeed, critics, as well as relatives of the dead, have raised the obvious question: would there have been such trouble recognising the bombing as a national tragedy if the majority of those killed were white rather than brown Canadians?
[Extracted, with edits, from: "A 35-year-old Air India tragedy suggests Canada will soon forget the Ukraine crash victims", by Angela Failler, Quartz, January 2020]

Which of the following best describes the word "retraumatizing" in the context of the passage?

Solution:

Refer to paragraph 5. It describes the case of Nicky Mehta who lost her relative during the Air India tragedy. She was appalled by the fact that the list, published by Winnipeg Free Press, of deadly plane crashes that killed Canadians did not mention the Air India tragedy. She felt that was retraumatizing. The meaning of retraumatizing happens when an original trauma is triggered. Answer choice (d) captures that emotion accurately. (a) - This answer choice seems to be a good option.
However, in the context of what is being discussed in
the passage, the retraumatising happened because the Air India tragedy was not mentioned. (b) - The retraumatizing event for Nicky Mehta was not specifically the death of people in the PS752 tragedy. (c) - Here the issue is with the lack of mention of the Air India tragedy by Winnipeg Free Press and not the leaders.

QUESTION: 29

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
There's been an incredible outpouring of grief across Canada since Ukraine International Airlines Flight PS752 was shot down by Iran, killing all 176 passengers and crew on board.
We have learned that among the 57 Canadians killed, there were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers. Children, newlyweds and entire families perished. Many of them have been described by Canadian news media and leaders as "exceptional." They belonged to Canada's vibrant Iranian communities and are being remembered as such in tributes and memorial services across the nation.
I've spent more than a dozen years researching public memory of another air disaster that resulted in an even greater number of Canadian casualties-the Air India tragedy.
Indeed, news of PS752 is triggering memories of June 23, 1985, when Air India Flight 182 fell into the Atlantic Ocean near Cork, Ireland, after a bomb hidden in the luggage exploded. All 329 passengers and crew on board that flight were killed. Among them were 280 Canadians, the majority from Indian-Canadian families, as reported by the official inquiry by Public Safety Canada. Winnipeg resident Nicky Mehta was 13 at the time that her uncle, aunt and two young cousins were killed on the Air India flight. On the day after Flight PS752 crashed, she woke up to an abbreviated list of "deadly plane crashes that killed Canadians" published in the Winnipeg Free Press that did not include Air India. "I felt gutted," she told me. "It was re-traumatising to see that Air India was not even worth a mention here."
The article has since been removed.
Back in 1985, there was no collective outpouring of grief or statement of national solidarity for the victims of Air India Flight 182. Were these victims not "exceptional" enough?
In fact, they too were beloved students, professors, doctors and engineers, as well as homemakers, teachers, civil servants and more. Notoriously, Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney offered his condolences to Prime Minister of India Rajiv Gandhi for India's loss instead of addressing his own citizens. It is clear that for many Canadians (not just Mulroney) the Air India bombing was unthinkable-and thus unmemorable-as a tragedy of national consequence due to the dominant assumption that Canadian identity is synonymous with whiteness. Indeed, critics, as well as relatives of the dead, have raised the obvious question: would there have been such trouble recognising the bombing as a national tragedy if the majority of those killed were white rather than brown Canadians?
[Extracted, with edits, from: "A 35-year-old Air India tragedy suggests Canada will soon forget the Ukraine crash victims", by Angela Failler, Quartz, January 2020]

What is the significance of the number 280 in the overall context of the passage?

Solution:

280 was the number of Canadians who died in the Air India tragedy, while 57 Canadians died in the PS752 tragedy. The overall context of the passage is that the Air India tragedy, even though it had a greater number of Canadian deaths, was not considered as an event of national consequence.
That is the significance of the number 280. This is captured in answer choice (c).
Incorrect Answers (a) and (d) - These contradict the argument presented in the passage. The author states that, there was no collective outpouring of grief or statement of national solidarity for the victims of Air India Flight 182. (b) - There is no evidence to suggest that there was no study that was conducted regarding the cause of Air India tragedy.

QUESTION: 30

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Prime Minister [1 ] of Australia said that he would call for a high-level government inquiry into the response to the country's devastating [2]. But he did not signal a significant shift in policies to curb carbon emissions, as many had hoped.
The suggested inquiry, which [1] proposed during a televised interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, came on the heels of news that a firefighter had died overnight in the state of Victoria, the site of some of the worst of the fires that have swept parts of Australia since October. At least 28 people have been killed in the fires. [1] and his government have been harshly criticized over their response to the months long crisis. The proposed inquiry, known as a royal commission, would look at that response, including the deployment of emergency services to deal with blazes that crossed state borders, streaked across mountain ranges and forced the evacuations of thousands of people along the country's eastern and southeastern shorelines.
This fire season has been the worst in Australia's recorded history, burning millions of acres of land and at least 3,0 homes. The number of wild animals killed because of the fires has been estimated at over half a billion and rising.
At one point, Royal Australian Navy ships were dispatched to rescue people stranded on beaches after flames and deadly smoke blocked escape routes. [1 ] has declined to consider major changes to policies on renewable energy, fossil fuels and coal. The mining and export of coal are key industries in Australia's economy, and in his interview on Sunday, he reiterated that he would not put jobs at risk or raise taxes in the pursuit of lower carbon emissions. [1] has repeatedly said that enough was being done to curb emissions, particularly for a nation with Australia's relatively small population. But climate scientists say that the government's targets are low to begin with and that emissions have been rising under [1 ]'s government. [Extracted with edits from: "Australia's Leader calls for Enquiry" - The New York Times, January 2020]

In the given passage, the name referred to the recent fire in Australian has been replaced by [2]. What is the name referred to the fire in Australia?

Solution:

Bushfire is a wildfire that happens in the Australian bush. Bush is the word for scrub, woodland or grassland of Australia and New Zealand.

QUESTION: 31

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Prime Minister [1 ] of Australia said that he would call for a high-level government inquiry into the response to the country's devastating [2]. But he did not signal a significant shift in policies to curb carbon emissions, as many had hoped.
The suggested inquiry, which [1] proposed during a televised interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, came on the heels of news that a firefighter had died overnight in the state of Victoria, the site of some of the worst of the fires that have swept parts of Australia since October. At least 28 people have been killed in the fires. [1] and his government have been harshly criticized over their response to the months long crisis. The proposed inquiry, known as a royal commission, would look at that response, including the deployment of emergency services to deal with blazes that crossed state borders, streaked across mountain ranges and forced the evacuations of thousands of people along the country's eastern and southeastern shorelines.
This fire season has been the worst in Australia's recorded history, burning millions of acres of land and at least 3,0 homes. The number of wild animals killed because of the fires has been estimated at over half a billion and rising.
At one point, Royal Australian Navy ships were dispatched to rescue people stranded on beaches after flames and deadly smoke blocked escape routes. [1 ] has declined to consider major changes to policies on renewable energy, fossil fuels and coal. The mining and export of coal are key industries in Australia's economy, and in his interview on Sunday, he reiterated that he would not put jobs at risk or raise taxes in the pursuit of lower carbon emissions. [1] has repeatedly said that enough was being done to curb emissions, particularly for a nation with Australia's relatively small population. But climate scientists say that the government's targets are low to begin with and that emissions have been rising under [1 ]'s government. [Extracted with edits from: "Australia's Leader calls for Enquiry" - The New York Times, January 2020]

In the given passage, the name of the Prime Minister of Australia has been replaced by [1]. Who is the Prime Minister?

Solution:

Scott John Morrison is an Australian politician who has been Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the Liberal Party since August 2018.

QUESTION: 32

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Prime Minister [1 ] of Australia said that he would call for a high-level government inquiry into the response to the country's devastating [2]. But he did not signal a significant shift in policies to curb carbon emissions, as many had hoped.
The suggested inquiry, which [1] proposed during a televised interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, came on the heels of news that a firefighter had died overnight in the state of Victoria, the site of some of the worst of the fires that have swept parts of Australia since October. At least 28 people have been killed in the fires. [1] and his government have been harshly criticized over their response to the months long crisis. The proposed inquiry, known as a royal commission, would look at that response, including the deployment of emergency services to deal with blazes that crossed state borders, streaked across mountain ranges and forced the evacuations of thousands of people along the country's eastern and southeastern shorelines.
This fire season has been the worst in Australia's recorded history, burning millions of acres of land and at least 3,0 homes. The number of wild animals killed because of the fires has been estimated at over half a billion and rising.
At one point, Royal Australian Navy ships were dispatched to rescue people stranded on beaches after flames and deadly smoke blocked escape routes. [1 ] has declined to consider major changes to policies on renewable energy, fossil fuels and coal. The mining and export of coal are key industries in Australia's economy, and in his interview on Sunday, he reiterated that he would not put jobs at risk or raise taxes in the pursuit of lower carbon emissions. [1] has repeatedly said that enough was being done to curb emissions, particularly for a nation with Australia's relatively small population. But climate scientists say that the government's targets are low to begin with and that emissions have been rising under [1 ]'s government. [Extracted with edits from: "Australia's Leader calls for Enquiry" - The New York Times, January 2020]

The response by [1 ] was criticized heavily. His alleged lack of response was compared to the response of the Prime Minister of New Zealand Jacinda Adern's immediate response to which one of the following events in March 2019:

Solution:

Two consecutive terrorist shooting attacks occurred at mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand, during Friday Prayer on 15 March 2019. Prime Minister Ardern banned the sale of all military style semiautomatics (MSSA) and assault rifles just six days after the shooting. Lawmakers in New Zealand voted almost unanimously to change gun laws, less than a month after the mass shooting.

QUESTION: 33

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Prime Minister [1 ] of Australia said that he would call for a high-level government inquiry into the response to the country's devastating [2]. But he did not signal a significant shift in policies to curb carbon emissions, as many had hoped.
The suggested inquiry, which [1] proposed during a televised interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, came on the heels of news that a firefighter had died overnight in the state of Victoria, the site of some of the worst of the fires that have swept parts of Australia since October. At least 28 people have been killed in the fires. [1] and his government have been harshly criticized over their response to the months long crisis. The proposed inquiry, known as a royal commission, would look at that response, including the deployment of emergency services to deal with blazes that crossed state borders, streaked across mountain ranges and forced the evacuations of thousands of people along the country's eastern and southeastern shorelines.
This fire season has been the worst in Australia's recorded history, burning millions of acres of land and at least 3,0 homes. The number of wild animals killed because of the fires has been estimated at over half a billion and rising.
At one point, Royal Australian Navy ships were dispatched to rescue people stranded on beaches after flames and deadly smoke blocked escape routes. [1 ] has declined to consider major changes to policies on renewable energy, fossil fuels and coal. The mining and export of coal are key industries in Australia's economy, and in his interview on Sunday, he reiterated that he would not put jobs at risk or raise taxes in the pursuit of lower carbon emissions. [1] has repeatedly said that enough was being done to curb emissions, particularly for a nation with Australia's relatively small population. But climate scientists say that the government's targets are low to begin with and that emissions have been rising under [1 ]'s government. [Extracted with edits from: "Australia's Leader calls for Enquiry" - The New York Times, January 2020]

In February 2019, massive forest fires broke out in across numerous places in a national park in India. The National Remote Sensing Centre of ISRO estimated that the extent of burnt area was about 10,920 acres. Which is the national park?

Solution:

On 21 February 2019, wildfire broke out in the Bandipur Tiger Reserve. Over 10,000 acres of forest in Bandipur area was destroyed.

QUESTION: 34

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Prime Minister [1 ] of Australia said that he would call for a high-level government inquiry into the response to the country's devastating [2]. But he did not signal a significant shift in policies to curb carbon emissions, as many had hoped.
The suggested inquiry, which [1] proposed during a televised interview with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, came on the heels of news that a firefighter had died overnight in the state of Victoria, the site of some of the worst of the fires that have swept parts of Australia since October. At least 28 people have been killed in the fires. [1] and his government have been harshly criticized over their response to the months long crisis. The proposed inquiry, known as a royal commission, would look at that response, including the deployment of emergency services to deal with blazes that crossed state borders, streaked across mountain ranges and forced the evacuations of thousands of people along the country's eastern and southeastern shorelines.
This fire season has been the worst in Australia's recorded history, burning millions of acres of land and at least 3,0 homes. The number of wild animals killed because of the fires has been estimated at over half a billion and rising.
At one point, Royal Australian Navy ships were dispatched to rescue people stranded on beaches after flames and deadly smoke blocked escape routes. [1 ] has declined to consider major changes to policies on renewable energy, fossil fuels and coal. The mining and export of coal are key industries in Australia's economy, and in his interview on Sunday, he reiterated that he would not put jobs at risk or raise taxes in the pursuit of lower carbon emissions. [1] has repeatedly said that enough was being done to curb emissions, particularly for a nation with Australia's relatively small population. But climate scientists say that the government's targets are low to begin with and that emissions have been rising under [1 ]'s government. [Extracted with edits from: "Australia's Leader calls for Enquiry" - The New York Times, January 2020]

Carbon negativity is the reduction of an entity's carbon footprint to less than neutral, so that the entity in question has a net effect of removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere rather than adding it. Which is the only carbon negative country in the world?

Solution:

The country has become a carbon sink. Being a carbon sink means that Bhutan absorbs over six million tons of carbon annually while only producing around 1.5 million tons. Bhutan also exports most of the renewable hydro-electric power they generate from their rivers. This offsets millions of tons of carbon dioxide.

QUESTION: 35

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in [1] of their citizenship. In the final draft of NRC, out of 3.30 crore applicants, 31.11 crore names have been found to be eligible for inclusion in updated NRC and a total of 19.06 lakh persons were excluded.
The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1] before [2], a day before India's neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. The first NRC was prepared in 1951 on the basis of year's census in [1]. NRC was created to control unabated migration from Bangladesh. The state is said to have faced longstanding foreigner problem, to remove illegal migrants and arrest further inflow.
People who have been excluded from the final list of NRC will have to appeal against it at Foreigners' T ribunals (FT)- a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in [1] on or before [2]. Also, anyone who participated in the electoral rolls up to [2], or who are descendants of any such citizens, are eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC. Besides, the original documents such as birth certificates and land records - as long as these were issued before the cutoff date, would also be admissible as a proof of citizenship. [Extracted with edits from: "What will happen to the 19 lakh excluded people?", Business Today, August 2019]

The passage refers to the updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) in a state of India, which is replaced by [1]. Which is the state?

Solution:

The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a registry maintained by the Government of India containing names & certain relevant information for the identification of genuine Indian citizens in the state of Assam. The register was specifically made for Assam.

QUESTION: 36

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in [1] of their citizenship. In the final draft of NRC, out of 3.30 crore applicants, 31.11 crore names have been found to be eligible for inclusion in updated NRC and a total of 19.06 lakh persons were excluded.
The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1] before [2], a day before India's neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. The first NRC was prepared in 1951 on the basis of year's census in [1]. NRC was created to control unabated migration from Bangladesh. The state is said to have faced longstanding foreigner problem, to remove illegal migrants and arrest further inflow.
People who have been excluded from the final list of NRC will have to appeal against it at Foreigners' T ribunals (FT)- a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in [1] on or before [2]. Also, anyone who participated in the electoral rolls up to [2], or who are descendants of any such citizens, are eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC. Besides, the original documents such as birth certificates and land records - as long as these were issued before the cutoff date, would also be admissible as a proof of citizenship. [Extracted with edits from: "What will happen to the 19 lakh excluded people?", Business Today, August 2019]

Which state in India other than [1] has a National Register of Citizen?

Solution:

Currently no state other than Assam have an NRC.

QUESTION: 37

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in [1] of their citizenship. In the final draft of NRC, out of 3.30 crore applicants, 31.11 crore names have been found to be eligible for inclusion in updated NRC and a total of 19.06 lakh persons were excluded.
The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1] before [2], a day before India's neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. The first NRC was prepared in 1951 on the basis of year's census in [1]. NRC was created to control unabated migration from Bangladesh. The state is said to have faced longstanding foreigner problem, to remove illegal migrants and arrest further inflow.
People who have been excluded from the final list of NRC will have to appeal against it at Foreigners' T ribunals (FT)- a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in [1] on or before [2]. Also, anyone who participated in the electoral rolls up to [2], or who are descendants of any such citizens, are eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC. Besides, the original documents such as birth certificates and land records - as long as these were issued before the cutoff date, would also be admissible as a proof of citizenship. [Extracted with edits from: "What will happen to the 19 lakh excluded people?", Business Today, August 2019]

According to which of the following can the central government deport people of foreign countries who are staying illegally in India?

Solution:

The Foreigners Act, 1946 is an Act of the Imperial Legislative Assembly enacted to grant the certain powers to the Interim Government of India in matters of foreigners in India.
Section 3(2)(c) of The Foreigners Act, 1946 3. Power to make orders.-(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, orders made under this section may provide that the foreigner(c) shall not remain in 2[India], or in any prescribed area therein.

QUESTION: 38

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in [1] of their citizenship. In the final draft of NRC, out of 3.30 crore applicants, 31.11 crore names have been found to be eligible for inclusion in updated NRC and a total of 19.06 lakh persons were excluded.
The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1] before [2], a day before India's neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. The first NRC was prepared in 1951 on the basis of year's census in [1]. NRC was created to control unabated migration from Bangladesh. The state is said to have faced longstanding foreigner problem, to remove illegal migrants and arrest further inflow.
People who have been excluded from the final list of NRC will have to appeal against it at Foreigners' T ribunals (FT)- a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in [1] on or before [2]. Also, anyone who participated in the electoral rolls up to [2], or who are descendants of any such citizens, are eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC. Besides, the original documents such as birth certificates and land records - as long as these were issued before the cutoff date, would also be admissible as a proof of citizenship. [Extracted with edits from: "What will happen to the 19 lakh excluded people?", Business Today, August 2019]

The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1 ] before a certain date, which is replaced by [2]. What is the date?

Solution:

There are two ways to register for the NRC. First, submit one document as proof of domicile in Assam from a given list that is issued by the Government of India (GOI) before 24 March 1971. Second, establish a documented relationship or a 'family tree' confirming kinship network with an ancestor - by providing supporting evidence - who has a recognised document of Assam domicile issued by the GOI to his/her name before 24 March 1971. The NRC has shifted the constitutional deadline of citizenship in Assam to 24 March 1971 from 19 July 1948.

QUESTION: 39

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The final list of people in updated National Register of Citizen (NRC) has stripped nearly 19 lakh people in [1] of their citizenship. In the final draft of NRC, out of 3.30 crore applicants, 31.11 crore names have been found to be eligible for inclusion in updated NRC and a total of 19.06 lakh persons were excluded.
The NRC is a list of people who can prove that they came to [1] before [2], a day before India's neighbouring country Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan. The first NRC was prepared in 1951 on the basis of year's census in [1]. NRC was created to control unabated migration from Bangladesh. The state is said to have faced longstanding foreigner problem, to remove illegal migrants and arrest further inflow.
People who have been excluded from the final list of NRC will have to appeal against it at Foreigners' T ribunals (FT)- a quasi-judicial court and subsequently in the high court or Supreme Court.
Those excluded from NRC will have to prove that they or their ancestors were living in [1] on or before [2]. Also, anyone who participated in the electoral rolls up to [2], or who are descendants of any such citizens, are eligible for inclusion in the updated NRC. Besides, the original documents such as birth certificates and land records - as long as these were issued before the cutoff date, would also be admissible as a proof of citizenship. [Extracted with edits from: "What will happen to the 19 lakh excluded people?", Business Today, August 2019]

India's largest detention centre, which has approximately the size of 7 football fields, for illegal immigrants is being constructed in which one of the following places?

Solution:

Goalpara Detention Centre is located in Matia, Goalpara district, Assam.It is India's first (and largest) detention center for illegal immigrants. The detention center covers approximately 2,88,000 square feet (about the size of seven football grounds). It includes a school, recreational area and hospital. It is planned to have fifteen stories.

QUESTION: 40

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

The name of the Chandrayaan-2 lander is 'Vikram'. What is the lunar rover of Chandrayaan-2 called?

Solution:

Chandrayaan 2's Rover is a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to 'wisdom' in Sanskrit. It can travel up to 500 m (1^-a- km) and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander.

QUESTION: 41

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

Four astronauts have been recently identified for India's upcoming manned space crew mission. What is the name of the mission?

Solution:

Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability

QUESTION: 42

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is changed with [1]. All the lunar spacecraft is also given that name. The name is given in honour of a goddess, who according to Chinese legend, lives in moon. What has been redacted with [1]?

Solution:

Chang'e is the Chinese goddess of the Moon

QUESTION: 43

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

These two women (changed with [2] and [3]) made history for the first all-women spacewalk. Who are the two NASA astronauts?

Solution:

NASA astronauts Christina Koch and Jessica Meir made history by completing the first ever all-female spacewalk.

QUESTION: 44

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company. SpaceX was founded in May 2002 by this person, redacted with [4]. In 2003, he co-founded another company - an automotive and energy-based company. What is the name of the company?

Solution:

The founder of SpaceX is Elon Musk. He is a co founder and CEO of Tesla.

QUESTION: 45

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
From India's Chandrayaan 2 mission to the first allwomen spacewalk and commercial crew milestones by US-based companies, 2019 offered several exciting moments for space enthusiasts. whole nation waited with bated breath, Chandrayaan 2's lander 'Vikram' lost communication with the ground stations. But the Orbiter component of Chandrayaan 2 spacecraft made it to the Moon without any glitch. In a huge milestone for China, which is attempting to position itself as a leading space power, the country's [1 ]-4 lunar probe on January 3 became the first spacecraft to make a soft landing on the far side of the Moon. The probe, comprising a lander and a rover, touched down at the preselected landing area at 177.6 degrees east longitude and 45.5 degrees south latitude on the far side of the Moon. The programme [1] intends to send a manned mission to the Moon in the long term and although no deadline has been set, some experts indicated it may be around 2036.
In October, astronauts [2] and [3] made history with the first all-female spacewalk, an excursion to repair a power unit on the International Space Station. The women spent seven hours and 17 minutes working outside the ISS as it circled the Earth at 27,600 km/h (17,100 mph), Efe news reported. [2] and [3] paused in their work for a few minutes to take a call from US President Donald Trump. In a big leap for NASA's Commercial Crew Programme, SpaceX and [5] conducted the uncrewed flight test of their spacecraft to the International Space Station. The [4] -owned SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule completed its historic unmanned flight test in March with a splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean right on time. [5] 's passenger spacecraft was launched on its first unmanned flight test to the ISS atop a United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V rocket in December, but the [5] Starliner spacecraft did not reach the planned orbit. Although Starliner did not reach its planned orbit and dock at the International Space Station as planned, [5] was able to complete a number of test objectives during the flight related to NASA's Commercial Crew Programme. The landing of the spacecraft in White Sands, New Mexico, was successful. [Extracted, with edits and revision from: 'Chandrayaan 2 to all-women spacewalk: Top 5 exciting space moments in 2019", India Today, December 2019]

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer Starliner is a crew capsule manufactured by this company which is redacted with [5]. What is the name of the company?

Solution:

The Boeing CST-100 Starliner is a crew capsule manufactured by Boeing as its participation in NASA's Commercial Crew Development program

QUESTION: 46

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
After winning the [y] leadership contest, Mr Johnson took over as PM in July 2019 and set about renegotiating Mrs May's deal. Mr Johnson succeeded in replacing the backstop with new customs arrangements. Unlike the previous deal, the revised one will allow the UK to sign and implement its own trade agreements with countries around the world.
However, the revised deal effectively creates a customs and regulatory border between [x] and Great Britain. This means some goods entering [x] from Great Britain would be subject to checks and pay EU import taxes (known as tariffs). These would be refunded if goods remain in [x], (ie are not moved to the Republic of Ireland).
Mr Johnson tried to put his revised deal to a vote in Parliament on 19 October 2019.
However, the vote did not go ahead. Many MPs wanted to postpone it until the legislation needed to turn the deal into law had been approved. MPs said this was to stop a possible no-deal Brexit. With Parliament in deadlock, Mr Johnson called an early general election, to which MPs agreed. The election, which happened on 12 December, resulted in a majority for the [y] party of 80.
Eight days later, MPs voted 358 to 234 in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which now goes on to further scrutiny in Parliament. The remaining stages of the bill are expected to be completed quickly in January. Assuming the European Parliament also gives the green light, the UK will formally leave the EU on 31 January with a withdrawal deal.
Mr Johnson has also ruled out any form of extension to the transition period, meaning the clock is already ticking. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: " Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU", BBC, January 2020]

One of the contentious issues is the border between the Republic of Ireland and this part of United Kingdom which is redacted with [x]. Which of the following is redacted with [x]?

Solution:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK or U.K.) or Britain. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland, usually referred to as Ireland.

QUESTION: 47

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
After winning the [y] leadership contest, Mr Johnson took over as PM in July 2019 and set about renegotiating Mrs May's deal. Mr Johnson succeeded in replacing the backstop with new customs arrangements. Unlike the previous deal, the revised one will allow the UK to sign and implement its own trade agreements with countries around the world.
However, the revised deal effectively creates a customs and regulatory border between [x] and Great Britain. This means some goods entering [x] from Great Britain would be subject to checks and pay EU import taxes (known as tariffs). These would be refunded if goods remain in [x], (ie are not moved to the Republic of Ireland).
Mr Johnson tried to put his revised deal to a vote in Parliament on 19 October 2019.
However, the vote did not go ahead. Many MPs wanted to postpone it until the legislation needed to turn the deal into law had been approved. MPs said this was to stop a possible no-deal Brexit. With Parliament in deadlock, Mr Johnson called an early general election, to which MPs agreed. The election, which happened on 12 December, resulted in a majority for the [y] party of 80.
Eight days later, MPs voted 358 to 234 in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which now goes on to further scrutiny in Parliament. The remaining stages of the bill are expected to be completed quickly in January. Assuming the European Parliament also gives the green light, the UK will formally leave the EU on 31 January with a withdrawal deal.
Mr Johnson has also ruled out any form of extension to the transition period, meaning the clock is already ticking. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: " Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU", BBC, January 2020]

In the above passage, the name of the party that won the UK election has been redacted with '[y]'. What is the name of the party?

Solution:

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party and also known colloquially as the Tories or simply the Conservatives, is a centre- right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it holds an overall majority in the House of Commons with 365 Members of Parliament.

QUESTION: 48

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
After winning the [y] leadership contest, Mr Johnson took over as PM in July 2019 and set about renegotiating Mrs May's deal. Mr Johnson succeeded in replacing the backstop with new customs arrangements. Unlike the previous deal, the revised one will allow the UK to sign and implement its own trade agreements with countries around the world.
However, the revised deal effectively creates a customs and regulatory border between [x] and Great Britain. This means some goods entering [x] from Great Britain would be subject to checks and pay EU import taxes (known as tariffs). These would be refunded if goods remain in [x], (ie are not moved to the Republic of Ireland).
Mr Johnson tried to put his revised deal to a vote in Parliament on 19 October 2019.
However, the vote did not go ahead. Many MPs wanted to postpone it until the legislation needed to turn the deal into law had been approved. MPs said this was to stop a possible no-deal Brexit. With Parliament in deadlock, Mr Johnson called an early general election, to which MPs agreed. The election, which happened on 12 December, resulted in a majority for the [y] party of 80.
Eight days later, MPs voted 358 to 234 in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which now goes on to further scrutiny in Parliament. The remaining stages of the bill are expected to be completed quickly in January. Assuming the European Parliament also gives the green light, the UK will formally leave the EU on 31 January with a withdrawal deal.
Mr Johnson has also ruled out any form of extension to the transition period, meaning the clock is already ticking. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: " Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU", BBC, January 2020]

Which one of the following UK Prime Minister called from the Brexit referendum?

Solution:

David Cameron was the UK PM who called for the Brexit referendum. He resigned the PM position post the verdict of the referendum.

QUESTION: 49

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
After winning the [y] leadership contest, Mr Johnson took over as PM in July 2019 and set about renegotiating Mrs May's deal. Mr Johnson succeeded in replacing the backstop with new customs arrangements. Unlike the previous deal, the revised one will allow the UK to sign and implement its own trade agreements with countries around the world.
However, the revised deal effectively creates a customs and regulatory border between [x] and Great Britain. This means some goods entering [x] from Great Britain would be subject to checks and pay EU import taxes (known as tariffs). These would be refunded if goods remain in [x], (ie are not moved to the Republic of Ireland).
Mr Johnson tried to put his revised deal to a vote in Parliament on 19 October 2019.
However, the vote did not go ahead. Many MPs wanted to postpone it until the legislation needed to turn the deal into law had been approved. MPs said this was to stop a possible no-deal Brexit. With Parliament in deadlock, Mr Johnson called an early general election, to which MPs agreed. The election, which happened on 12 December, resulted in a majority for the [y] party of 80.
Eight days later, MPs voted 358 to 234 in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which now goes on to further scrutiny in Parliament. The remaining stages of the bill are expected to be completed quickly in January. Assuming the European Parliament also gives the green light, the UK will formally leave the EU on 31 January with a withdrawal deal.
Mr Johnson has also ruled out any form of extension to the transition period, meaning the clock is already ticking. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: " Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU", BBC, January 2020]

The "backstop" mentioned in the first paragraph was initially proposed so as not to compromise on which one of the following peace agreements reached between the British and Irish government in 1998?

Solution:

The Belfast Agreement is also known as the Good Friday Agreement, because it was reached on Good Friday, 10 April 1998. It was a peace agreement between the British and Irish governments, and most of the political parties in Northern Ireland, on how Northern Ireland should be governed.
The backstop is an arrangement for the Irish border that will come into effect if no other solutions to maintain the current open border can be agreed once the UK leaves the EU. It is intended to protect the Good Friday Agreement/Belfast Agreement and keep an open border between Northern Ireland and Republic of Ireland after Brexit.

QUESTION: 50

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
After winning the [y] leadership contest, Mr Johnson took over as PM in July 2019 and set about renegotiating Mrs May's deal. Mr Johnson succeeded in replacing the backstop with new customs arrangements. Unlike the previous deal, the revised one will allow the UK to sign and implement its own trade agreements with countries around the world.
However, the revised deal effectively creates a customs and regulatory border between [x] and Great Britain. This means some goods entering [x] from Great Britain would be subject to checks and pay EU import taxes (known as tariffs). These would be refunded if goods remain in [x], (ie are not moved to the Republic of Ireland).
Mr Johnson tried to put his revised deal to a vote in Parliament on 19 October 2019.
However, the vote did not go ahead. Many MPs wanted to postpone it until the legislation needed to turn the deal into law had been approved. MPs said this was to stop a possible no-deal Brexit. With Parliament in deadlock, Mr Johnson called an early general election, to which MPs agreed. The election, which happened on 12 December, resulted in a majority for the [y] party of 80.
Eight days later, MPs voted 358 to 234 in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement Bill, which now goes on to further scrutiny in Parliament. The remaining stages of the bill are expected to be completed quickly in January. Assuming the European Parliament also gives the green light, the UK will formally leave the EU on 31 January with a withdrawal deal.
Mr Johnson has also ruled out any form of extension to the transition period, meaning the clock is already ticking. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: " Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU", BBC, January 2020]

A recent event in UK is dubbed as Megxit. The event involves:

Solution:

On 8 January 2020, Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex and Meghan, Duchess of Sussex announced their decision on Instagram to "step back as 'senior' members of the Royal Family", splitting their time between the United Kingdom and North America, and to become financially independent; the event was dubbed Megxit (a portmanteau of the words "Meghan" and "exit" and a play on the word "Brexit"),?

QUESTION: 51

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The first batch of Indian pilgrims travelled to Gurudwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan on the Kartarpur Corridor, opened on November 9, 2019. This comes almost 20 years after the idea was proposed.
February 1999 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee proposed the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor when he took a bus ride to Lahore as a part of the [x]. 2000
Pakistan then agreed to allow Sikh pilgrims from India to visit the shrine visa-free (and without passport) by constructing a bridge in Pakistan from the Indian side of the border to the shrine.
August 2018 The then Punjab Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu who attended Pakistan PM Imran Khan's swearing-in ceremony said that Pakistan would open the corridor on Guru Nanak's 550th birth anniversary.
November 2018 The Kartarpur Corridor from [y] to Kartarpur was approved by India's Cabinet. While Pakistani PM Imran Khan laid the foundation stone of the corridor on the Pakistan side.
November 2019 Indian PM Modi flagged off the first batch of 562 Indian pilgrims including Punjab Chief Minister Capt. Amarinder Singh and former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "A timeline of the Kartarpur Corridor", The Hindu, November 2019]

Which one of the following is NOT factually accurate?

Solution:

The Kartarpur Corridor is a 4.7 kilometer (2.9 mile) overland passage that links the Dera Baba Nanak shrine in northwest India's Gurdaspur with the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Kartarpur, Pakistan.

QUESTION: 52

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The first batch of Indian pilgrims travelled to Gurudwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan on the Kartarpur Corridor, opened on November 9, 2019. This comes almost 20 years after the idea was proposed.
February 1999 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee proposed the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor when he took a bus ride to Lahore as a part of the [x]. 2000
Pakistan then agreed to allow Sikh pilgrims from India to visit the shrine visa-free (and without passport) by constructing a bridge in Pakistan from the Indian side of the border to the shrine.
August 2018 The then Punjab Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu who attended Pakistan PM Imran Khan's swearing-in ceremony said that Pakistan would open the corridor on Guru Nanak's 550th birth anniversary.
November 2018 The Kartarpur Corridor from [y] to Kartarpur was approved by India's Cabinet. While Pakistani PM Imran Khan laid the foundation stone of the corridor on the Pakistan side.
November 2019 Indian PM Modi flagged off the first batch of 562 Indian pilgrims including Punjab Chief Minister Capt. Amarinder Singh and former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "A timeline of the Kartarpur Corridor", The Hindu, November 2019]

Which was the boundary demarcation line between Indian and Pakistani portions of the Punjab and Bengal provinces of British India?

Solution:

The Radcliffe Line was the boundary demarcation line between the Indian and Pakistani portions of the Punjab and Bengal provinces of British India The Durand Line is an international 2,430-kilometre border between Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The McMahon Line is the demarcation line between the Tibetan region of China and the North-east region of India proposed by British colonial administrator Henry McMahon at the 1914 Simla Convention signed between British and Tibetan representatives.

QUESTION: 53

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The first batch of Indian pilgrims travelled to Gurudwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan on the Kartarpur Corridor, opened on November 9, 2019. This comes almost 20 years after the idea was proposed.
February 1999 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee proposed the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor when he took a bus ride to Lahore as a part of the [x]. 2000
Pakistan then agreed to allow Sikh pilgrims from India to visit the shrine visa-free (and without passport) by constructing a bridge in Pakistan from the Indian side of the border to the shrine.
August 2018 The then Punjab Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu who attended Pakistan PM Imran Khan's swearing-in ceremony said that Pakistan would open the corridor on Guru Nanak's 550th birth anniversary.
November 2018 The Kartarpur Corridor from [y] to Kartarpur was approved by India's Cabinet. While Pakistani PM Imran Khan laid the foundation stone of the corridor on the Pakistan side.
November 2019 Indian PM Modi flagged off the first batch of 562 Indian pilgrims including Punjab Chief Minister Capt. Amarinder Singh and former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "A timeline of the Kartarpur Corridor", The Hindu, November 2019]

Prime Minister Modi described the corridor to Kartarpur was akin to an event surrounding which one of the following?

Solution:

The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Construction of the Wall was commenced by the German Democratic Republic on 13 August 1961.
The Wall cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany, including East Berlin. The fall of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989, was a pivotal event in world history which marked the falling of the Iron Curtain and the start of the fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe. The fall of the inner German border took place shortly afterwards. An end to the Cold War was declared at the Malta Summit three weeks later, and the reunification of Germany took place during the following year. PM Modi used the Berlin Wall as an analogy.

QUESTION: 54

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The first batch of Indian pilgrims travelled to Gurudwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan on the Kartarpur Corridor, opened on November 9, 2019. This comes almost 20 years after the idea was proposed.
February 1999 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee proposed the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor when he took a bus ride to Lahore as a part of the [x]. 2000
Pakistan then agreed to allow Sikh pilgrims from India to visit the shrine visa-free (and without passport) by constructing a bridge in Pakistan from the Indian side of the border to the shrine.
August 2018 The then Punjab Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu who attended Pakistan PM Imran Khan's swearing-in ceremony said that Pakistan would open the corridor on Guru Nanak's 550th birth anniversary.
November 2018 The Kartarpur Corridor from [y] to Kartarpur was approved by India's Cabinet. While Pakistani PM Imran Khan laid the foundation stone of the corridor on the Pakistan side.
November 2019 Indian PM Modi flagged off the first batch of 562 Indian pilgrims including Punjab Chief Minister Capt. Amarinder Singh and former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "A timeline of the Kartarpur Corridor", The Hindu, November 2019]

In the above passage, which has been redacted with '[x]'?

Solution:

The Kartarpur Corridor was first proposed in early 1999 by Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Nawaz Sharif, the prime ministers of India and Pakistan respectively, as part of the Delhi-Lahore Bus diplomacy.

QUESTION: 55

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The first batch of Indian pilgrims travelled to Gurudwara Darbar Sahib in Pakistan on the Kartarpur Corridor, opened on November 9, 2019. This comes almost 20 years after the idea was proposed.
February 1999 Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee proposed the Kartarpur Sahib Corridor when he took a bus ride to Lahore as a part of the [x]. 2000
Pakistan then agreed to allow Sikh pilgrims from India to visit the shrine visa-free (and without passport) by constructing a bridge in Pakistan from the Indian side of the border to the shrine.
August 2018 The then Punjab Minister Navjot Singh Sidhu who attended Pakistan PM Imran Khan's swearing-in ceremony said that Pakistan would open the corridor on Guru Nanak's 550th birth anniversary.
November 2018 The Kartarpur Corridor from [y] to Kartarpur was approved by India's Cabinet. While Pakistani PM Imran Khan laid the foundation stone of the corridor on the Pakistan side.
November 2019 Indian PM Modi flagged off the first batch of 562 Indian pilgrims including Punjab Chief Minister Capt. Amarinder Singh and former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. [Extracted, with edits and revisions, from: "A timeline of the Kartarpur Corridor", The Hindu, November 2019]

In the above passage, which has been redacted with '[y]'?

Solution:

The Kartarpur Corridor is a 4.7 kilometer (2.9 mile) overland passage that links the Dera Baba Nanak shrine in northwest India's Gurdaspur with the Gurdwara Darbar Sahib in Kartarpur, Pakistan

QUESTION: 56

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that its [1] verdict will not act as a precedent to justify communal mobilisations against places of worship of other faiths. The Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has dealt with this apprehension by referring to Section 5 of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991.
Section 5 had uniquely exempted the "place of worship -commonly known as [2]" from the ambit of the 1991 Act, which prohibits the conversion of any place of worship.
The 1,045-page judgment reproduces Section 5, which stipulates, "Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as [2] situated in [1] and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship".
The 1991 Act bans conversion of religious places of worship and further provides "for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto".
The court highlighted that the express prohibition on conversion in the Places of Worship Act "speaks to the future by mandating that the character of a place of public worship shall not be altered". "Secondly, the law seeks to impose a positive obligation to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, when India achieved independence from colonial rule," the judgment interpreted.
The expression "place of worship" in Section 2(c) of the Act includes "a temple, mosque, gurudwara, church, monastery or any other place of public religious worship of any religious denomination or any section thereof, by whatever name called".
Anyone found guilty of violating the bar would face a jail term of up to 3 years. [Extracted with edits and revisions from: "Exemption from Place of Worship (Special Provisions)Act : Supreme Court" : Hindu, November 2019]

The passage above has reference to a recent case. The place of significance of that case is redacted with [2] and [1]. Which of the following reveals the same?

Solution:

The case under discussion is the Ayodhya case.

QUESTION: 57

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that its [1] verdict will not act as a precedent to justify communal mobilisations against places of worship of other faiths. The Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has dealt with this apprehension by referring to Section 5 of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991.
Section 5 had uniquely exempted the "place of worship -commonly known as [2]" from the ambit of the 1991 Act, which prohibits the conversion of any place of worship.
The 1,045-page judgment reproduces Section 5, which stipulates, "Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as [2] situated in [1] and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship".
The 1991 Act bans conversion of religious places of worship and further provides "for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto".
The court highlighted that the express prohibition on conversion in the Places of Worship Act "speaks to the future by mandating that the character of a place of public worship shall not be altered". "Secondly, the law seeks to impose a positive obligation to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, when India achieved independence from colonial rule," the judgment interpreted.
The expression "place of worship" in Section 2(c) of the Act includes "a temple, mosque, gurudwara, church, monastery or any other place of public religious worship of any religious denomination or any section thereof, by whatever name called".
Anyone found guilty of violating the bar would face a jail term of up to 3 years. [Extracted with edits and revisions from: "Exemption from Place of Worship (Special Provisions)Act : Supreme Court" : Hindu, November 2019]

Which one of the following questions most accurately captures the core contention in the Supreme Court case of [2]?

Solution:

On November 9, the Supreme Court of India settled the decades-old Ayodhya title dispute . The highest court of India overturned the Allahabad high court verdict which divided the land equally between the Sunni Central Waqf Board, Nirmohi Akhara and Ram Lalla Virajman.

QUESTION: 58

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that its [1] verdict will not act as a precedent to justify communal mobilisations against places of worship of other faiths. The Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has dealt with this apprehension by referring to Section 5 of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991.
Section 5 had uniquely exempted the "place of worship -commonly known as [2]" from the ambit of the 1991 Act, which prohibits the conversion of any place of worship.
The 1,045-page judgment reproduces Section 5, which stipulates, "Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as [2] situated in [1] and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship".
The 1991 Act bans conversion of religious places of worship and further provides "for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto".
The court highlighted that the express prohibition on conversion in the Places of Worship Act "speaks to the future by mandating that the character of a place of public worship shall not be altered". "Secondly, the law seeks to impose a positive obligation to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, when India achieved independence from colonial rule," the judgment interpreted.
The expression "place of worship" in Section 2(c) of the Act includes "a temple, mosque, gurudwara, church, monastery or any other place of public religious worship of any religious denomination or any section thereof, by whatever name called".
Anyone found guilty of violating the bar would face a jail term of up to 3 years. [Extracted with edits and revisions from: "Exemption from Place of Worship (Special Provisions)Act : Supreme Court" : Hindu, November 2019]

How many judges heard the case of [2] and what was the split of the verdict?

Solution:

A bench led by CJI Ranjan Gogoi delivered the Ayodhya verdict alongside CJI designate S.A. Bobde, and Justices D.Y. Chandrachud, Ashok Bhushan and S.A. Nazeer. The verdict was unanimous.

QUESTION: 59

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that its [1] verdict will not act as a precedent to justify communal mobilisations against places of worship of other faiths. The Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has dealt with this apprehension by referring to Section 5 of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991.
Section 5 had uniquely exempted the "place of worship -commonly known as [2]" from the ambit of the 1991 Act, which prohibits the conversion of any place of worship.
The 1,045-page judgment reproduces Section 5, which stipulates, "Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as [2] situated in [1] and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship".
The 1991 Act bans conversion of religious places of worship and further provides "for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto".
The court highlighted that the express prohibition on conversion in the Places of Worship Act "speaks to the future by mandating that the character of a place of public worship shall not be altered". "Secondly, the law seeks to impose a positive obligation to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, when India achieved independence from colonial rule," the judgment interpreted.
The expression "place of worship" in Section 2(c) of the Act includes "a temple, mosque, gurudwara, church, monastery or any other place of public religious worship of any religious denomination or any section thereof, by whatever name called".
Anyone found guilty of violating the bar would face a jail term of up to 3 years. [Extracted with edits and revisions from: "Exemption from Place of Worship (Special Provisions)Act : Supreme Court" : Hindu, November 2019]

The Places of Worship Act, 1991 does not apply to each of the following EXCEPT:
1. ancient m onument
2. historical m onument
3. archaeological sites covered by Ancient monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958

Solution:

Nothing contained in sub-section (1) and sub section (2) shall apply to,- (a) any place of worship referred to in the said subsections which is an ancient and historical monument or an archaeological site or remains covered by the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (24 of 1958) or any other law for the time being in force;

QUESTION: 60

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
The Supreme Court has made it clear that its [1] verdict will not act as a precedent to justify communal mobilisations against places of worship of other faiths. The Constitution Bench led by Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has dealt with this apprehension by referring to Section 5 of the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act of 1991.
Section 5 had uniquely exempted the "place of worship -commonly known as [2]" from the ambit of the 1991 Act, which prohibits the conversion of any place of worship.
The 1,045-page judgment reproduces Section 5, which stipulates, "Nothing contained in this Act shall apply to the place or place of worship commonly known as [2] situated in [1] and to any suit, appeal or other proceeding relating to the said place or place of worship".
The 1991 Act bans conversion of religious places of worship and further provides "for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto".
The court highlighted that the express prohibition on conversion in the Places of Worship Act "speaks to the future by mandating that the character of a place of public worship shall not be altered". "Secondly, the law seeks to impose a positive obligation to maintain the religious character of every place of worship as it existed on August 15, 1947, when India achieved independence from colonial rule," the judgment interpreted.
The expression "place of worship" in Section 2(c) of the Act includes "a temple, mosque, gurudwara, church, monastery or any other place of public religious worship of any religious denomination or any section thereof, by whatever name called".
Anyone found guilty of violating the bar would face a jail term of up to 3 years. [Extracted with edits and revisions from: "Exemption from Place of Worship (Special Provisions)Act : Supreme Court" : Hindu, November 2019]

Freedom of religion is a fundamental right guaranteed by the Constitution of India. Which Articles of the Indian Constitution guarantees that right?

Solution:

Article 25 to Article 28 of the Indian Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of religion to all the citizens residing within the territorial boundaries of the country.

QUESTION: 61

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh formally received the Indian Air Force's first Rafale fighter jet from a series of 36 such aircraft purchased from France.
Singh attended the handover ceremony along with his French counterpart Florence Parly at aircraft maker [X] facility in Merignac, southwestern France.
The minister performed a brief Shastra Puja on the new aircraft as he emblazoned it with an 'Om' tilak and laid flowers and a coconut, just before taking off in it for a sortie. He was joined by senior representatives of the Indian Armed Forces to mark the induction ceremony. "Our Air Force is the fourthlargest in the world and I believe that the Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft will make us even stronger and will give a boost to India's air dominance exponentially to ensure peace and security in the region," Singh said, addressing the gathering. The range of Rafael fighter jets have been specifically designed to meet the needs of IAF, which its manufacturer described as the new step in the company's long standing relationship with India.
The minister was accompanied by Armed Forces personnel including Air Marshall Harjit Singh Arora. Representatives of the top military brass from the French side were also present on the occasion.
India had ordered 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore in September 2016.
While the formal handover ceremony takes place this week, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India by May 2020. All 36 jets are expected to arrive in India by September 2022, for which the IAF has been reportedly undertaking preparations, including readying required infrastructure and training of pilots. [Extracted with edits and revisions from : "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh receives IAF's first Rafale fighter jet from France" - Press Trust of India | Merginac France, October 2019]

The maker of Rafale Jet has been replaced by [X] in the passage. Which of the following companies is the manufacturer of these jets?

Solution:

Dassault Aviation SA is an international French aircraft manufacturer of military and business jets, and is a subsidiary of Dassault Group. It is the maker of Rafale jet.

QUESTION: 62

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh formally received the Indian Air Force's first Rafale fighter jet from a series of 36 such aircraft purchased from France.
Singh attended the handover ceremony along with his French counterpart Florence Parly at aircraft maker [X] facility in Merignac, southwestern France.
The minister performed a brief Shastra Puja on the new aircraft as he emblazoned it with an 'Om' tilak and laid flowers and a coconut, just before taking off in it for a sortie. He was joined by senior representatives of the Indian Armed Forces to mark the induction ceremony. "Our Air Force is the fourthlargest in the world and I believe that the Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft will make us even stronger and will give a boost to India's air dominance exponentially to ensure peace and security in the region," Singh said, addressing the gathering. The range of Rafael fighter jets have been specifically designed to meet the needs of IAF, which its manufacturer described as the new step in the company's long standing relationship with India.
The minister was accompanied by Armed Forces personnel including Air Marshall Harjit Singh Arora. Representatives of the top military brass from the French side were also present on the occasion.
India had ordered 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore in September 2016.
While the formal handover ceremony takes place this week, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India by May 2020. All 36 jets are expected to arrive in India by September 2022, for which the IAF has been reportedly undertaking preparations, including readying required infrastructure and training of pilots. [Extracted with edits and revisions from : "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh receives IAF's first Rafale fighter jet from France" - Press Trust of India | Merginac France, October 2019]

Indian Rafale has been made with certain modifications. One of which is it carries the RB series of tail numbers. The series has been named after whom?

Solution:

Indian Rafale jets carry the RB series of tail numbers, named after current IAF chief RKS Bhadauria.

QUESTION: 63

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh formally received the Indian Air Force's first Rafale fighter jet from a series of 36 such aircraft purchased from France.
Singh attended the handover ceremony along with his French counterpart Florence Parly at aircraft maker [X] facility in Merignac, southwestern France.
The minister performed a brief Shastra Puja on the new aircraft as he emblazoned it with an 'Om' tilak and laid flowers and a coconut, just before taking off in it for a sortie. He was joined by senior representatives of the Indian Armed Forces to mark the induction ceremony. "Our Air Force is the fourthlargest in the world and I believe that the Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft will make us even stronger and will give a boost to India's air dominance exponentially to ensure peace and security in the region," Singh said, addressing the gathering. The range of Rafael fighter jets have been specifically designed to meet the needs of IAF, which its manufacturer described as the new step in the company's long standing relationship with India.
The minister was accompanied by Armed Forces personnel including Air Marshall Harjit Singh Arora. Representatives of the top military brass from the French side were also present on the occasion.
India had ordered 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore in September 2016.
While the formal handover ceremony takes place this week, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India by May 2020. All 36 jets are expected to arrive in India by September 2022, for which the IAF has been reportedly undertaking preparations, including readying required infrastructure and training of pilots. [Extracted with edits and revisions from : "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh receives IAF's first Rafale fighter jet from France" - Press Trust of India | Merginac France, October 2019]

Recently a clean chit was provided to Modi Government on the ongoing Rafael controversy. Who among the following was not a part of the Supreme court Bench that gave a clean chit?

Solution:

The Bench which has given clean chit to Narendra Modi was led by Ex-CJI- Rajan Gogoi . The other members of the bench were-SK Kaul and KM Joseph. Sharad Bobde is the existing Chief Justice of India.

QUESTION: 64

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh formally received the Indian Air Force's first Rafale fighter jet from a series of 36 such aircraft purchased from France.
Singh attended the handover ceremony along with his French counterpart Florence Parly at aircraft maker [X] facility in Merignac, southwestern France.
The minister performed a brief Shastra Puja on the new aircraft as he emblazoned it with an 'Om' tilak and laid flowers and a coconut, just before taking off in it for a sortie. He was joined by senior representatives of the Indian Armed Forces to mark the induction ceremony. "Our Air Force is the fourthlargest in the world and I believe that the Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft will make us even stronger and will give a boost to India's air dominance exponentially to ensure peace and security in the region," Singh said, addressing the gathering. The range of Rafael fighter jets have been specifically designed to meet the needs of IAF, which its manufacturer described as the new step in the company's long standing relationship with India.
The minister was accompanied by Armed Forces personnel including Air Marshall Harjit Singh Arora. Representatives of the top military brass from the French side were also present on the occasion.
India had ordered 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore in September 2016.
While the formal handover ceremony takes place this week, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India by May 2020. All 36 jets are expected to arrive in India by September 2022, for which the IAF has been reportedly undertaking preparations, including readying required infrastructure and training of pilots. [Extracted with edits and revisions from : "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh receives IAF's first Rafale fighter jet from France" - Press Trust of India | Merginac France, October 2019]

Which of the following countries does not have next gen Rafael fighter jet?

Solution:

India had become the fourth country after France, Egypt and Qatar to gain access to next gen Rafael fighter jets.

QUESTION: 65

Direction: Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow.
Defence minister Rajnath Singh formally received the Indian Air Force's first Rafale fighter jet from a series of 36 such aircraft purchased from France.
Singh attended the handover ceremony along with his French counterpart Florence Parly at aircraft maker [X] facility in Merignac, southwestern France.
The minister performed a brief Shastra Puja on the new aircraft as he emblazoned it with an 'Om' tilak and laid flowers and a coconut, just before taking off in it for a sortie. He was joined by senior representatives of the Indian Armed Forces to mark the induction ceremony. "Our Air Force is the fourthlargest in the world and I believe that the Rafale Medium Multi-Role Combat Aircraft will make us even stronger and will give a boost to India's air dominance exponentially to ensure peace and security in the region," Singh said, addressing the gathering. The range of Rafael fighter jets have been specifically designed to meet the needs of IAF, which its manufacturer described as the new step in the company's long standing relationship with India.
The minister was accompanied by Armed Forces personnel including Air Marshall Harjit Singh Arora. Representatives of the top military brass from the French side were also present on the occasion.
India had ordered 36 Rafale fighter jets from France in a deal worth Rs 59,000 crore in September 2016.
While the formal handover ceremony takes place this week, the first batch of four Rafale jets will fly to their home base in India by May 2020. All 36 jets are expected to arrive in India by September 2022, for which the IAF has been reportedly undertaking preparations, including readying required infrastructure and training of pilots. [Extracted with edits and revisions from : "Defence Minister Rajnath Singh receives IAF's first Rafale fighter jet from France" - Press Trust of India | Merginac France, October 2019]

Offset clause was one of the important clauses in the Rafale Deal done by the BJP Government. Which of the following statements explains the offset clause correctly?

Solution:

Rafael deal comes with a 50 per cent clause.
According to this clause - Dassault would have to invest 50% back into India. Under the offset agreement, French side has made a 30 per cent offset commitment for military aerospace research and development programmes and the rest 20 per cent for making components of Rafales here.

QUESTION: 66

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Into the second week of the amendments to Motor Vehicles Act kicking in, the step to sharply increase fines for violations remains controversial. Gujarat this week reduced some of the fines set by the Centre on humanitarian grounds. The overarching aim of the amendments has wide support. Given that India has a shameful record of fatalities on account of road accidents, even when compared to other developing countries, some of the measures in the amendments, particularly the one relating to encouraging good Samaritans, are welcome. The debate is over a steep hike in fines. For example, the penalty for jumping a traffic light has gone from Rs 100 to Rs 5,000. Will a harsh measure be the game changer?
The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees, and (ii) in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle.
The record across the world is decidedly mixed but fine remains a popular tool, with Finland going so far as to link it to a violator's disposable income. What is unambiguous is that the problem of fatalities is more pronounced in the developing world, which WHO says accounts for 93% of fatalities with around 60% of vehicles. Richer countries have created safer roads over the last four decades. There are two solutions and both are needed. One, is to strengthen the regulatory and enforcement framework. Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities.
Will stiff fines improve driving habits? Yes, if the violator is fairly sure that it's difficult to escape. However, enforcement has been India's weakness. Once the current fuss dies, our record suggests it will be business as usual. It may also encourage petty corruption. Therefore, instead of fixing fines at a level where even a relatively wealthy BJP-administered state feels pressured to lower it, focus on consistent enforcement. A model where most fines escalate with repeat offences with the possibility of flying below the radar
minimised is the way forward.

With which of the following steps, according to the passage, would the author most likely to agree with?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
Correct Answer is (c) The government orders that any construction of road must be only after consulting architects for its design and layout. In the 3rd paragraph, the author mentions that road accidents are also because of faulty designs of roads and therefore prior consultation with architects would reduce the chances of faulty designs (.... Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is incorrect as nowhere does the passage discuss benefits of private contractors in road construction. 
Option (b) is incorrect as toll collection is not discussed in the passage. 
Option (d) is incorrect as the passage does not mention any delays in road construction projects.

QUESTION: 67

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Into the second week of the amendments to Motor Vehicles Act kicking in, the step to sharply increase fines for violations remains controversial. Gujarat this week reduced some of the fines set by the Centre on humanitarian grounds. The overarching aim of the amendments has wide support. Given that India has a shameful record of fatalities on account of road accidents, even when compared to other developing countries, some of the measures in the amendments, particularly the one relating to encouraging good Samaritans, are welcome. The debate is over a steep hike in fines. For example, the penalty for jumping a traffic light has gone from Rs 100 to Rs 5,000. Will a harsh measure be the game changer?
The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees, and (ii) in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle.
The record across the world is decidedly mixed but fine remains a popular tool, with Finland going so far as to link it to a violator's disposable income. What is unambiguous is that the problem of fatalities is more pronounced in the developing world, which WHO says accounts for 93% of fatalities with around 60% of vehicles. Richer countries have created safer roads over the last four decades. There are two solutions and both are needed. One, is to strengthen the regulatory and enforcement framework. Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities.
Will stiff fines improve driving habits? Yes, if the violator is fairly sure that it's difficult to escape. However, enforcement has been India's weakness. Once the current fuss dies, our record suggests it will be business as usual. It may also encourage petty corruption. Therefore, instead of fixing fines at a level where even a relatively wealthy BJP-administered state feels pressured to lower it, focus on consistent enforcement. A model where most fines escalate with repeat offences with the possibility of flying below the radar
minimised is the way forward.

According to the author, why would the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act be a failure or be less efficacious?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
Correct Answer is (b) The Act ignores the problem of tepid enforcement in India. In the last paragraph, the author mentions the problem, the Act will face (.However, enforcement has been India's weakness). Therefore, despite increase in fines, there will be no or less deterrence on public.
Incorrect Answers
None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is incorrect as the author uses the case of Finland only as a running example to mention how far a country may go in imposing harsher fines. 
Option (c) is incorrect as the Act on the contrary prescribes harsher penalties. 
Option (d) seems factually correct given that Gujarat has lessened the fine, giving an impression that State governments weren't taken onboard. This may be a failure of federal policy, but the author does not use this argument as a criticism of the Act. So, comparatively option (b) is more appropriate.

QUESTION: 68

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Into the second week of the amendments to Motor Vehicles Act kicking in, the step to sharply increase fines for violations remains controversial. Gujarat this week reduced some of the fines set by the Centre on humanitarian grounds. The overarching aim of the amendments has wide support. Given that India has a shameful record of fatalities on account of road accidents, even when compared to other developing countries, some of the measures in the amendments, particularly the one relating to encouraging good Samaritans, are welcome. The debate is over a steep hike in fines. For example, the penalty for jumping a traffic light has gone from Rs 100 to Rs 5,000. Will a harsh measure be the game changer?
The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees, and (ii) in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle.
The record across the world is decidedly mixed but fine remains a popular tool, with Finland going so far as to link it to a violator's disposable income. What is unambiguous is that the problem of fatalities is more pronounced in the developing world, which WHO says accounts for 93% of fatalities with around 60% of vehicles. Richer countries have created safer roads over the last four decades. There are two solutions and both are needed. One, is to strengthen the regulatory and enforcement framework. Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities.
Will stiff fines improve driving habits? Yes, if the violator is fairly sure that it's difficult to escape. However, enforcement has been India's weakness. Once the current fuss dies, our record suggests it will be business as usual. It may also encourage petty corruption. Therefore, instead of fixing fines at a level where even a relatively wealthy BJP-administered state feels pressured to lower it, focus on consistent enforcement. A model where most fines escalate with repeat offences with the possibility of flying below the radar
minimised is the way forward.

Suppose, the Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Act is not passed. Chandu, in an inebriated condition is driving back home when he runs over Gujan. Gunjan suffers left leg and right arm fractures besides major bruises on her head. Chandu had fled the spot. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (a) Gunjan will get Rs. 12500 from the government.
Please note we have to answer keeping in mind that the new Act is not passed. Hence, provision of old Act will apply in this case. In the 2nd paragraph, enhancement of penalties in hit and run cases is mentioned (...The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as.. .in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (b) is incorrect as government pays compensation and not Chandu who anyways ran away. He may however, be liable under IPC for rash and negligent driving but that is outside the information given in the passage. 
Options (c) and (d) are incorrect as in the old Act minimum compensation was Rs.12500 and not Rs.50000.

QUESTION: 69

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Into the second week of the amendments to Motor Vehicles Act kicking in, the step to sharply increase fines for violations remains controversial. Gujarat this week reduced some of the fines set by the Centre on humanitarian grounds. The overarching aim of the amendments has wide support. Given that India has a shameful record of fatalities on account of road accidents, even when compared to other developing countries, some of the measures in the amendments, particularly the one relating to encouraging good Samaritans, are welcome. The debate is over a steep hike in fines. For example, the penalty for jumping a traffic light has gone from Rs 100 to Rs 5,000. Will a harsh measure be the game changer?
The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees, and (ii) in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle.
The record across the world is decidedly mixed but fine remains a popular tool, with Finland going so far as to link it to a violator's disposable income. What is unambiguous is that the problem of fatalities is more pronounced in the developing world, which WHO says accounts for 93% of fatalities with around 60% of vehicles. Richer countries have created safer roads over the last four decades. There are two solutions and both are needed. One, is to strengthen the regulatory and enforcement framework. Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities.
Will stiff fines improve driving habits? Yes, if the violator is fairly sure that it's difficult to escape. However, enforcement has been India's weakness. Once the current fuss dies, our record suggests it will be business as usual. It may also encourage petty corruption. Therefore, instead of fixing fines at a level where even a relatively wealthy BJP-administered state feels pressured to lower it, focus on consistent enforcement. A model where most fines escalate with repeat offences with the possibility of flying below the radar
minimised is the way forward.

Kalyan hits his car against a cycler Ranga, as a result of which Ranga dies. Kalyan noticing no one at the accident spot, sped away. Decide based on the passage.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Ranga is to be paid a compensation of Rs. 2 Lakhs by the government. Again this is a hit and run case. In the 2nd paragraph, the author mentions compensation in different cases (.The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees). Ranga dies and so he is eligible for Rs. 2 Lakhs compensation from the government.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Options (b) and (c) are therefore incorrect. 
Option (a) is not based on information supplied in the passage.

QUESTION: 70

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Into the second week of the amendments to Motor Vehicles Act kicking in, the step to sharply increase fines for violations remains controversial. Gujarat this week reduced some of the fines set by the Centre on humanitarian grounds. The overarching aim of the amendments has wide support. Given that India has a shameful record of fatalities on account of road accidents, even when compared to other developing countries, some of the measures in the amendments, particularly the one relating to encouraging good Samaritans, are welcome. The debate is over a steep hike in fines. For example, the penalty for jumping a traffic light has gone from Rs 100 to Rs 5,000. Will a harsh measure be the game changer?
The newly passed Act increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases as follows: (i) in case of death, from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees, and (ii) in case of grievous injury, from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment, or the driver, or other road users. The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle.
The record across the world is decidedly mixed but fine remains a popular tool, with Finland going so far as to link it to a violator's disposable income. What is unambiguous is that the problem of fatalities is more pronounced in the developing world, which WHO says accounts for 93% of fatalities with around 60% of vehicles. Richer countries have created safer roads over the last four decades. There are two solutions and both are needed. One, is to strengthen the regulatory and enforcement framework. Two, significantly improve road design in India which is also a cause of fatalities.
Will stiff fines improve driving habits? Yes, if the violator is fairly sure that it's difficult to escape. However, enforcement has been India's weakness. Once the current fuss dies, our record suggests it will be business as usual. It may also encourage petty corruption. Therefore, instead of fixing fines at a level where even a relatively wealthy BJP-administered state feels pressured to lower it, focus on consistent enforcement. A model where most fines escalate with repeat offences with the possibility of flying below the radar
minimised is the way forward.

X industry manufactures passenger cars. It launched a new model which uese a new engine technology resulting in greater power and better driving experience.
Shashank purchase one of this model cars for Rs. 10 Lakhs. A month later some scientific studies found emissions containing large amounts of heavy metals in the exhaust of the car. The government ordered the entire new stock to be called back. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) Shashank has to be paid back Rs. 10 Lakhs by the X industry. In the 2nd paragraph, the author mentions the power of the government to recall a vehicle if it did not meet environment norms (.The Act also allows the central government to order for recall of motor vehicles if a defect in the vehicle may cause damage to the environment.The manufacturer of the recalled vehicle will be required toreimburse the buyers for the full cost of the vehicle). Since the manufacturer is required to reimburse the buyer, X industry will be required to give Rs. 10 Lakhs, the cost of the defective vehicle, to Shashank. Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (c) and (d) are therefore incorrect.

QUESTION: 71

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
After the Parliament approval, President of India, gave his assent for the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019 (POCSO Act). The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In the recent past incidences of child sexual abuse cases demonstrating the inhumane mind-set of the abusers, who have been barbaric in their approach towards young victims, is rising in the country. Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society.
The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computergenerated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child. The Act also penalizes storage of certain material. Section 15 of the Act reads, "any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine." The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child. It also empowers the Central Government to make rules for the manner of deleting or destroying or reporting about pornographic material in any form involving a child to the designated authority.

What, according to the passage, is the reason for a special law and on protection of children from sexual offences?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
Correct Answer is (a) Children are immature and may take a decision thinking it to be correct when in reality it is not so. All options may be correct but note we have to always answer based on the passage. In the 2nd paragraph, the author mentions the reasons for special protection for children (.Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Other options are therefore incorrect as they cannot be derived from the passage.

QUESTION: 72

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
After the Parliament approval, President of India, gave his assent for the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019 (POCSO Act). The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In the recent past incidences of child sexual abuse cases demonstrating the inhumane mind-set of the abusers, who have been barbaric in their approach towards young victims, is rising in the country. Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society.
The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computergenerated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child. The Act also penalizes storage of certain material. Section 15 of the Act reads, "any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine." The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child. It also empowers the Central Government to make rules for the manner of deleting or destroying or reporting about pornographic material in any form involving a child to the designated authority.

What assumption has been made behind the imposition of harsher penalties under the amended POCSO Act?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
The harsher the punishment for a crime, the lesser is its commission. In the last paragraph, the author mentions this (...There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child). Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is incorrect as conviction rate is not discussed in the passage. 
Option (c) is incorrect as no relation between legal protection and age of a child is mentioned in the passage. 
Option (d) is a moral statement not based on information supplied in the passage.

QUESTION: 73

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
After the Parliament approval, President of India, gave his assent for the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019 (POCSO Act). The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In the recent past incidences of child sexual abuse cases demonstrating the inhumane mind-set of the abusers, who have been barbaric in their approach towards young victims, is rising in the country. Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society.
The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computergenerated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child. The Act also penalizes storage of certain material. Section 15 of the Act reads, "any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine." The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child. It also empowers the Central Government to make rules for the manner of deleting or destroying or reporting about pornographic material in any form involving a child to the designated authority.

Sudipta, aged 16 years sends some nude pics of herself to her boyfriend Abhilash through WhatsApp. Abhilash, without telling Supidta uploads it on a porn website. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (d) Only Abhilash is liable under the POCSO Act.
Sudipta is a child as she is below 18 years of age. As per the definition of 'child pornography' given in the 3rd paragraph (.The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computer-generated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child), the pics come within this definition. Under Section 15, Abhilash is liable as he shared child pornographic material (.any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (b) and (c) the therefore, incorrect.

QUESTION: 74

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
After the Parliament approval, President of India, gave his assent for the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019 (POCSO Act). The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In the recent past incidences of child sexual abuse cases demonstrating the inhumane mind-set of the abusers, who have been barbaric in their approach towards young victims, is rising in the country. Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society.
The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computergenerated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child. The Act also penalizes storage of certain material. Section 15 of the Act reads, "any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine." The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child. It also empowers the Central Government to make rules for the manner of deleting or destroying or reporting about pornographic material in any form involving a child to the designated authority.

Ojaswee is in a WhatsApp group which consist of, besides himself, Gourav and Divyang. Divyang sends a child porn clip on the group. Ojaswee instantly deletes it and leaves the group. Gourav forwards it to another friend of his. Who all are liable?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) Only Divyang and Gourav. In the 3rd paragraph, transmission of child pornography is punishable (.The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.).
Divyang transmitted child porn clip to the group.
Gourav transmitted it to another friend. Ojaswee is not liable as he deleted the clip and left the group.
Refer exception to liability in the 3rd paragraph (.any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy.). Ojaswee destroyed it by deleting it from his mobile.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (c) and (d) are therefore, incorrect.

QUESTION: 75

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
After the Parliament approval, President of India, gave his assent for the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act, 2019 (POCSO Act). The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography and provide for the establishment of Special Courts for the trial of such offences and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In the recent past incidences of child sexual abuse cases demonstrating the inhumane mind-set of the abusers, who have been barbaric in their approach towards young victims, is rising in the country. Children are becoming easy prey because of their tender age, physical vulnerabilities and inexperience of life and society.
The Act defines "child pornography" as any visual depiction of sexually explicit conduct involving a child which include photograph, video, digital or computergenerated image indistinguishable from an actual child, and image created, adapted, or modified, but appear to depict a child. The Act also penalizes storage of certain material. Section 15 of the Act reads, "any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child, but fails to delete or destroy or report the same to the designated authority, which is the police unless otherwise stated, with an intention to share or transmit child pornography, shall be liable to fine." The section goes further and makes any person, who stores or possesses pornographic material in any form involving a child for transmitting or propagating or displaying or distributing in any manner at any time except for the purpose of reporting, or for use as evidence in court, liable for imprisonment which may extend to three years, or with fine, or with both.
There is a strong need to take stringent measures to deter the rising trend of child sex abuse in the country, the proposed amendments to the said Act make provisions for enhancement of punishments for various offences so as to deter the perpetrators and ensure safety, security and dignified childhood for a child. It also empowers the Central Government to make rules for the manner of deleting or destroying or reporting about pornographic material in any form involving a child to the designated authority.

Anees shows a porn clip to his friend Gautam on his phone. The clip involves a 24 year old infamous porn star. Who all are liable under the POCSO Act?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Neither Anees nor Gautam. Please note that we are concerned only with POCSO Act which deals with children i.e. persons below 18 years of age, as mentioned in the 1st paragraph (.The said Act has been enacted to protect children i.e. any person below 18 years of age, from offences of sexual assault, sexual harassment, and pornography.).
Since the concerned person in the porn clip is above 18 years of age, POCSO Act is not attracted. Though they may be liable under other laws but that is not mentioned in the passage and therefore not a concern for us. Hence, options (a), (b) and (c) are incorrect.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 76

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha. During the debate on the bill, some of the members sought its review as over a dozen major recommendations by a standing committee were incorporated in the draft law. Surrogacy is an arrangement wherein a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for a couple or person. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilised by in vitro fertilisation, is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate mother who carries and delivers the baby. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated with the sperms of the intended father. Surrogacy may be commercial or altruistic.Altruistic surrogacy does not involve monetary considerations, except medical expenses and insurance.In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind.According to the Bill, if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy, exploiting the surrogate mother, selling, importing, purchasing or trading human embryos or gametes for surrogacy, conducting sex selection for surrogacy, or has abandoned, exploited or disowned a surrogate child, he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh.
According to the Bill, only altruistic surrogacy will be permitted in India, in cases where either one or both the members making up the couple suffer from infertility, of which the certificate of essentiality is proof. Additionally, a certificate of eligibility is issued to the intending couple and is proof that the couple has been married for at least five years, and are Indian citizens. The wife must be in the age group of 23-50, and the husband in the age group of 26-55.
In case abortion of a surrogate foetus is considered, only the consent of the surrogate mother is required, according to the provisions under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The intending couple has no say in this decision. On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy. An exception is made if the intending couple has a surviving child who is mentally or physically challenged, or is suffering from a fatal illness with no permanent cure.

Which of the following, according to the passage, most correctly describe the present status of the Surrogacy Bill?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
Correct Answer is (a) The Bill has been passed only in one house of the Parliament. The 1st paragraph mentions this (.The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha).
Incorrect Answers
None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (c) and (d) are therefore incorrect.

QUESTION: 77

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha. During the debate on the bill, some of the members sought its review as over a dozen major recommendations by a standing committee were incorporated in the draft law. Surrogacy is an arrangement wherein a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for a couple or person. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilised by in vitro fertilisation, is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate mother who carries and delivers the baby. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated with the sperms of the intended father. Surrogacy may be commercial or altruistic.Altruistic surrogacy does not involve monetary considerations, except medical expenses and insurance.In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind.According to the Bill, if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy, exploiting the surrogate mother, selling, importing, purchasing or trading human embryos or gametes for surrogacy, conducting sex selection for surrogacy, or has abandoned, exploited or disowned a surrogate child, he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh.
According to the Bill, only altruistic surrogacy will be permitted in India, in cases where either one or both the members making up the couple suffer from infertility, of which the certificate of essentiality is proof. Additionally, a certificate of eligibility is issued to the intending couple and is proof that the couple has been married for at least five years, and are Indian citizens. The wife must be in the age group of 23-50, and the husband in the age group of 26-55.
In case abortion of a surrogate foetus is considered, only the consent of the surrogate mother is required, according to the provisions under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The intending couple has no say in this decision. On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy. An exception is made if the intending couple has a surviving child who is mentally or physically challenged, or is suffering from a fatal illness with no permanent cure.

X agrees to be a surrogate mother for a couple for Rs.25 Lakhs besides Rupees Twenty Thousand towards medical costs. Choose the most appropriate option.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (a) X is contracting for commercial surrogacy. Note that X is charging Rs.25 Lakhs which is besides the medical costs. Refer 2nd paragraph (...In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind). Refer last paragraph ( . O n the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (b) is therefore incorrect. 
Option (c) is incorrect as the Bill is banning only commercial surrogacy and not 'any kind' of surrogacy. 
Option (d) is incorrect as X being a surrogate mother loses all rights to the child.

QUESTION: 78

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha. During the debate on the bill, some of the members sought its review as over a dozen major recommendations by a standing committee were incorporated in the draft law. Surrogacy is an arrangement wherein a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for a couple or person. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilised by in vitro fertilisation, is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate mother who carries and delivers the baby. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated with the sperms of the intended father. Surrogacy may be commercial or altruistic.Altruistic surrogacy does not involve monetary considerations, except medical expenses and insurance.In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind.According to the Bill, if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy, exploiting the surrogate mother, selling, importing, purchasing or trading human embryos or gametes for surrogacy, conducting sex selection for surrogacy, or has abandoned, exploited or disowned a surrogate child, he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh.
According to the Bill, only altruistic surrogacy will be permitted in India, in cases where either one or both the members making up the couple suffer from infertility, of which the certificate of essentiality is proof. Additionally, a certificate of eligibility is issued to the intending couple and is proof that the couple has been married for at least five years, and are Indian citizens. The wife must be in the age group of 23-50, and the husband in the age group of 26-55.
In case abortion of a surrogate foetus is considered, only the consent of the surrogate mother is required, according to the provisions under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The intending couple has no say in this decision. On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy. An exception is made if the intending couple has a surviving child who is mentally or physically challenged, or is suffering from a fatal illness with no permanent cure.

Suppose the Bill becomes a law. Rama makes a website offering her services for surrogacy for a very nominal amount. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (c) Rama is liable for imprisonment and fine. We have to answer presuming that the Bill is now a law. In the 2nd paragraph, advertising of surrogacy is banned (.if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy. he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh). Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is therefore, incorrect. 
Option (b) is incorrect as whatever amount Rama is charging is irrelevant, as in whichever case, she cannot advertise surrogacy. 
Option (d) is incorrect for the same reason as it is irrelevant whether she is doing altruistic or commercial surrogacy as long as she is advertising, she is liable.

QUESTION: 79

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha. During the debate on the bill, some of the members sought its review as over a dozen major recommendations by a standing committee were incorporated in the draft law. Surrogacy is an arrangement wherein a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for a couple or person. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilised by in vitro fertilisation, is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate mother who carries and delivers the baby. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated with the sperms of the intended father. Surrogacy may be commercial or altruistic.Altruistic surrogacy does not involve monetary considerations, except medical expenses and insurance.In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind.According to the Bill, if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy, exploiting the surrogate mother, selling, importing, purchasing or trading human embryos or gametes for surrogacy, conducting sex selection for surrogacy, or has abandoned, exploited or disowned a surrogate child, he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh.
According to the Bill, only altruistic surrogacy will be permitted in India, in cases where either one or both the members making up the couple suffer from infertility, of which the certificate of essentiality is proof. Additionally, a certificate of eligibility is issued to the intending couple and is proof that the couple has been married for at least five years, and are Indian citizens. The wife must be in the age group of 23-50, and the husband in the age group of 26-55.
In case abortion of a surrogate foetus is considered, only the consent of the surrogate mother is required, according to the provisions under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The intending couple has no say in this decision. On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy. An exception is made if the intending couple has a surviving child who is mentally or physically challenged, or is suffering from a fatal illness with no permanent cure.

Suppose the Surrogacy Bill is passed. Ramesh is married to Madhu. They have a biological child Rohan, aged 5 years. Madhu is pregnant with their 2nd child when due to an accident she suffers a miscarriage. Her ovaries and uterus were also removed making her unable to ever conceive in future. Can Ramesh and Madhu go for surrogacy ?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (c) No, as they already have a child. In the last paragraph the author mentions that only couple who don't have any child whether biological or adopted can opt for surrogacy (.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy). Ramesh and Madhu already have a 5 year old child, Rohan.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (b) and (d) are therefore incorrect.

QUESTION: 80

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill 2019, which seeks to ban commercial surrogacy, was passed by the Lok Sabha in the Monsoon Session and was moved for consideration and passage in the Rajya Sabha. During the debate on the bill, some of the members sought its review as over a dozen major recommendations by a standing committee were incorporated in the draft law. Surrogacy is an arrangement wherein a surrogate mother bears and delivers a child for a couple or person. In gestational surrogacy, an embryo, which is fertilised by in vitro fertilisation, is implanted into the uterus of the surrogate mother who carries and delivers the baby. In traditional surrogacy, the surrogate mother is impregnated with the sperms of the intended father. Surrogacy may be commercial or altruistic.Altruistic surrogacy does not involve monetary considerations, except medical expenses and insurance.In commercial surrogacy, the woman who gives birth to a child for the intending couple is rewarded for it in cash or kind.According to the Bill, if an individual is found advertising or undertaking surrogacy, exploiting the surrogate mother, selling, importing, purchasing or trading human embryos or gametes for surrogacy, conducting sex selection for surrogacy, or has abandoned, exploited or disowned a surrogate child, he/she can be imprisoned for up to 10 years and fined of up to Rs 10 lakh.
According to the Bill, only altruistic surrogacy will be permitted in India, in cases where either one or both the members making up the couple suffer from infertility, of which the certificate of essentiality is proof. Additionally, a certificate of eligibility is issued to the intending couple and is proof that the couple has been married for at least five years, and are Indian citizens. The wife must be in the age group of 23-50, and the husband in the age group of 26-55.
In case abortion of a surrogate foetus is considered, only the consent of the surrogate mother is required, according to the provisions under the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971. The intending couple has no say in this decision. On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child.The intending couple should not have any surviving biological child, through adoption or through surrogacy. An exception is made if the intending couple has a surviving child who is mentally or physically challenged, or is suffering from a fatal illness with no permanent cure.

Suppose the Surrogacy Bill becomes a law. X and Y are infertile couple. They get a child from a surrogate mother Z. A year later Z wants the child back. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Z cannot get the child back as X and Y are the child's legal parents now. In the last paragraph, it is mentioned that the couple become the surrogate child's parents and the surrogate mother loses all rights (.On the other hand, after being born, the child is considered to be the biological child of the intending couple and the surrogate mother losses all rights to the child).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is therefore, incorrect. 
Option (b) is incorrect as nowhere in the passage such a condition is mentioned.
Option (c) is incorrect on the same reasoning.

QUESTION: 81

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Parliament passed the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which promises to strengthen the rights of consumers and provides a mechanism for redressal of complaints regarding defects in goods and deficiency in services.Union Food and Consumer Affairs Minister stressed that the overall purpose of the legislation was to ease the process of addressing grievances of consumers. TheAct also seeks to bring in ecommerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse. The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised. It also provides for product liability action on account of harm caused to consumers due to defective products or deficient services.Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service.
Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose. It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multilevel marketing or direct selling. Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act.
Certain consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: (i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property; (ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services; (iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and (iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
The central government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements. The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director- General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.The CCPA may impose a penalty on a manufacturer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for up to two years for a false or misleading advertisement. In case of a subsequent offence, the fine may extend to Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of up to five years.

According to the passage, what all additional areas or persons or institutions have been brought under the Consumer Protection Act?

Solution:

Rationale: This question asks you to identify the author reasoning and the option that align with that reasoning.
Correct Answer is (b) Celebrities, e-commerce and product liability. This is mentioned in the 2nd paragraph (.TheAct also seeks to bring in e-commerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable.also provides for product liability action).
Incorrect Answers
None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Options (a), (c) and (d) are therefore incorrect.

QUESTION: 82

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Parliament passed the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which promises to strengthen the rights of consumers and provides a mechanism for redressal of complaints regarding defects in goods and deficiency in services.Union Food and Consumer Affairs Minister stressed that the overall purpose of the legislation was to ease the process of addressing grievances of consumers. TheAct also seeks to bring in ecommerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse. The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised. It also provides for product liability action on account of harm caused to consumers due to defective products or deficient services.Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service.
Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose. It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multilevel marketing or direct selling. Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act.
Certain consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: (i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property; (ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services; (iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and (iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
The central government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements. The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director- General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.The CCPA may impose a penalty on a manufacturer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for up to two years for a false or misleading advertisement. In case of a subsequent offence, the fine may extend to Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of up to five years.

Suppose a misleading advertisement is shown on 'XY' channel and 'ZA' channel for consecutive two weeks.
Who all are liable in this case?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (c) The maker of the misleading advertisement. It is clearly mentioned in the 2nd paragraph that only the advertiser is liable and not the channels on which the advertisement is shown (...The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised).Option (a) and (b) are therefore incorrect. Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.Option (d) is incorrect as nowhere in the passage is it mentioned that a consumer is liable in such cases.

QUESTION: 83

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Parliament passed the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which promises to strengthen the rights of consumers and provides a mechanism for redressal of complaints regarding defects in goods and deficiency in services.Union Food and Consumer Affairs Minister stressed that the overall purpose of the legislation was to ease the process of addressing grievances of consumers. TheAct also seeks to bring in ecommerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse. The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised. It also provides for product liability action on account of harm caused to consumers due to defective products or deficient services.Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service.
Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose. It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multilevel marketing or direct selling. Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act.
Certain consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: (i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property; (ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services; (iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and (iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
The central government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements. The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director- General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.The CCPA may impose a penalty on a manufacturer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for up to two years for a false or misleading advertisement. In case of a subsequent offence, the fine may extend to Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of up to five years.

Kanika Sharma, a famous actress endorsed a brand of leggings. In the advertisement, the actress says, "100% cotton leggings to keep you cool during summers."
Manasa purchase a pair of the same brand leggings relying on the advertisement. It turns out to be only 20% cotton and the rest is nylon. Choose the best option.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (a) Kanika Sharma is liable for performing a misleading and false advertisement. In the 2nd paragraph, celebrities have been made liable for endorsing misleading and false advertisements (.and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (b) is therefore incorrect. 
Option (c) is incorrect as advertisements are taken to be true by general public and therefore the rationale of making the advertiser and the celebrities liable.
Option (d) is incorrect has Kanika Sharma is liable for misleading and false advertisement and not individually to each consumer who purchases such product.

QUESTION: 84

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Parliament passed the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which promises to strengthen the rights of consumers and provides a mechanism for redressal of complaints regarding defects in goods and deficiency in services.Union Food and Consumer Affairs Minister stressed that the overall purpose of the legislation was to ease the process of addressing grievances of consumers. TheAct also seeks to bring in ecommerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse. The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised. It also provides for product liability action on account of harm caused to consumers due to defective products or deficient services.Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service.
Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose. It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multilevel marketing or direct selling. Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act.
Certain consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: (i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property; (ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services; (iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and (iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
The central government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements. The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director- General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.The CCPA may impose a penalty on a manufacturer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for up to two years for a false or misleading advertisement. In case of a subsequent offence, the fine may extend to Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of up to five years.

Ankit brought 1000 kgs of wheat from Kartik. He grinds the wheat and uses the flour so produced for making bread, which he then sells in the open market. The wheat turns to be infested with pests making it unsuitable for use. What course of action is available to Ankit ?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Ankit cannot take action against Kartik under the Consumer Protection Act. In the 3rd paragraph, it is mentioned that only a consumer can file a case under the Act. Ankit is not a consumer as he purchased the wheat for commercial purposes i.e. for making bread to be sold in the market (.Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose.Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (a) is therefore incorrect. 
Option (b) is legally correct as per Indian Contract Act but since it is not mentioned in the passage, we cannot use this external knowledge. Hence, it cannot be a correct option. 
Option (c) is not based on information supplied in the passage.

QUESTION: 85

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The Parliament passed the Consumer Protection Act, 2019, which promises to strengthen the rights of consumers and provides a mechanism for redressal of complaints regarding defects in goods and deficiency in services.Union Food and Consumer Affairs Minister stressed that the overall purpose of the legislation was to ease the process of addressing grievances of consumers. TheAct also seeks to bring in ecommerce under their jurisdiction and hold celebrities accountable for false and misleading advertisements of products that they endorse. The Act proposed strict action against the advertiser in case of misleading advertisements but not against the media through which the advertisement is being publicised. It also provides for product liability action on account of harm caused to consumers due to defective products or deficient services.Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service.
Under the Act, a consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. It does not include a person who obtains a good for resale or a good or service for commercial purpose. It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multilevel marketing or direct selling. Only a consumer can bring an action under the Act.
Certain consumer rights have been defined in the Act, including the right to: (i) be protected against marketing of goods and services which are hazardous to life and property; (ii) be informed of the quality, quantity, potency, purity, standard and price of goods or services; (iii) be assured of access to a variety of goods or services at competitive prices; and (iv) seek redressal against unfair or restrictive trade practices.
The central government will set up a Central Consumer Protection Authority (CCPA) to promote, protect and enforce the rights of consumers. It will regulate matters related to violation of consumer rights, unfair trade practices, and misleading advertisements. The CCPA will have an investigation wing, headed by a Director- General, which may conduct inquiry or investigation into such violations.The CCPA may impose a penalty on a manufacturer or an endorser of up to Rs 10 lakh and imprisonment for up to two years for a false or misleading advertisement. In case of a subsequent offence, the fine may extend to Rs 50 lakh and imprisonment of up to five years.

Garima ordered fried rice at a 3-star restaurant. She found a dead cockroach in it. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (a) Garima can file a complaint under the Consumer Protection Act. This case falls under deficiency of service by the restaurant. A 3-star restaurant must ensure hygienic food. In the 2nd paragraph, it is mentioned while defining product liability (. Product liability means the liability of a product manufacturer, service provider or seller to compensate a consumer for any harm or injury caused by a defective good or deficient service).
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. 
Option (d) is therefore incorrect. 
Option (b) is incorrect as though it is a possible course of action, it is not based on the information supplied in the passage. 
Option (c) is using external knowledge and therefore cannot be a correct option here.

QUESTION: 86

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

A holds Z down and fraudulently takes Z's money and jewels from Z's clothes without Z's consent.Based on the information in the passage above, decide the guilt of A?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) A has committed theft, and in order to the committing of that theft, has voluntarily caused wrongful restraint to Z and hence A has committed robbery.
Fraudulently means dishonestly and without consent.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 87

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

A meets Z on the high roads, shows a pistol, and demands Z's purse. Z in consequence, surrenders his purse.Based on the information in the passage above, decide the guilt of A?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Here A has extorted the purse from Z by putting him in fear of instant hurt, and being at the time of committing the extortion in his presence. A has therefore committed robbery.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 88

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

Vidyu meets Lata in a dark street-corner and tells her that unless she delivers her Palme D'eol trophy to her, Vidyu will kill Lata's only son Ajey whom she has held captive. Lata does the same. On reaching home, Lata finds that her son is watching a movie and gets very angry at being fooled by Vidyu.Based on the information in the passage above what offence, if any, has been committed by Vidyu?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (b) Vidyu committed robbery because she put Lata in fear of death, of some other person.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 89

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh, Ganesh and Kartik are teammates at Bahar-se-lo-naa Football club. Since the club has been in a pretty bad shape financially and doesn't pay them much, they capture their coach and call his wife and tell her that they would not release him unless she pays them 10 Million Euros. His wife starts crying and says that she has no money. Frustrated, the players let go of the coach. Based on the information in the passage abovewhat offence have they committed?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (c) Five or more people have jointly attempted to commit a dacoity.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 90

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

Mr Yechell Sattu is the manager of a cricket team in the Insane Premier League. His biggest rival is Santasivam, the manager of another team. Santasivam's team has never beaten Sattu's team in a match and is desperate to end this losing streak. He finds Sattu before the match and asks him to give the team's strategy papers to Santasivam. His plans fail as Sattu does not have the papers. Based on the information in the passage abovewhat offence has Santasivam committed?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (c) Santasivam has neither committed, nor attempted to commit any offence against Sattu or the team.

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (c)

QUESTION: 91

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

Manav, Sidharth, Ajey, Sudhanshu, Vageesh and Surabhi decide to make some quick and easy cash and get hold of Amita, a very rich guru of the meninist faith, and keep her with them for 6 days, thinking that they can withdraw cash from her ATM card, but Amita does not budge and doesn't give them her PIN. On the 7th day, poor Manav has mercy on Amita and convinces Surabhi to let her go. Surabhi, who is also a devout meninist, unties her and even beats up the other 4 and helps Amita get away. Amita goes to the police and informs them about these events. Based on the information in the passage abovewho is guilty of what offences?

Solution:

Five or more people have jointly attempted to commit a robbery.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 92

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

A makes an attempt to steal some jewels by breaking open a box and after opening the box, finds that there is no jewel in it. He takes the box itself and runs away. Based on the information in the passage abovewhat offence, if any, has A committed?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) If 'A' would have left the box there, he would have been liable for attempt to theft, but since he took the box itself, he is liable for the theft of the box. Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 93

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
Property is mainly divided into two parts, namely movable and immovable. Any offence which is committed in regard to any property whether it is movable or immovable is punishable under the provisions of the law of Crimes or the Indian Penal Code.
PROPERTY OFFENCES ARE PROVIDED HEREUNDER, APPLY THEM WHEREVER APPLICABLE:
1. THEFT AND ATTEMPT TO THEFT
Whoever, intending to take dishonestly any moveable property out of the possession of any person without that person's consent, moves that property, is said to commit theft.  Whoever attempts to commit an offence punishable by the IPC and in such attempt does any act towards the commission of the offence, shall be punished.
2. EXTORTION
Whoever intentionally puts any person in fear of any injury to that person and dishonestly induces the person so put in fear to deliver to any person, any property or valuable security, or anything signed or sealed which may be converted into a valuable security, commits "extortion".
3. ROBBERY
Theft is "robbery" if by committing the theft or attempting to commit the theft, the offendervoluntarily causes or attempts to cause to any person death or hurt or wrongful restraint.  Extortion is "robbery" if the offender, at the time of committing the extortion, is in the presence of the person put in fear of death, hurt, or wrongful restraint to that person and, by so putting in fear, induces the person so put in fear to deliver up the thing extorted.
4. DACOITY
When five or more persons conjointly commit a robbery, or attempt to commit a robbery, and persons present and aiding such commission or attempt, amount to five or more, every person so committing, attempting or aiding, is said to commit "dacoity".

Sanya had lent her copy of Carry On to Manya. Janya, a friend of theirs, also wanted to read the book so she asked Sanya if she could have it after Manya was done with it. Sanya agreed but forgot to tell Manya. After Manya was done reading, she went to Sanya's place and finding that she wasn't home, left it with her younger sister Anya. Janya came over later and asked Anya for the book, who refused to give it saying she had been asked to give it to Sanya and no one else. Janya got annoyed and simply picked it up when Anya went to the washroom. Anya wants to file a case of theft against Manya.Based on the information in the passage above, will Ananya succeed?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) Because theft is an offence against possession and not ownership when all's said and done, Anya is in possession of the book and perfectly capable of refusing to give it to someone else.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 94

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Parliament recentlypassed an amendment that would change the structure and character of the Constitution.
This amendment seeks to tinker with the basic feature of 'secularism' and it has created a sense of insecurity in the minds of minority. Based on the author's arguments and essence of the passage, would such an amendment be constitutionally permissible?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) First paragraph mentions in the first paragraph that "concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India". In the Second paragraph it is mentioned that "The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State." Thus the amendment would not be valid, since secularism is an integral part of the Constitution Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.The other options do not directly address whether such an amendment would be valid, and therefore, none of them can be the correct answer.

QUESTION: 95

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Apex Court had held that "Equality and Secularism cannot be separated from each other. They are mutually reinforcing forces." Government has passed a cabinet resolution to eliminate the norms and values of equality. Legal scholars are of the view that it will create asymmetry in the scheme of the constitution.
Based on the author's arguments and precedent of the Apex Court, would the cabinet resolutionseeking removal of equality be held valid?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) No, it would not be valid, since a society that is not committed to equality cannot be assumed to be committed to secularism. Thus, Cabinet resolution seeking removal of equality is not valid, since the basic aim of secularism is to ensure equality amongst religions and preserving secular fabric of the society.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 96

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

There was a movement to construct a temple for which some part of the land was acquired including the disputed site. Acquisition led to dispute over this portion of land between two religious denominations.
Neither denomination has better title over the land.
Despite this fact, Parliament enacted a law giving green signal for the construction of temple. In such a case, based on the author's reasoning, what is the likely outcomeif the temple construction law is challenged?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (d) Law will not be valid, since the constitution is committed to the notion of secularism. Thus, any law made cornering any community unfairly would undoubtedly violate the value of secularism. Temple construction law will be struck down since the law is operating in exclusion of a community Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 97

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Modu is an ardent follower of a religion followed by the majority populationin the country. Moduis elected with a landslide victory in the general elections. Gondu, his political opponent belongs to a minority religion in the country. Gondu challenges Modu's appointment. Basic premise of the challenge is that election cannot be allowed of a person who follows communal practices, excludes the interests of other religions and remains silent during religious intolerance and lynching. Based on the author's arguments and reasoning of the passage, decide the validity of the petition?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (b) Gondu's challenge would not succeed, since secularism does not mean that the state stays aloof from religion, but that it grants equal treatment to all religions. Thus, Gondu's petition would not succeed, since secularism does not mean that the state creates a high wall against the religion. Equality is the norm, discrimination is violation. Incorrect Answers  Option (a) has no relation to the matters discussed in the paragraph.  Option (c) is not supported by any of the information set out in the passage - there is nothing in the passage to indicate that Modu is intolerant of other religions or their followers.

QUESTION: 98

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

After the preparation of Annual Budget, Ministry of Finance has the convention to conduct halwa ceremony.
Finance Secretary who belongs to minority religion challenged the tradition. Based on the principles and information set out in the given passage, decide the validity of ceremony?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (a) Tradition would be valid, since it allows for the equal treatment of all religions and is therefore secular.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above. Option (b) contradicts the descriptions of secularism set out in the passage and so cannot be correct. There is no information in the passage to support either (c) or (d) as the correct answer.

QUESTION: 99

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

All persons have a fundamental right to profess, practice and propagate religion under Article 25 of the Constitution of India. However, this right shall be subjected to the public order, morality and health, and any law enacted by state to regulate the secular activities associated with religious practices. In the general elections for the Parliament, addressing an election rally, X, a candidate belonging to religion Y appealed to the people present there that if they wanted to throw the people belonging to religion Z out of this country, then they must vote for him. X was prosecuted under the relevant provisions of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Representation of Peoples Act, 1951 on the ground of creating a feeling of hatred between different classes of citizens belonging to different religion. X challenged the prosecution on the ground of his constitutional right to religion under Article 25 of the Constitution of India.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation with the given principle of law. You have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (b) The principle says that the right to religion shall be subjected to public order and also that the secular activities associated with the religious practices can be regulated by the state through law. In this case, the appeal by X was definitely to the effect of creating hatred between the people of religion Y and Z, which was against the public order. Also, the election was not an activity associated with any religious practice; and hence, the state was all empowered to regulate the speech in an election rally, which it already did by virtue of the relevant provisions of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and the Representation of Peoples Act, 1951. Hence, there arises no occasion of the success of X in thwarting the prosecution against him in the court of law.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 100

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Secularism is the view that public activities should be uninfluenced by religious beliefs or practices.
Hungamaland was a country in South America. It was decolonized a few decades ago. It comprised of a religious majority among which believed in paganism.
Paganism believes animal equivalent to god. The government of Hungamaland made killing of cow a capital offence. This was done to calm the cow worshipping community. Decide.

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation with the given principle of law. You have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
The law passed by Hungamaland violates the principle of secularism as the law is passed due to the religious view of a community. The law was passed for this purpose only as mentioned in the facts.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 101

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Article 30 says "All minoritiesshall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice." The protection granted to Minority Educational Institutions to admit students of their choice is subject to reasonable restrictions. Holy Mary Institute, an educational minority institution was granted the status of "Christian Minority Educational Institution". Recently, Holy Land Govt. made a law mandating the Secondary School Certificates or Transfer Certificates (T.C.) from the school from which they have studied shall be the basis for the purpose of determining the minority status of candidates. Holy Mary Institute challenged the law on the ground that is an intrusion on the right to administer the minority institutions conferred by Article 30(1). Based on the principle of law and information set out in the given passage, choose the most appropriate choice:

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation with the given principle of law. You have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices.
Correct Answer is (a) Option (c) can also be an answer however most appropriate is Option a. Option a comprises given principle in its entirety. The criteria have been prescribed only for the purpose of determining the minority status of the candidates for admission to the B. Ed. Course. This would not amount to a restriction, or impose any fetters in the matter of an individual's choice of religion.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 102

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

In such a case, based on the author's reasoning, if India has been declared as a secular state, what shall be the implication of the same?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation. You will have to assimilate the inference and look at the facts of the case and evaluate the answer choices. Correct Answer is (d) Article 25 guarantees the freedom of religion but still India is a secular state, it means that no one religion should be given preferential treatment or status.
Incorrect Answers None of the other options sets out views that are consistent with those of the author in the passage above.

QUESTION: 103

Direction: You have been given some passages followd by questions based on each passage. You are required to choose the mot appropriate option which follows from the passage. Only the information given in the passage should be used for choosing the answer and no external knowledge of law howsoever prominent is to be applied.
The polity assured to the people of India by the Constitution is described in the Preamble wherein the word "secular" was added by the 42nd Amendment. It highlights the fundamental rights guaranteed in Articles 25 to 28 that the State shall have no religion of its own and all persons shall be equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess, practise and propagate religion of their own choice, in brief, this is the concept of secularism as a basic feature of the Constitution of India and the way of life adopted by the people of India as their abiding faith and creed. M.C.
Setalvad in Patel Memorial Lectures - 1985, on Secularism, referring to the Indian concept of secularism, stated thus: The ideal, therefore, of a secular State in the sense of a State which treats all religions alike and displays benevolent neutrality towards them is in a way more suited to the Indian environment and climate than that of a truly secular State.
Secularism, in the Indian context, must be given the widest possible content. It should connote the eradication of all attitudes and practices derived from or connected with religion which impede our development and retard our growth into an integrated nation The concept of secularism is very much embedded in our constitutional philosophy.Secularism is thus more than a passive attitude of religious tolerance. It is a positive of equal treatment of all religious. The State has no religion. The State is bound to honour and to wield the scales even between all religions. It may not advance the cause of one religion to the detriment of another.
Thus, only concerted and earnest endeavour, both by the State and citizen, towards secularisation lead to the stabilisation of our democratic state and the establishment of a true and cohesive Indian nationhood.

Parliament can amend the constitution of India or any law without violating the Basic Structureof constitution of India. Basic Structure of the constitution of India consists of its essential features such as democracy, secularism, judicial review etc. The Parliament has decided to pass a constitutional amendment act to abolish the religions in India. Following the amendment, all the religion will be derecognized by the State and Central Government. Based on the author's arguments and given principle of law, decide the validity of the amendment?

Solution:

Rationale: The question asks you to apply the idea of the passage to a given situation with the given principle of law. You have to assimilat