The proximate causes of behavior are interactions with the environment, but behavior is ultimately shaped by
According to evolutionary psychologists, patterns of behavior have evolved through natural selection, in the same way that physical characteristics have evolved. Because of natural selection, adaptive behaviors, or behaviors that increase reproductive success, are kept and passed on from one generation to the next generation.
Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora are examples of which of the following in India?
Lantana camara and Prosopis juliflora are examples of prominent invasive species in India. Such invasive species cause harm and very soon become the cause for endangerment to other native species of that ecosystem.
Brightly colored flowers attract bees and insects. Which of the following can be the best explanation for this?
Brightly colored flowers can be easily recognized by bees and insects, who are also biotic agents of pollination. In this way, it is ensured that flowers can be easily pollinated when bees travel from flower to flower and so, it is a structural adaptation in plants for reproduction.
Ravens have been shown to demonstrate extraordinary problem-solving abilities. This shows their
Cognition refers to the processing of information and responding to it in a manner that suggests thinking. So, problem solving abilities most appropriately demonstrate the cognitive behavior.
Which of the following scenarios represents a density-independent regulation on population?
Density-independent regulation can be affected by factors that affect birth and death rates such as weather or conditions such as fire, whereas density-dependent regulation is affected by factors such as competition and predation.
If the population of a predator increases within an area, then population of its prey might
If the predator population increases, then population of prey will decrease as they will be fed on faster. Further, this would result in the population of the predator decreasing as they would be left with no food to feed on.
Which of the following is not an adaptation to reduce the risk of predation in animals?
By giving alarm calls, animals save their kin from predation. By living in groups and by camouflaging themselves, they can avoid predation. But cannibalism would mean they are self predators, so this would be the wrong answer.
A student uses artificial flowers with honey as a reward to study color preference in bees. She keeps blue round flowers and white square flowers of the same size and finds that bees choose the blue flowers more often than the white flowers and concludes that bees have a colour preference for blue flowers. Do you think that she should have done the experiment differently and if so, what should she have done?
To eliminate the factor of shape, both the artificial flowers should have been round or both should have been square.
In the following survivorship curve, which of the following curves represents humans?
Humans care for their young ones and invest a lot of energy in them. That is the reason their relative number of survivors is more than others.
Match the following
Mutualism is where individuals benefit from each other. Amensalism is where one individual gets harmed and the other remains unaffected. In commensalism, one gets benefitted and the other is unaffected. In parasitism, one gets benefitted while the other gets harmed.
Conservation hotspots are
Hotspots are areas with large number of endemic species. They are also known as biodiversity hotspots.
All of the following act to increase species diversity except
Competition exclusion affects species diversity. In the short run, competition should cause a reduction in the number of species living within an area, preventing very similar species from co-occurring in same ecological niche.
Resource partitioning would be most likely to occur between
Same ecological niche will cause a greater competition between the species which are extant in it. Sympatric speciation is the evolution of a new species from a surviving ancestral species while both continue to inhabit the same geographic region. So, resource partitioning most prominently happens between sympatric species with same ecological niche.
Which of the following are examples of habituation?
Habituation is learning not to respond to stimulus by becoming familiar with something. Getting stung by a bee is not an example of being familiar through habituation and not responding to that stimulus anymore.
Which of the following are known to be used by birds as cues during migration?
Only celestial navigation such as the direction of sun and magnetic field of the earth have been known to be used as cues by birds during migration till now.
In populations growing according to logistic growth model
Logistic growth model is represented by S shaped growth curve where carrying capacity is a limiting factor in the per capita growth rate of population.
Which of the following is true? A population’s carrying capacity
The carrying capacity can change as the environmental conditions change. The exponential growth model does not specifies the carrying capacity. When carrying capacity exceeds, the population starts declining.
If the population size of tribolium beetle is 1,000. In a period of a month, you record 400 births and 150 deaths in the population. The population size predicted to be in 6 months is _____________
[Answer upto two decimal places]
Here, Birth rate: 400/1000 = 0.4 births per individual
Death rate: 150/1000 = 0.15 Deaths per individual
So, r = B-D = 0.4 - 0.15 = 0.25
Nt = No ert
We know that t = 6 months (given in the question)
Therefore, Nt = 1000 e(0.25)(6)
In Nt - In 1000 = 1.5
ln Nt = 1.5 + 6.9
ln Nt = 8.4
by taking exponential of both sides
Nt = 4447.07
A population is showing logistic growth. If the carrying capacity is 500 for this population and r = 0.1 individuals/ (individuals x month), the maximum population growth rate for the population will be _____
[Answer in integer]
(Hint: maximum population growth rate occurs when N = K/2).
In the question you’re given the following information:
K = 500, r = 0.1
Maximum population growth occurs at K/2
Therefore, the maximum population size = K/2 = 500/2 = 250
Logistic growth equation for a population
dN/dt = rN[1 – N/K]
dN/dt = (0.1) (250) [1 – (250)/500)] dN/dt = 12.5 individuals/month
A population bears 200 females and 40 males. The effective population size if the total population size is 240 will be _____________ [Answer upto two decimal places]
Formula for effective population size is = 4 × NM × NF / NM × NF
PE = 4 × 200 × 40/ 200+40
Twenty three brown bats were captured, marked, and released. One week later 29 were captured and 11 of them had been marked. The estimated population will be ______________
[Answer upto two decimal places]
Formula for mark and recapture technique = N = (M × C) / R
N = estimated Number of individuals in the population
M = number of individuals captured and Marked
C = total number Captured the second time (with and without a mark)
R= number of individuals Recaptured (those with a mark)
So, N = 23 × 29/11 = 60.63