The book “Mohenjodaro: A 5000-years old legacy” says that the descendants of the Mohenjodaro people still exist as a minority tribe of fishermen. Who are they?
Mohenjo-daro, the modern name for the site, has been variously interpreted as "Mound of the Dead Men" in Sindhi, and as "Mound of Mohan" (where Mohan is Krishna)
Which of the following sites has furnished the proof of the sea faring activity of the Harappan people?
• Lothal was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Construction of the city began around 2200 BCE.
• Discovered in 1954, Lothal was excavated from 13 February 1955 to 19 May 1960 by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), the official Indian government agency for the preservation of ancient monuments.
• According to the ASI, Lothal had the world's earliest known dock, which connected the city to an ancient course of the Sabarmati river on the trade route between Harappan cities in Sindh and the peninsula of Saurashtra when the surrounding Kutch desert of today was a part of the Arabian Sea.
Which one of the following was the most suitable reasons, which made the Harappans move away from their urban settlement?
• The Indus Valley Civilization declined around 1800 BCE, and scholars debate which factors resulted in the civilization’s demise. One theory suggested that a nomadic, Indo-European tribe called the Aryans invaded and conquered the Indus Valley Civilization, though more recent evidence tends to contradict this claim. Many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization was caused by climate change. Some experts believe the drying of the Saraswati River, which began around 1900 BCE, was the main cause for climate change, while others conclude that a great flood struck the area.
• Various elements of the Indus Civilization are found in later cultures, suggesting the civilization did not disappear suddenly due to an invasion. Many scholars argue that changes in river patterns caused the large civilization to break up into smaller communities called late Harappan cultures
Pre-Harappan settlement was discovered in 1981 at the foot of the Bolan Pass on the Bolan River at one of the following places. Identify it.
Mehergarh is a large Neolithic and chalcolithic site located at the foot of the bolan pass on the kachi plan of buchistan in modern day Pakistan . Continuously occupied between about 7000 to 2600 bc , Mehergarh is the earliest known Neolithic site in the Northwest Indian subcontinent , with early evidence of farming , herding and metallurgy .
Match the following
Which one of the following statements about the significance of large granaries of Indus valley towns is NOT correct?
In the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization; a large granary has been found. Charred grains have been found in these granaries. This shows that food grain production was surplus during this period. Grains collected as tax were stored in such large granaries.
Which West Asian site is associated with the discovery of a bale of cloth evidently an export from Harappan India?
Incidentally, a sealing at Umma is reported to have been associated with a bale of cloth-evidently an export from India.
Which one of the following was the principal article of food of the Indus valley people?
They grew most wheat and barley and also rice at some places along with pulses , sesame , linseed and mustard.
Match the following:
1. Suktagendor was located around 55Kms from the shore of Arabian Sea on the Bank of Dasht River near the Iran Border. It was an important coastal town along with Lothal and Balakot (in Pakistan)and is considered to be the western border of Indus Valley.
2. Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilisation that thrived along the Yamuna River (c. 3300-1300 BC) from the Harappan Bara period, located in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh,India. It is the eastern most site of the civilisation.
3. The southern most archaeological site of the Indus Valley/Harappan civilisation is at Diamabad, Maharashtra.
4. Manda is situated on the right Bank of Chenab River in the foothills of Pir Panjal range, 28Km north-west of the Jammu, and was considered the northernmost limit of the Harappan civilisation. It is considered the northmost site of Indus Valley Civilisation.
As at Kalibangan, both the citadel and the lower town were fortified at one of the following places. What is that place called?
In Surkotada, the citadel and lower town were joined together. Like Kalibangan, the citadel and the town were fortified, each having independent entrances in the South and also an intercommunicating gate. Stone rubble and mud bricks were used.
Which one of the following Harappan sites does suggest ploughing (evidence of furrow). Identify it.
Kalibangan is distinguished by its unique fire altars and "world's earliest attested ploughed field. It is a town located on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River) in Tehsil Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in Hanumangarh District, Rajasthan, India 205 km. from Bikaner. It is also identified as being established in the triangle of land at the confluence of Drishadvati and Saraswati Rivers. The prehistoric and pre-Mauryan character of Indus Valley Civilization was first identified by Luigi Tessitori at this site. Kalibangan's excavation report was published in its entirety in 2003 by the Archaeological Survey of India, 34 years after the completion of excavations. The report concluded that Kalibangan was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Evidence of the horse comes from which of the following Harappan sites?
Earlier evidence of horse was reported from a late level at Mohenjadaro. He had also reported the presence of horse from the late period of Harappan culture at Rupar and Lothal. Subsequently after the discovery of the horse from Surkotada was declared.
Which one of the following metals was NOT perhaps known to Indus valley people?
The Indus valley people knew the use of copper, bronze, silver, gold but not iron.
The Indus valley people do NOT use one of the following weapons. What is that?
It is true that Harappan art does not portrait warfare. It is also true that no good weapons like spears or swords have been found. There is also no evidence of sacking or burning of Indus cities. The inescapable conclusion is that the Harappan were a peace loving people not given to war or aggression.
The discovery, in the upper levels of a Harappan site, of human skeletons lying pell-mell, with a skull having injury mark, shows the invasion and massacre. What is that site?
The discovery, in the upper levels of a Harappan site, of human skeletons lying pell-mell, with a skull having injury mark, shows the invasion and massacre of Mohenjo-Daro.
Which cults did the Harappan practise?
B. Female deity
The Harappan practised Fire, Female deity, Fertility and Fetish.
Match the following:
• Montgomery District was an administrative district of the former Punjab Province of British India, The sites of Kamalia and Harappa contain large mounds of antique bricks and other ruins left by the Indus Valley Civilisation.
• Mohenjo-daro is located west of the Indus River in Larkana District, Sindh, Pakistan, in a central position between the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra River.
• Kalibangan is located on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River) in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan, which near to Sri Ganganagar.
• Lothal is located between the Sabarmati river and its tributary Bhogavo, in the Saurasthra region, near Ahmedabad, Gujrat. The sea is, today, over 19 km away from Lothal, but at one time, boats from the Gulf of Cambay could have sailed right up to the spot.
Match the following
The correct answer is B as it matches the given columns
The evidence of Indian ships and a piece of woven cloth has been discovered from the seals of which of the following sites?
-The most dramatic characteristic of the city is a commanding citadel.
-There lay in the citadel a ‘College’, a multipillar ‘Assembly Hall’ and the so-called ‘Great Bath’.
-Most of Mohenjodaro houses are built of kilnfired brick.
-The major streets are 33 feet wide and run north-south intersecting subordinate ones, running east-west, at right angles.
-The evidence of Indian ships (figured on a seal) and a piece of woven cloth has been discovered from here.
Which of the following sites were excavated after the independence of India?
After the partition of India most of the well known Harappan sities-Mohenjodaro, Harappa, Chanhudaro and Jhukar(near Larkana, Sind)—went to Pakistan, leaving only two outposts, Kotla Nihang Khan near Ropar on ten Sutlej in Punjab, and Rangpur on the Bhadar in Kathiawar Gujarat, within the territory of India.
Which of the following statements on Harappan pottery is/are correct?
A. Natural motifs such as birds, fishes, animals, plants, trees and pipal leaves are frequent.
B. The majority of the pottery is plain, but a substantial part is treated with a red slip and black-painted decoration.
C. Polychrome pottery is rare.
D. Abstract geometrical motifs on the pottery are comparatively unusual.
The correct option is D.
All the given statements are correct with reference to the Harappan pottery.
It is found in Mesopotamian records that there were two intermediate trading stations between Mesopotamia and Harappan regions. Identify the places.
The Mesopotamian records from about 2350 BC onwards refer to trade relations with Meluha, which was the ancient name given to the Indus region, and they also speak of two intermediate stations called ‘Dilmun’ (identified with Bahrain on the Persian Gulf) and Makan (Makran Coast).
Not far from Lothal there is a place, where it is noticed that the mature Harappa culture degenerated and transformed itself later into other cultures. Identify that place.
In Rangpur, which is not far from Lothal there is a place, it is noticed that the mature Harappa culture degenerated and transformed itself later into other cultures.
It has been observed by the excavation that the pottery fabrics and forms found at some places show a closed affinity with the early Baluchistan and Iranian pottery. Identify the places.
Which of the following materials was mainly used by the Indus valley people in the manufacture of seals?
Most of the seals were made of steatite, which is a kind of soft stone. A few of them were also made of terracotta, gold, agate, chert, ivory and faience. The standard Harappan seal was square in shape with a 2X2 dimension. It is believed that the seals were used for commercial purposes.
Arrange the following periods or ages in the chronological order:
(i) Iron age
(ii) Bronze age
(iii) Palaeolithic period
(iv) Chalcolithic period
(v) Neolithic period
(vi) Mesolithic period.
• The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic or Palæolithic (/ˌpeɪl-, ˌpælioʊˈlɪθɪk/), also called the Old Stone Age, is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 99% of the time period of human technological prehistory.
• The Mesolithic is the Old World archaeological period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic. The term Epipaleolithic is often used synonymously, especially for outside northern Europe, and for the corresponding period in the Levant and Caucasus.
• The Neolithic (/ˌniːoʊˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen), also known as the "New Stone Age"), the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world.
The Chalcolithic, a name derived from the Greek: χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and from líthos, "stone" or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Aeneolithic is an archaeological period which researchers usually regard as part of the broader Neolithic.
• The Bronze Age is a historical period that was characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
• The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humanity. It was preceded by the Stone Age and the Bronze Age. The concept has been mostly applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy, also to other parts of the Old World.
Which of the following Indian script appears to be the closest to the Harappan script?
Linguistically, if the Indus script is deciphered, we may hopefully find that the proto-Dravidian roots of the Harappan language and South Indian Dravidian languages are similar. This is a hypothesis. If you ask what similarity is likely to emerge, the first and most important similarity is linguistic.
The Harappan people did not grow:
Name the animal which was engraved on most of the Harappan seals:
The unicorn is the most common motif on Indus seals and appears to represent a mythical animal that Greek and Roman sources trace back to the Indian subcontinent.
The script of the Indus Valley Civilizations has not been deciphered so far, but overlaps of letters on some of the potsherds from Kalibangan show that writing was:
The writing was Boustrophedon type, that is from right to right and then from left to right.The indus valley script has not been deciphered yet but it has been found that the script contained 425-600 signs and animal motifs. The writing was in such a way that it started from right to left and then from left to right in alternate lines, it is clearly visible from the writings on the wall in which the person started to write from right side to left side and then alternatively from left to right, and at some point he ran out of space so he adjusted the remaining line somewhere below it.