History NCERT Based Test- 1


25 Questions MCQ Test UPSC Civil Services Revision & Mock Tests | History NCERT Based Test- 1


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This mock test of History NCERT Based Test- 1 for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 25 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC History NCERT Based Test- 1 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this History NCERT Based Test- 1 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this History NCERT Based Test- 1 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other History NCERT Based Test- 1 extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements:
1. Kshatriya reaction against Brahmanical domination
2. Spread of new agricultural economy
3. Rise of new cities in northeastern India
4. Practicing the doctrine of non-violence

Which of the above is/are the reasons for the origin of Buddhism and Jainism?

Solution:
  • All statements are correct

Supplementary notes:

Causes of Origin of Buddhism and Jainism

  • Post-Vedic society was clearly divided into four varnas: Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. Each Varna was assigned well-defined functions which generated tensions. The Kshatriya reaction against the domination of the Brahmanas, who claimed various privileges, was one of the causes of the origin of new religions. Vardhamana Mahavira, who founded Jainism, and Gautama Buddha, who founded Buddhism, belonged to the Kshatriya clan, and both disputed the authority of the Brahmanas.
  • Spread of a new agricultural economy in north-eastern India including eastern U.P. and Bihar also led to rise of new religions. The agricultural economy based on the iron ploughshare required the use of bullocks, and could not flourish without animal husbandry. However, the Vedic practice of killing cattle indiscriminately in sacrifices hampered the progress of the new agriculture.
  • Rise  of a large number of cities in northeastern India like Kaushambi, Kusinagar, Vaishali etc. facilitated trade and commerce which added to the importance of Vaishyas. Naturally, they sought a religion that would improve their position.
  • Jainism and Buddhism at the initial stage did not attach any importance to the existing Varna system.
  • They preached the gospel of nonviolence, which would put an end to wars between different kingdoms and consequently promote trade and commerce.
  • The Brahmanical law-books, called the Dharmasutras, decried lending money at an interest, and condemned those who lived on interest. Therefore, the vaishyas, who lent money because of the growing trade and commerce, were held in low esteem and looked for better social status.
  • Both Jainism and Buddhism propounded simple, puritan, ascetic living which appealed to the old-fashioned people who did not like the use and accumulation of coins, new dwellings and clothes, new luxurious systems of transport, war and violence etc.
QUESTION: 2

Where was “Prati Sarkar” or parallel government set up under Nana Patil during the Quit India Movement?

Solution:

Krantisinha Nana Patil was one of the national leaders in Independence movement in Maharashtra especially in the district of Sangli and Satara, who established a novel and unique experiment of Prati Sarkar, a parallel government during the British Reign.

QUESTION: 3

Under which Mughal emperor reign, artist Mir Sayyid Ali was present?

Solution:
  • Option (b) is correct: Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad were present in the court of Humayun.

Supplementary notes:

Artists in the Mughal Court

  • Mir Sayyid Ali and Abdus Samad were present in the court of Humayun.
  • They migrated from Iran to Mughal court and accompanied Humayun to Delhi. 
QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements:
1) Mansab fixed the status of the Mansabdar in the official hierarchy but not his salary.
2) Mansab did not fix the number of armed retainers that the Mansabdar was supposed to maintain.
3) Mansabdari was a single service combining both civil and military responsibilities.
4) All holders of Mansab were called “Amir-e-Azam”.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:

Mansabdari System was a system that was introduced by Akbar for the military administration and territorial commands (grant and revenue) to sustain parts of his army. The Mughal Officers, whether Hindus or Muslims, were granted territorial commands in return for the military services. They had to bring in some fixed number of men at arms, horses and elephants to the field and were rated as per the no. known as Zats.

QUESTION: 5

With reference to ‘Badshah-Nama’, consider the following statements:
1. It was written by Abdul Hamid Lahori.
2. It gives detailed account of reign of Mughal emperor Jahangir.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: It gives detailed account of the reign of Mughal emperor Shahjahan.

Supplementary notes:

Badshah Nama

  • Abdul Hamid Lahori is known as the author of the Badshah Nama. Emperor Shahjahan, hearing of his talents, commissioned him to write a history of his reign modelled on the Akbar Nama. 
  • The Badshah Nama is the official history in three volumes (daftars) of ten lunar years each.
  • Lahori wrote the first and second daftars comprising the first two decades of the emperor’s rule (1627-47); these volumes were later revised by Sadullah Khan, Shah Jahan’s wazir. Infirmities of old age prevented Lahori from proceeding with the third decade which was then chronicled by the historian Waris.
QUESTION: 6

Which of the following Muslim League leaders joined the Home Rule League founded by Annie Besant?

Solution:

In 1916, Tilak reorganized his supporters. When the war was near closing, Tilak, Annie Besant, Jinnah, Joseph Baptista, G.S. Khaparde, Sir S. Subramania Iyer, all came together under the umbrella of All India Home Rule League. The demand was self-government within the British Empire of India.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements with respect to ‘Great’ and ‘Little’ Traditions:
1. Great Tradition emanated from dominant social categories like priests and rulers.
2. Little tradition refers to great tradition tailored according to regional and village conditions.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Both statements are correct

Supplementary notes:

Great and Little Traditions

  • The terms ‘great’ and ‘little’ traditions were coined by a sociologist named Robert Redfield in the 20th century to describe the cultural practices of the peasant societies.
  • He founded that peasants observed rituals and customs that emanated from dominant social categories, including priests and rulers. He classified them as great traditions.
  • The great traditions consist of the traditions contained in epics like Puranas and other classical Sanskritic works.
  • At the same time, peasants followed local practices that did not necessarily correspond with those of great tradition. These he included them within the category of little tradition.
  • The carriers of little tradition include storytellers, poets, saints etc.
QUESTION: 8

During the Indian freedom struggle, who of the following started the weekly “Yugantar” in April 1906?

Solution:

The “Yugantar” was started on March 30th, 1906 by Barindra Kumar Ghosh, Abinash Bhattacharya, and Bhupendra Nath Dutt. It openly aimed at the destruction of British Rule in India. Sri Aurobindo himself wrote some of the opening articles in the early years.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements:
1. Harihara and Bukka were the founders of the Vijaynagara Empire.
2. They were the contemporaries of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Both statements are correct 

Supplementary notes:

Harihara and Bukka

  • Harihara and Bukka founded the Vijayanagara Empire in 1336. They made Hampi as the capital city.
  • Mohammad Bin Tughlaq was the Sultan of Delhi from 1325-51. He was contemporary to Harihara and Bukka.
  • Harihara and Bukka were nobles of the Kakatiya Kingdom of Warangal. They went to Kampili when Warangal was defeated by the Sultans of Delhi. When Muhammad Tughlaq invaded Kampili to give shelter to a Muslim rebel, he brought Harihara and Bukka to Delhi as his prisoners and converted them to Islam.
  • Later, they returned to the Hindu fold at the initiative of the saint Vidyaranya.
  • They also proclaimed their independence and founded a new city on the south bank of the Tungabhadra river. It was called Vijayanagar meaning ‘city of victory’.
QUESTION: 10

Which of the following did NOT take place during the administration of Lord Dalhousie?

Solution:

The University of Delhi was established in 1922 as a unitary, teaching and residential university by an act of the then Central Legislative Assembly of British Indian Government. Lord Dalhousie functioned as the Governor General of India from 1848-1856.

QUESTION: 11

Select the correct statement regarding Tantric worship:

Solution:
  • Option (a) is correct

Supplementary notes:

Tantric Worship

  • Tantric practices were open to women and men, and practitioners often ignored differences of caste and class within the ritual context.
  • Many of these ideas influenced Shaivism as well as Buddhism, especially in the eastern, northern and southern parts of the subcontinent.
  • Those engaged in tantric practices frequently ignored the authority of Vedas.
  • The devotees of Tantricism often projected their chosen deity, either Vishnu or Shiva as supreme.
  • Relations with other traditions, such as Buddhism or Jainism, were also often fraught with tension if not open conflict.
QUESTION: 12

“He emerged as one of the leading proponents of Vaishnavism in Assam. His teachings, often known as the Bhagavati Dharma, focused on absolute surrender to the supreme deity. He emphasized the need for naam kirtan; recitation of name of Lord in satsanga or congregations of pious devotees, His major composition includes the Kirtanaghosha”. Identify the personality discussed in the above passage:

Solution:
  • Option (b) is correct

Supplementary notes:

Shankaradeva

  • In the late 15th century, Shankaradeva emerged as one of the leading proponents of Vaishnavism in Assam.
  • His teachings, often known as the Bhagavati dharma because they were based on the Bhagvata Gita and Bhagvata Purana, focused on absolute surrender to the supreme deity (i.e. Vishnu).
  • He emphasized the need for naam kirtan, recitation of name of Lord in satsanga or congregations of pious devotees.
  • He also encouraged the establishment of satra or monasteries for the transmission of spiritual knowledge, and naam ghar or prayer halls.
  • His major compositions include the Kirtanaghosha.
QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements:
1. Sufism was initiated as a result of protest against the growing mysticism and asceticism of the Caliphate.
2. Sufi saints interpreted Quran based on their personal experiences.
3. The Sufis organized communities around a hospice called ‘dargah’.
4. Chisti order was named after its founder Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 incorrect: Sufism was initiated as a result of protest against the growing materialism of the Caliphate.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The Sufis organized communities around a hospice called ‘khanqah’.
  • Statement 4 is incorrect: Chisti order was named after their place of origin – the town of Chist in Central Afghanistan.

Supplementary notes:

Growth of Sufism

  • In the early centuries of Islam a group of religious minded people called Sufis turned to asceticism and mysticism in protest against the growing materialism of the Caliphate as a religious and political institution.
  • They were critical of the dogmatic definitions and scholastic methods of interpreting the Qur’an and Sunna (traditions of the Prophet) adopted by theologians. Instead, they laid emphasis on seeking salvation through intense devotion and love for God by following His commands, and by following the example of the Prophet Muhammad whom they regarded as a perfect human being.
  • The Sufis thus sought an interpretation of the Quran on the basis of their personal experience.
  • By the eleventh century Sufism evolved into a well-developed movement with a body of literature Quranic studies and Sufi practices.
  • The Sufis began to organize communities around the hospice or khanqah (Persian) controlled by a teaching master known as shaikh (in Arabic), pir or murshid (in Persian). He enrolled disciples (murids) and appointed a successor (khalifa). He established rules for spiritual conduct and interaction between inmates as well as between laypersons and the master.
  • The word ‘silsila’ literally means a chain, signifying a continuous link between master and disciple, stretching as an unbroken spiritual genealogy to the Prophet Muhammad.
  • When the Sufi teacher Shaikh died, his tomb-shrine (dargah, a Persian term meaning court) became the centre of devotion for his followers. This encouraged the practice of pilgrimage or ziyarat to his grave, particularly on his death anniversary or urs (or marriage, signifying the union of his soul with God).
  • Most Sufi lineages were named after a founding figure. For instance, Qadri order was named after Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. However the Chisti order was named after their place of origin – the town of Chist in Central Afghanistan.
QUESTION: 14

Consider the following pairs:

Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?

Solution:
  • Pairs 2 and 3 are incorrectly matched:

Supplementary notes:

Author/Artists in the Mughal Court

  • Abdul Hamid Lahori, Abul Fazl and Abdus Samad were present in the courts of Shahjahan, Akbar and Humayun respectively. 
QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements regarding the economy of the Vijaynagara Empire:
1. Trade was contributing more to the revenue of the empire than agriculture.
2. The society was highly egalitarian.
3. Only gold coins were in circulation in the economy.

Which of the above statements is/are incorrect?

Solution:
  • Statement 1 is incorrect: Agriculture was contributing more to the economy than Industries and trade.
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: The society was unequal and not egalitarian.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: Gold, copper and silver coins all were in circulation.

Supplementary notes:

Vijaynagara Empire

  • The economy of the Vijaynagara Empire was in very sound and healthy condition. 
  • The agriculture was in flourishing condition in Vijayanagar Empire.
    Agriculture was essentially the biggest contributor to the economy in ancient and medieval times.
  • The agricultural wealth was supplemented by numerous industries, the most important of which were textiles, mining and metallurgy.
  • The social condition of the empire was not egalitarian as the houses of the ordinary people were made of  thatched, but nonetheless well built and arranged according to occupations, in long streets with many open places.
  • The Caste system was prevalent in the empire. The Sati system was freely sanctioned by Brahmanas and was very common in the Vijayanagar Empire.
  • Coins made up of copper, gold and silver were in use in the Vijaynagara empire.
QUESTION: 16

Arrange the following Mahajanapadas that came into existence in 6th century BC from North to South:
1. Avanti
2. Taxila
3. Magadha
4. Koshala

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • Option (d) is correct: The correct order of Mahajanpadas from north to south is: Taxila-Koshala-Magadha-Avanti.

Supplementary notes:

The age of Mahajanapadas

  • The sixth-century B.C was a period of intense and new political development besides socio-political and religious upheavals that brought two religions to the fore-Buddhism and Jainism. In the later Vedic age, agriculture and iron tools helped people to settle down at one particular place.
  • The permanent settlement led to the foundation of the janapadas or small territorial states under the control of a king. The main area of political activity gradually shifted from Western UP to eastern UP and Bihar. This region was not only fertile due to the rainfall and river systems but also closer to iron production centers. The use of better iron tools and weapons along with sound economic growth resulted in the transformation of some territorial states into Bigger and more powerful states, which came to be known as Mahajanapdas.
  • There were 16 Mahajanapadas in ancient India. They were:
    (i) Anga
    (ii) Magadha
    (iii) Kasi
    (iv) Vatsa
    (v) Kosala
    (vi) Saurasena
    (vii) Kuru
    (viii) Matsya
    (ix) Chedi
    (x) Avanti
    (xi) Gandhara
    (xii) Kamboja
    (xiii) Ashmaka
    (xiv) Vajji
    (xv) Malla
QUESTION: 17

The famous ‘Kadaram Campaign’ was undertaken by which Indian Kingdom?

Solution:
  • Option (c) is correct: Cholas undertook the famous Kadaram campaign in AD 1025-26.

Supplementary notes:

Kadaram Campign

  • The Cholas were well known for their sustained naval policy from the days of rajaraja to kulottunga1, a rare feature in early Indian polity and politics. Rajaraja initiated the process by sending fleets to Ilam or Sri Lanka, the northern part of which came under the Chola rule. The chola fleet became stronger during Rajenndra1’s time when the entire island of Ilam was conquered.
  • This campaign was followed by the most daring Chola raids, the kadaram campaign in AD1025-26 When no less than tweleve areas in south-east asia were conquered by the Chola fleet.
QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements regarding the ancient Indian Mahajanapadas that came into existence during the sixth-century B.C. :
1. No Mahajanapada was located in Gangetic delta.
2. All Mahajanapadas were monarchical where power was exercised by a king.
3. The term Janapada is known from the days of the vedic literature.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: There were also oligarchical mahajanapadas where power was exercised by a group of people.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect: The term Jana and not Janapada is known from the days of the Vedic literature.

Supplementary notes:

The age of Mahajanapadas 

  • The sixth-century B.C was a period of intense and new political development besides socio-political and religious upheavals that brought two religions to the fore-Buddhism and Jainism. In the later Vedic age, agriculture and iron tools helped people to settle down at one particular place.
  • The permanent settlement led to the foundation of the Janapadas or small territorial states under the control of a king. The main area of political activity gradually shifted from Western UP to eastern UP and Bihar. This region was not only fertile due to the rainfall and river systems but also closer to iron production centers. The use of better iron tools and weapons along with sound economic growth resulted in the transformation of some territorial states into Bigger and more powerful states, which came to be known as Mahajanapdas.
  • There were 16 Mahajanapadas in ancient India.
  • The formation of the state polity was not uniformly seen in the subcontinent and it was not present in peninsular India nor in the Ganga delta and in the northeastern part of the subcontinent.
  • The majority of these states were monarchical but some were also republics, known as ganasangha. Ganasangha had an oligarchic system for governance where the administration was headed by an elected king who had a large council for his aid.
  • The term janapada literally denotes an area where a group of people or a tribe/clan (jana) first set its foot/feet (pada). The word Janapada, therefore, clearly implies a welldefined and populated territory. The term jana is known from the days of the Vedic literature but the word janapada in the sense of territorial entity seems to have gained currency only from the post-Vedic times.
QUESTION: 19

What is Nastaliq?

Solution:
  • Option (a) is correct: Nastaliq is a calligraphic style with long horizontal strokes.

Supplementary notes:

Nastaliq

  • Calligraphy is an  art of handwriting. It is considered as a skill of great importance. It was practised using different styles. Akbar’s favourite was the nastaliq, a fluid style with long horizontal strokes.
  • It is written using a piece of trimmed reed with a tip of five to 10 mm called qalam, dipped in carbon ink (siyahi). The nib of the qalam is usually split in the middle to facilitate the absorption of ink.
QUESTION: 20

Hostilities between the powers to the north and to the south of the Tungabhadra river became a regular and recurrent feature during the early medieval times. This hostility pattern was seen between which of the following kingdoms?
1. Chalukya-Pallava
2. Pallava-Rashtrakutas
3. Rashtrakutas-Cholas

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Solution:
  • All statements are correct

Supplementary notes:

The hostility between various Kingdoms

  • During the early medieval times, Hostilities between the powers to the north and to the south of the Tungabhadra river became a regular and recurrent feature that would develop into protracted battles without resulting in any long-term annexation of territories became a constant pattern of political struggle in south India.
  • This pattern of struggle or rivalries among regional powers cut across dynastic changes and upheavals.
  • This pattern was seen in the protracted struggle between Chalukya-Pallava, Pallava-Rashtrakuta, RashtrakutaChola and Chola-Western Chalukya.
QUESTION: 21

Vijaynagara  Empire was defeated at the Battle of Talikota (1565) by the combined armies of:

Solution:
  • Option (d) is correct: Vijayanagara forces were defeated at the Battle of Talikota (1565) by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar and Golconda.

Supplementary notes:

Battle of Talikota (1565)

  • After the death of Krishnadeva Raya in 1529, his successors were troubled by rebellious nayakas or military chiefs. By 1542, the control at the centre had shifted to another ruling lineage, that of the Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagar empire, which remained in power till the end of the seventeenth century.
  • During this period, the military ambitions of the rulers of Vijayanagara as well as those of the Deccan Sultanates resulted in shifting alignments. Eventually, this led to an alliance of the Sultanates against Vijayanagara.
  • In 1565, Rama Raya, the chief minister of Vijayanagara, led the army into battle at Rakshasi-Tangadi (also known as Battle of Talikota), where his forces were routed by the combined armies of Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, and Golconda.
QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements regarding the Amara-Nayaka system of the Vijaynagara Empire:
1. Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire influenced by the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.
2. Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern without any financial responsibilities.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: AmaraNayaka collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftspersons, and traders in the area.

Supplementary notes:

Amara-Nayaka system

  • The Amara-Nayaka system was a major political innovation of the Vijayanagara Empire. It is likely that many features of this system were derived from the Iqta system of the Delhi Sultanate.
  • The Amara-Nayakas were military commanders who were given territories to govern by the Raya. They collected taxes and other dues from peasants, craftspersons, and traders in the area.
  • They retained part of the revenue for personal use and for maintaining a stipulated contingent of horses and elephants. These contingents provided the Vijayanagara kings with an effective fighting force with which they brought the entire southern peninsula under their control.
  • Some of the revenue was also used for the maintenance of temples and irrigation works. The Amara-Nayak sent tribute to the king annually and personally, appeared in the royal court with gifts to express their loyalty.
QUESTION: 23

“It is situated in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is famous for prehistoric sites, which is related with paleolithic, mesolithic and megalithic periods”.

Which of the following archaeological sites is discussed in the above passage?

Solution:
  • Option (a) is correct

Supplementary notes:

Pre-Historic India

  • Belan River is a river in Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is famous for prehistoric sites on its banks. It originates from western part of Sonbhadra district then flows in southern part of Mirzapur and Allahbad districts. It is famous for prehistoric sites, which is related with paleolithic, mesolithic and megalithic periods. Chopanimando in Allahabad district is one of these sites, which deals with evidences of ancient cultivation of wild cereals like rice. Koldihwa and Mahagara (both in Allahabad district) are two important excavated sites, located on the northern fringes of Vindhyas on the banks of the Belan River.
QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements regarding the Mauryan Empire:
1. Chandragupta Maurya was an autocrat who concentrated all power in his hands.
2. The largest expansion of the empire took place under King Ashoka.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Statement 2 is incorrect: The largest expansion of the empire took place under the rule of Chandragupta Maurya.

Supplementary notes:

Mauryan Empire

  • The Mauryan empire had an efficient administrative system which helped in its political integration. The region included within the empire was just too diverse so the administration seems to recognized local and regional variations which were accommodated and not wiped out.
  • Chandragupta Maurya was an autocrat who concentrated all power in his hands.
  • The largest expansion of the empire took place under the Chandragupta Maurya.
  • Chandragupta Maurya was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India. He is credited with bringing together the small fragmented kingdoms of the country and combining them into a single large empire. During his reign, the Maurya Empire stretched from Bengal and Assam in the East to Afghanistan and Balochistan in the West, to Kashmir and Nepal in the North and to the Deccan Plateau in the South. Chandragupta Maurya, along with his mentor Chanakya, was responsible for bringing an end to the Nanda Empire.
  • Bindusara and Asoka have contributed more to the consolidation of the empire whose expansion credits should go to Chandragupta.
QUESTION: 25

Consider the following statements:
1. Harappan script is regarded as pictographic script.
2. The Harappan script was boustrophedon, written from left to right and right to left in alternate lines.
3. The Harappan script has not been deciphered yet.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • All statements are correct

Supplementary notes:

Harappan script

  • The Harappan script has 400 to 500 signs and it is generally agreed that it is not an alphabetic form of writing but pictographic.
  • Some scholars opine that Harappan inscriptions present 3 logosyllablic writing system, where a sequence of two or more signs would represent either a complete word, a syllable or a sound and sometimes even a sentence of several words and grammatical indicators.
  • The script was written from right to left. When the inscription was of more than one line it could be first line from right to left and second from left to right.
  • There are nearly 400 specimens of Harappan signs on seals and other materials such as copper tablets, axes, and pottery.
  • Most of the inscriptions on seals are small, a group of few letters.
  • The language of Harappans is at present still unknown and will  remain so until the Harappan script is read/understood.
  • While some scholars connect it to Dravidian languages and others to Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit yet there is no consensus till now.

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