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# IIFT Mock Test - 1 (New Pattern)

## 110 Questions MCQ Test IIFT Mock Test Series | IIFT Mock Test - 1 (New Pattern)

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Attempt IIFT Mock Test - 1 (New Pattern) | 110 questions in 120 minutes | Mock test for CAT preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study IIFT Mock Test Series for CAT Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

### There is a 100% green lawn whose decrease in green area is directly proportional to the square of number of cows in the lawn. Two cows together ate 8m2 area of lawn on the first day and everyday two new cows join them. The growth of grass on the lawn on a particular day is directly proportional to the cube of the number of days. If at the end of the first day, 4m2 area of grass was grown, on which of the following days the lawn will be 100% green again?

Solution:

►Let D be decrease in green area

►N1 be number of cows, G be growth in area and K1, K2 be constants.

Also N2 be number of days

∴ D = K1N12 and G = K2N23

∴ When D = 8, N1 = 2
∴ K1 = 2
∴ D2 = 2(4)2 = 32

D3 = 2(6)2 = 72

D4 = 2(8)2 = 128

Also, when G = 4, N2 = 1

∴ K2 = 4
∴ G2 = 4(2)3 = 32

G3 = 4(3)3 = 108

G4 = 4(4)3 = 256

►Hence, on third day, total lawn growth = 108 + 32 + 4 = 144 m2

►The total lawn decrease till the third day = 8 + 32 + 72 = 112 m2

►The total lawn growth is more than the lawn decreased until that day.

►Also, the growth rate of lawn is more than the decreasing of lawn from third day onwards.

►Hence, from 3rd day onwards lawn will be 100% green.
Hence, [2]

QUESTION: 2

### The figure shows a cube of side 10 cm. If A and C are vertices of the cube and B and D are mid-points of the sides shown, what is the area of ABCD?

Solution:

►In the given figure, points A and B lie on the same face of the cube.

►So, ΔAEB is a right triangle with ∠E = 90°, AE = 10 cm and EB = 5 cm.

►Using the Pythagorean theorem, AB2 = AE2 + EB2,
we get AB =

►Similarly, AD = CD = BC = 5√5 cm.

►We know that ABCD is a rhombus.

►The diagonal AC is the longest diagonal of the cube and is 10√3 cm.

►ΔBFD is a right triangle with BF = 10 cm, FD = 10 cm and ∠F = 90°.

►So, BD = 10√2 cm. Thus the area of ABCD = ½ × 10√3 × 10√2 = 50√6 cm2.

QUESTION: 3

### Consider the tangent table given below: Based on the above extract from the tangent table and the fact that tan θ = 2.340, then θ =

Solution:

Given tan  θ = 2.340.

►For 66º 0’, The value is 2.246.

►For 66º 48’, The value is 2.333.

►The value is 7 for 4’.

►Hence angle would be 66º 48’ + 4’ ⇒ 66º52’

QUESTION: 4

Then x equals

Solution:

∴ x can be expressed as
Putting the value of x as

we get LHS = RHS.
Hence answer is 3rd option.

QUESTION: 5

Given z = x2/y, if x and y are both  increased by 10%, then z is

Solution:

z = x2/y.
As values of x and y are increased by 10%, therefore new z becomes (1.1x × 1.1 y) / 1.1 y

⇒ z increased by 10%.

QUESTION: 6

If log 2 = 0.30103 and log 3 = 0.4771, then number of digits in (10368)6 will be equal to

Solution:

We have log (10368)6 = 6 × log 10368 = 6 × log (27 × 34)

= 6 × {log 27 + log 34) = 6 × (7 log 2 + 4 log 3)

= 6 × (7 × 0.30103 + 4 × 0.4771) = 6 × (2.10721 + 1.9084) = 24.09366

Hence the number of digits is 24 + 1 = 25.

QUESTION: 7

At what percentage above the cost price, must an article be marked, so as to gain 33% after allowing a customer a discount of 5%.

Solution:

►let CP = 100

►so Profit = 33

►SP = 133 which is 95% of MP

►so 0.95MP = 133

►MP = 140

►so article is marked 40% above CP

QUESTION: 8

There are 7 oranges, 5 apples and 8 mangoes in a basket. A person wants to eat fruits from the basket, but he is not sure about the number of fruits or types of fruits he will eat. In how many ways can he make a selection of fruits from among those in the basket (He will eat at least one fruit)?

Solution:

Here we consider all the fruits of the same type as identical. That is, 7 oranges are identical.

►5 apples are identical and 8 mangoes are identical.

►Zero or more oranges can be selected in 7 + 1 = 8 ways.

►Zero or more apples can be selected in 5 + 1 = 6 ways.

►Zero or more mangoes can be selected in 8 + 1 = 9 ways.

Hence total number of selections (including zero of each type) = 8 x 6 x 9 = 432

Hence required number = 431 - 1 = 431. (Note that he must eat at least one fruit)

QUESTION: 9

In a class exam, possible grades are I, II, III and Fail. If grades are assigned at random, in a class of 100, what is the probability that at least 2 students of the class will fail?

Solution:

Probability that at least 2 will fail =1
- probability that no one fails -
probability that 1 fails

Probability that no one fails

probability that 1 fails

Hence (3)

QUESTION: 10

DIRECTIONS for the question: There are 50 integers a1, a2, a3...a50, not all are necessarily different. The greatest of the integers is called G and the smallest L. The first 24 of the set, a1 to a24 are part of a sequence S1 and the rest make sequence S2. Each member of S1 is less than or equal to each member of S2.

Elements of S1 are in ascending order and those of S2 are in descending order, a24 and a25 are interchanged. Then Which of the following statements is true?

Solution:

All elements of S1 are smaller than the smallest element of S2.

In the given situation, the smallest element of S2 is A25.

Even by exchanging it with the greatest element of S1, the ascending order will still remain.

QUESTION: 11

At the end of year 1998, Shepard bought nine dozen goats. Henceforth, every year he added p % of the goats at the beginning of the year and sold q% of the goats at the end of the year where p > 0 and q > 0. If Shepard had nine dozen goats at the end of year 2002, after making the sales for that year, which of the following is true?

Solution:

The number of goats remain the same.

►If the percentage that is added every time is equal to the percentage that is sold, then there should be a net decrease.

►The same will be the case if the percentage added is less than the percentage sold.

►The only way, the number of goats will remain the same is if p > q.

QUESTION: 12

Viraj Mehta bought 100 shares each of 4 different companies. The purchase prices of the shares are Rs.20, Rs.19.50, Rs.27.50 and Rs.26.00 per share on a certain date. In due course of time he sold off all the shares of all the 4 companies, but the transactions took place on different dates. The sale transactions fetched him Rs.12.3, Rs.37.4, Rs.28.6 and Rs.21.7 per share, but it is not known which company's shares were sold when. What is his net profit or loss?

Solution:

►The total cost price of the 100 shares of each company is 2000 + 1950 + 2750 + 2600 = 9300.

►The total selling price of the 100 shares of each company is 1230 + 3740 + 2170 + 2860 = 10000.

►So, profit of Rs. 700.
Hence the answer is option C

QUESTION: 13

Two persons P and Q started walking simultaneously from two points A and B respectively along AD and BC, two of the sides of the rectangle ABCD with uniform speeds. By the time P reached D, Q reached E such that BC = 4 BE. At this point of time, they exchange their speeds and starts walking towards C.If they reach C simultaneously, then what is the ratio of BC to AB?

Solution:

Given a rectangle ABCD,

►Let AB=CD=x and AD=BC=y

►By the time P reaches D, Q reaches E. So the ratio of speeds of P and Q is 4:1.

►Let the speeds of P and Q be 1 and 4 respectively after they interchange their speeds.

►It is given that they reach point C simultaneously i.e time =  constant
►So,

QUESTION: 14

If the point of intersection of the lines bx + 4y + 1 = 0 and ax + 8y + 1 = 0 lies on the line cx + 12y + 1 = 0, then what is the relation between a, b and c?

Solution:

►The point of intersection of lines bx + 4y + 1 = 0 and ax + 8y + 1 = 0 is

►Substituting these points in cx + 12y + 1 = 0, we get

⇒ c + 3(b - a) + (a - 2b) =  0
⇒ b + c = 2a

QUESTION: 15

Two sides of an acute-angle triangle measure 25cm and 41cm respectively. If the area of the triangle is 500 sq.cm, find the measure of the third side.

Solution:

►Let ABC be the triangle with AB = 41 and BC = 25 and AD be the altitude.

►GIven area of triangle =500
⇒ 1/2 · BC · AD = 500 ⇒ AD = 40

►In traingle ABD, (BD)2 = (AB)2 - (AD)2  = 81
⇒ BD = 9
⇒ CD = BC - BD = 25 - 9 = 16

►In tirangle ACD, (AC)2 = (AD)2 +(CD)2  = 1856
⇒ √1856

QUESTION: 16

1 man working alone can finish a project in 12 days, similarly a woman and a child take 24 and 24 days respectively to finish the same work individually. 2 men, 2 women and 2 children started working on the project together. After 1 day, all the children left. Women too worked for next 2 days and left. Rest of the project was completed by the 2 men. How many total days were required to finish the whole work?

Solution:

►2 men + 2 women + 2 childrens' work in 1 day = 2(1/12 + 1/24 + 1/24) = 1/3

►After 1 day remainig work = 1 - 1/3 = 2/3
►2 men + 2 womens' work in 2 days = 2*2*(1/12 + 1/24) = 1/2

►Remaining work = 2/3 - 1/2 = 1/6
Days requred for 2 men to finish 1/6th of work = 1.

►Total days = 1 + 2 + 1 = 4 days

QUESTION: 17

A regular hexagon (H1) of side 8 cm is inscribed in a circle(C1). Another circle(C2) is inscribed in the regular hexagon (H1) and it circumscribes another regular hexagon(H2) and so on. Find the sum of the areas of all such possible regular hexagons.

Solution:

Radius of C1  = 8
Side of the regular hexagon(H2) = radius of the circle(C2) = the perpendicular distance from the centre to the base of the hexagon, which is the height of the equilateral triangle whose side is 8.

Hence, the side of the nth hexagon is √3/2 times the side of the (n-1)th hexagon.
Hence the required sum

This is in GP with the first term as  and common ratio 3/4.
Sum to infinite terms of the GP

QUESTION: 18

A mixture of 144 litres of wine and water contains five parts of wine for 'x' parts of water. If 16 litres of water is added to the mixture, the ratio of wine and water in the resulting mixture would be 3 : 5. what is the value of x?

Solution:

►If 16 litres of water is added to the mixture of 144 litres, the ratio of wine and water would be 3 : 5.

►There would be 60 litres of wine and 100 litres of water.

►So before adding, there would be 60 litres of wine and 84 litres of water. It contains 5 parts wine for 7 parts of water

QUESTION: 19

Ananth took a loan of Rs 20000 from Ankush at a simple interest rate of 10% per annum. Three people Vidya, Keshav and Vindy approached Ananth for a loan, offering to pay 8%, 9% and 13% simple interest per annum respectively. If Ananth lent money in such a way that he will make a profit of 2 % on the borrowed sum per year, what is the maximum possible sum that he might have lent to Vindy?

Solution:

►As ananth took a loan at 10% simple interest and made a profit of 2%, the average rate at which he lent should be 12%.

►The amount lent at 13% to vindy will be maximised when amount lent at 9% rate of interest is zero.

►Thus by the method of alligation:
The amount lent at 13% is 4/5*20000 = Rs 16000.

QUESTION: 20

A watch is currently showing 8 : 42 am. What is the total sum of angles formed by hour and minute candle currently and after 8 hours. (Given - both the angles are < 180)

Solution:

►Angle between every 2 consecutive digits = 30 degree at 8.42

►angle ⇒ 30º - 9º - 12º = 9º
after 8 hours , time will be 4.42 pm

at 4.42
►angle ⇒ 30º x 3 + 9º + 12º = 111º
Sum of both the angles = 111º + 9º = 120º

QUESTION: 21

The number 81X846YZ, where each of the letters X, Y, Z represents a distinct digit, is divisible by each of 5, 8, 9. Find the value of X + Y, if X, Y are not primes.

Solution:

Divisible by 5 => Z = 0 or 5.

►Divisible by 8 which means last three digits should be divisible by 8
=> Z cannot be 5 because multiples of 8 are even. ⇒ Z = 0

►Also given that Y cannot be prime => possible last three digits = 640 and 680

►Divisible by 9 => sum of the digits divisible by 9

Case 1: When Y = 4
Sum of the digits = 31 + X
The possible value of X = 5.

Case 2: When Y = 8
Sum of the digits = 35 + X
Possible value of X = 1

►X ≠  5 because X cannot be prime
So X = 1 and Y = 8

QUESTION: 22

10 Numbers 2, 4, 9, 3, 7, 6, 5, 1, 8, 0 have been given weights of 12 to 102 respectively. What is the greatest integer less than or equal to the weighted average?

Solution:

weighted average
= 1495/385
= [3.88]
= 3

QUESTION: 23

Find the value(s) of x satisfying the equation 16 log4 (log3x) = log3X - (log3X) - (log3X)2 + 1

Solution:

Let log3 x = a
⇒ 42loga = a - a2 + 1 ⇒ 4log4a2 = a - a2 + 1
⇒ a2 = a - a+ 1
⇒ (a - 1) (a + 1/2) = 0
⇒ a = 1 or a  = -1/2
⇒ log3 x = 1 or log3 = -1/2
log3 x > 0 [since log4(logx) term is present]
so x = 3

QUESTION: 24

If the odds of Arun hitting a six are 2 against 5. Find minimum number of balls to be played so that probability of hitting a six is always greater than 0.8.

Solution:

►Probability in one ball = 2/7

►After two balls = 2/7 * 5/7

►After three balls = 2/7 * (5/7)2

►After n balls = 2/7 * (5/7)(n-1)

►This is a gp of first term 2/7 and common ratio 5/7.
►Sum of GP > 0.8

n = 5

QUESTION: 25

Ashish went to a shop to buy some school bags and asked for "a" red boxes and "b" blue boxes. Each red box has 16 bags while each blue box has only 8 bags. The shopkeeper reversed the numbers and gave Ashish "b" red boxes and "a" blue boxes. Ashish didn't notice that error. He took the boxes home and started selling the bags. After he sold 8 bags, he observed that he was left with 16 bags more than what he had asked for at the shop. Which of the following expressions can be determined?

Solution:

Ashish asked for "a" red boxes and "b" blue boxes

►i.e 16a + 8b bags. He received 8a + 16b. He sold 8  bags.

►He was left with 8a + 16b - 8 which is 16 more than what he asked for

►i.e 8a + 16b - 8 = 16a + 8b + 16

⇒ 8b = 8a + 24
⇒ b = a + 3
⇒ a - b = -3

QUESTION: 26

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The word 'corruption' has multifarious meanings. It means bribery, it means tax evasion, it also means favoritism. It is an immoral practice which existed in our society since times immemorial in one shape or the other. But today, it has raised its giant shaped head in every facets of life. Be it ministers or officers or even clerks, nobody is free from this evil. Social laws are manipulated; rules and regulations are overlooked just to give favour to somebody and taking money from him in return. Although, corruption is a worldwide phenomenon in India. It has become rampant. Even great men like Bacon, Hastings and Walpole had been accused of corruption. But today, the whole India system has been inflicted with it. From an officer down to a peon, everybody seems to be corrupt. Efficiency, integrity and morality have gone to the winds. They have become a thing of the past. The devil of corruption is so powerful that it has shattered our economy and destroyed all the noble values of life. Besides, it has tarnished our image in the eyes of the world. Nepotism, smuggling, hoarding, favoritism and black-money are some of the popular forms of corruption. Tax evasion, adulteration in food, drinks; medicine and other articles of daily use have become the order of the day. There is corruption in every profession. Lawyers, 'doctors and even teachers have lost their integrity and they place money above service. There are many reasons of corruption in our society. First, the poor economic position of the people is responsible for wide spread corruption. Second, there is lack of national character and moral values. Third, people have developed love for money and they want to maintain a high standard of living at all costs. So, they have no conscience to amass wealth through under hand means. They have no time to think of the national interest. The long term solution to the problem is to develop national character. Our education system needs to be overhauled. Honesty should be appreciated and rewarded publicly. Besides this, every department will have to gird up its loins. A strong vigil should be kept on one and all. No one if caught red handed should be spared. Moreover, the officials should be duly paid their salaries so that they do not feel the need of being corrupt. The country needs complete cleaning up from the corrupt officials today.

Q. What is done to promote corruption?

Solution:

Refer to 5th line of passage: "Be it ministers or officers or even clerks, nobody is free from this evil. Social laws are manipulated; rules and regulations are overlooked just to give favour to somebody and taking money from him in return”.

Hence, option 4 is the answer.

QUESTION: 27

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The word 'corruption' has multifarious meanings. It means bribery, it means tax evasion, it also means favoritism. It is an immoral practice which existed in our society since times immemorial in one shape or the other. But today, it has raised its giant shaped head in every facets of life. Be it ministers or officers or even clerks, nobody is free from this evil. Social laws are manipulated; rules and regulations are overlooked just to give favour to somebody and taking money from him in return. Although, corruption is a worldwide phenomenon in India. It has become rampant. Even great men like Bacon, Hastings and Walpole had been accused of corruption. But today, the whole India system has been inflicted with it. From an officer down to a peon, everybody seems to be corrupt. Efficiency, integrity and morality have gone to the winds. They have become a thing of the past. The devil of corruption is so powerful that it has shattered our economy and destroyed all the noble values of life. Besides, it has tarnished our image in the eyes of the world. Nepotism, smuggling, hoarding, favoritism and black-money are some of the popular forms of corruption. Tax evasion, adulteration in food, drinks; medicine and other articles of daily use have become the order of the day. There is corruption in every profession. Lawyers, 'doctors and even teachers have lost their integrity and they place money above service. There are many reasons of corruption in our society. First, the poor economic position of the people is responsible for wide spread corruption. Second, there is lack of national character and moral values. Third, people have developed love for money and they want to maintain a high standard of living at all costs. So, they have no conscience to amass wealth through under hand means. They have no time to think of the national interest. The long term solution to the problem is to develop national character. Our education system needs to be overhauled. Honesty should be appreciated and rewarded publicly. Besides this, every department will have to gird up its loins. A strong vigil should be kept on one and all. No one if caught red handed should be spared. Moreover, the officials should be duly paid their salaries so that they do not feel the need of being corrupt. The country needs complete cleaning up from the corrupt officials today.

Q. According to the passage, as a result of corruption

Solution:

Refer to the line,"The devil of corruption is so powerful that it has shattered our economy and destroyed all the noble values of life"

Hence option A is correct.

QUESTION: 28

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

The word 'corruption' has multifarious meanings. It means bribery, it means tax evasion, it also means favoritism. It is an immoral practice which existed in our society since times immemorial in one shape or the other. But today, it has raised its giant shaped head in every facets of life. Be it ministers or officers or even clerks, nobody is free from this evil. Social laws are manipulated; rules and regulations are overlooked just to give favour to somebody and taking money from him in return. Although, corruption is a worldwide phenomenon in India. It has become rampant. Even great men like Bacon, Hastings and Walpole had been accused of corruption. But today, the whole India system has been inflicted with it. From an officer down to a peon, everybody seems to be corrupt. Efficiency, integrity and morality have gone to the winds. They have become a thing of the past. The devil of corruption is so powerful that it has shattered our economy and destroyed all the noble values of life. Besides, it has tarnished our image in the eyes of the world. Nepotism, smuggling, hoarding, favoritism and black-money are some of the popular forms of corruption. Tax evasion, adulteration in food, drinks; medicine and other articles of daily use have become the order of the day. There is corruption in every profession. Lawyers, 'doctors and even teachers have lost their integrity and they place money above service. There are many reasons of corruption in our society. First, the poor economic position of the people is responsible for wide spread corruption. Second, there is lack of national character and moral values. Third, people have developed love for money and they want to maintain a high standard of living at all costs. So, they have no conscience to amass wealth through under hand means. They have no time to think of the national interest. The long term solution to the problem is to develop national character. Our education system needs to be overhauled. Honesty should be appreciated and rewarded publicly. Besides this, every department will have to gird up its loins. A strong vigil should be kept on one and all. No one if caught red handed should be spared. Moreover, the officials should be duly paid their salaries so that they do not feel the need of being corrupt. The country needs complete cleaning up from the corrupt officials today.

Q. The people involved in corruption never think of

Solution:

Refer to: “They have no time to think of the national interest”.

Hence, option 2 is the answer.

QUESTION: 29

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

At its heart, democracy is an impostor in India. Instinctively, we feel little need for equality. It is easy to blame politicians for this but that misses the point. Power of all kinds needs to be carried as an immunizing halo around us as one's importance must be auratic. So we have senior officers being 'received' by a gaggle of less senior officers as if they would otherwise have been lost in transit. Even the journalists who rail about this have no problem having an airline minion carry their briefcase to the plane with them. Magistrates and even minor officials carry their designations on their car registration plate and sirens, of course, are everywhere.
The 'do-you-know-who-I-am' question often asked by the allegedly important needs to be understood fully. The emphasis is on the first part — do you know? For what use is my power if it doesn’t keep you at an awed distance? Of what use is my importance if a 'lowly' airport security guard can put his grubby hands all over me in full public view? Power is real only when the weaker person is aware of his relative status. The siren is such a potent symbol of power because it converts an abstract noun into an insistent, compelling, whining one. It flashes neon urgency and snappy impatience; we are put in our place with its relentless importance. I have always wondered what it would be like going through life travelling in a shrieking car but obviously to the politicians, it is just the comforting drone that accompanies their success.
Equality is a sterile idea scrubbed into us. We need to strip ourselves of all that we possess and have to be equal. In a country where historically, any success has been hard to come by, we are in no hurry to become equal. We can rave and rant and shake ineffectual fists at the power hungriness of our rulers but the truth is that given a chance, most will switch on that siren the moment they can.
We need hierarchy because it helps simplify our world by making it deterministic. Science is better than commerce, so why tax your mind about what to choose? It standardizes the world on a single linear dimension and helps you know your place without any ambiguity. The individual and her desires are extracted from the equation; we study what we deserve to rather than what we want to. In a world with few choices, hierarchy offers the comfortable sense of certainty. We see today a large-scale economic and social mobility for the first time in recent history. It is terribly important for the world to notice who we are and so we advertise our climb, be it through a car siren or a larger, flashier car itself.
We already see a movement towards hierarchies created by human exertions. But even now, we conveniently slot people by who they are rather than what they have done. A designation converts achievement into a rung on a ladder; the individual located in a social framework. As we are able to express our achievements in more diverse ways, the idea of a single linear hierarchy will perhaps recede. Till then, a western potty will continue to make me a better man than someone on his haunches on an Indian one. Oh! the subtle hierarchies of evacuation!

Q. The author has written this piece to

Solution:

Option C given here is very generic and hazy as the author nowhere talks of democracy as a political system.

Option D is partly correct as this element of poking fun does crop up here and there but it cannot be called a dominant theme as these are just exemplars.

Option B is rejected as author is not arguing instead he has explained that society in India does not like equality.

►The author tries to present many examples to prove the point why he thinks the idea of democracy in India is disliked by the people. Option A, therefore, sums it up perfectly.

QUESTION: 30

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

At its heart, democracy is an impostor in India. Instinctively, we feel little need for equality. It is easy to blame politicians for this but that misses the point. Power of all kinds needs to be carried as an immunizing halo around us as one's importance must be auratic. So we have senior officers being 'received' by a gaggle of less senior officers as if they would otherwise have been lost in transit. Even the journalists who rail about this have no problem having an airline minion carry their briefcase to the plane with them. Magistrates and even minor officials carry their designations on their car registration plate and sirens, of course, are everywhere.
The 'do-you-know-who-I-am' question often asked by the allegedly important needs to be understood fully. The emphasis is on the first part — do you know? For what use is my power if it doesn’t keep you at an awed distance? Of what use is my importance if a 'lowly' airport security guard can put his grubby hands all over me in full public view? Power is real only when the weaker person is aware of his relative status. The siren is such a potent symbol of power because it converts an abstract noun into an insistent, compelling, whining one. It flashes neon urgency and snappy impatience; we are put in our place with its relentless importance. I have always wondered what it would be like going through life travelling in a shrieking car but obviously to the politicians, it is just the comforting drone that accompanies their success.
Equality is a sterile idea scrubbed into us. We need to strip ourselves of all that we possess and have to be equal. In a country where historically, any success has been hard to come by, we are in no hurry to become equal. We can rave and rant and shake ineffectual fists at the power hungriness of our rulers but the truth is that given a chance, most will switch on that siren the moment they can.
We need hierarchy because it helps simplify our world by making it deterministic. Science is better than commerce, so why tax your mind about what to choose? It standardizes the world on a single linear dimension and helps you know your place without any ambiguity. The individual and her desires are extracted from the equation; we study what we deserve to rather than what we want to. In a world with few choices, hierarchy offers the comfortable sense of certainty. We see today a large-scale economic and social mobility for the first time in recent history. It is terribly important for the world to notice who we are and so we advertise our climb, be it through a car siren or a larger, flashier car itself.
We already see a movement towards hierarchies created by human exertions. But even now, we conveniently slot people by who they are rather than what they have done. A designation converts achievement into a rung on a ladder; the individual located in a social framework. As we are able to express our achievements in more diverse ways, the idea of a single linear hierarchy will perhaps recede. Till then, a western potty will continue to make me a better man than someone on his haunches on an Indian one. Oh! the subtle hierarchies of evacuation!

Q. The relationship between the siren and power has been explained by the author to

Solution:

Please revert to the lines from 2nd paragraph of the passage

►Power is real only when the weaker person is aware of his relative status. The siren is such a potent symbol of power because it converts an abstract noun (power, in this case) into an ………compelling…..

►Obviously, the blaring of the siren announces the person’s relative standing to the not-so-powerful.

QUESTION: 31

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

At its heart, democracy is an impostor in India. Instinctively, we feel little need for equality. It is easy to blame politicians for this but that misses the point. Power of all kinds needs to be carried as an immunizing halo around us as one's importance must be auratic. So we have senior officers being 'received' by a gaggle of less senior officers as if they would otherwise have been lost in transit. Even the journalists who rail about this have no problem having an airline minion carry their briefcase to the plane with them. Magistrates and even minor officials carry their designations on their car registration plate and sirens, of course, are everywhere.
The 'do-you-know-who-I-am' question often asked by the allegedly important needs to be understood fully. The emphasis is on the first part — do you know? For what use is my power if it doesn’t keep you at an awed distance? Of what use is my importance if a 'lowly' airport security guard can put his grubby hands all over me in full public view? Power is real only when the weaker person is aware of his relative status. The siren is such a potent symbol of power because it converts an abstract noun into an insistent, compelling, whining one. It flashes neon urgency and snappy impatience; we are put in our place with its relentless importance. I have always wondered what it would be like going through life travelling in a shrieking car but obviously to the politicians, it is just the comforting drone that accompanies their success.
Equality is a sterile idea scrubbed into us. We need to strip ourselves of all that we possess and have to be equal. In a country where historically, any success has been hard to come by, we are in no hurry to become equal. We can rave and rant and shake ineffectual fists at the power hungriness of our rulers but the truth is that given a chance, most will switch on that siren the moment they can.
We need hierarchy because it helps simplify our world by making it deterministic. Science is better than commerce, so why tax your mind about what to choose? It standardizes the world on a single linear dimension and helps you know your place without any ambiguity. The individual and her desires are extracted from the equation; we study what we deserve to rather than what we want to. In a world with few choices, hierarchy offers the comfortable sense of certainty. We see today a large-scale economic and social mobility for the first time in recent history. It is terribly important for the world to notice who we are and so we advertise our climb, be it through a car siren or a larger, flashier car itself.
We already see a movement towards hierarchies created by human exertions. But even now, we conveniently slot people by who they are rather than what they have done. A designation converts achievement into a rung on a ladder; the individual located in a social framework. As we are able to express our achievements in more diverse ways, the idea of a single linear hierarchy will perhaps recede. Till then, a western potty will continue to make me a better man than someone on his haunches on an Indian one. Oh! the subtle hierarchies of evacuation!

Q. As per the passage, conceptualizing the world in terms of hierarchies
1. makes our thinking easier
2. facilitates decision-making
3. tells the whole world about our status

In the context of the above passage, the CORRECT statements /s is / are

Solution:

Please refer to the following lines from second last paragraph of the passage.

►…….it helps simplify our world …... Science is better than commerce, so why tax your mind about what to choose?
………without any ambiguity.
……offers the comfortable sense of certainty.

►Hierarchies do not serve to advertise to the world who we are. Rather, because they are symbolic and tell the world about it, we use them as convenient tools of thinking, decision-making and public conduct.

QUESTION: 32

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the passage and answer the question based on it.

At its heart, democracy is an impostor in India. Instinctively, we feel little need for equality. It is easy to blame politicians for this but that misses the point. Power of all kinds needs to be carried as an immunizing halo around us as one's importance must be auratic. So we have senior officers being 'received' by a gaggle of less senior officers as if they would otherwise have been lost in transit. Even the journalists who rail about this have no problem having an airline minion carry their briefcase to the plane with them. Magistrates and even minor officials carry their designations on their car registration plate and sirens, of course, are everywhere.
The 'do-you-know-who-I-am' question often asked by the allegedly important needs to be understood fully. The emphasis is on the first part — do you know? For what use is my power if it doesn’t keep you at an awed distance? Of what use is my importance if a 'lowly' airport security guard can put his grubby hands all over me in full public view? Power is real only when the weaker person is aware of his relative status. The siren is such a potent symbol of power because it converts an abstract noun into an insistent, compelling, whining one. It flashes neon urgency and snappy impatience; we are put in our place with its relentless importance. I have always wondered what it would be like going through life travelling in a shrieking car but obviously to the politicians, it is just the comforting drone that accompanies their success.
Equality is a sterile idea scrubbed into us. We need to strip ourselves of all that we possess and have to be equal. In a country where historically, any success has been hard to come by, we are in no hurry to become equal. We can rave and rant and shake ineffectual fists at the power hungriness of our rulers but the truth is that given a chance, most will switch on that siren the moment they can.
We need hierarchy because it helps simplify our world by making it deterministic. Science is better than commerce, so why tax your mind about what to choose? It standardizes the world on a single linear dimension and helps you know your place without any ambiguity. The individual and her desires are extracted from the equation; we study what we deserve to rather than what we want to. In a world with few choices, hierarchy offers the comfortable sense of certainty. We see today a large-scale economic and social mobility for the first time in recent history. It is terribly important for the world to notice who we are and so we advertise our climb, be it through a car siren or a larger, flashier car itself.
We already see a movement towards hierarchies created by human exertions. But even now, we conveniently slot people by who they are rather than what they have done. A designation converts achievement into a rung on a ladder; the individual located in a social framework. As we are able to express our achievements in more diverse ways, the idea of a single linear hierarchy will perhaps recede. Till then, a western potty will continue to make me a better man than someone on his haunches on an Indian one. Oh! the subtle hierarchies of evacuation!

Q. We do not like to be equal as becoming so

Solution:

Look at the lines in 3rd paragraph of the passage

►We need to strip ourselves of all that we possess and have to be equal. In a country …., any success has been hard to come by, we are in nohurry to become equal. Option B is the right answer.

►Option A would have been correct only if it had stated socially undesirable.

QUESTION: 33

Read the following passage and answer the set of four questions that follow.

You have probably never heard of William Kingdon Clifford. He is not in the pantheon of great philosophers - perhaps because his life was cut short at the age of 33 - but I cannot think of anyone whose ideas are more relevant for our interconnected, AI-driven, digital age. This might seem strange given that we are talking about a Victorian Briton whose most famous philosophical work is an essay nearly 150 years ago. However, reality has caught up with Clifford. His once seemingly exaggerated claim that ‘it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’ is no longer hyperbole but a technical reality.
In ‘The Ethics of Belief’ (1877), Clifford gives three arguments as to why we have a moral obligation to believe responsibly, that is, to believe only what we have sufficient evidence for, and what we have diligently investigated. His first argument starts with the simple observation that our beliefs influence our actions. Everyone would agree that our behaviour is shaped by what we take to be true about the world - which is to say, by what we believe. If I believe that it is raining outside, I’ll bring an umbrella. If I believe taxis don’t take credit cards, I make sure I have some cash before jumping into one. And if I believe that stealing is wrong, then I will pay for my goods before leaving the store.
What we believe is then of tremendous practical importance. False beliefs about physical or social facts lead us into poor habits of action that in the most extreme cases could threaten our survival. If the singer R Kelly genuinely believed the words of his song ‘I Believe I Can Fly’ (1996), I can guarantee you he would not be around by now.
But it is not only our own self-preservation that is at stake here. As social animals, our agency impacts on those around us, and improper believing puts our fellow humans at risk. As Clifford warns: ‘We all suffer severely enough from the maintenance and support of false beliefs and the fatally wrong actions which they lead to …’ In short, sloppy practices of belief-formation are ethically wrong because - as social beings - when we believe something, the stakes are very high.
The most natural objection to this first argument is that while it might be true that some of our beliefs do lead to actions that can be devastating for others, in reality most of what we believe is probably inconsequential for our fellow humans. As such, claiming as Clifford did that it is wrong in all cases to believe on insufficient evidence seems like a stretch. I think critics had a point - had - but that is no longer so. In a world in which just about everyone’s beliefs are instantly shareable, at minimal cost, to a global audience, every single belief has the capacity to be truly consequential in the way Clifford imagined. If you still believe this is an exaggeration, think about how beliefs fashioned in a cave in Afghanistan lead to acts that ended lives in New York, Paris and London. Or consider how influential the ramblings pouring through your social media feeds have become in your very own daily behaviour. In the digital global village that we now inhabit, false beliefs cast a wider social net, hence Clifford’s argument might have been hyperbole when he first made it, but is no longer so today.
The second argument Clifford provides to back his claim that it is always wrong to believe on insufficient evidence is that poor practices of belief-formation turn us into careless, credulous believers. Clifford puts it nicely: ‘No real belief, however trifling and fragmentary it may seem, is ever truly insignificant; it prepares us to receive more of its like, confirms those which resembled it before, and weakens others; and so gradually it lays a stealthy train in our inmost thoughts, which may someday explode into overt action, and leave its stamp upon our character.’ Translating Clifford’s warning to our interconnected times, what he tells us is that careless believing turns us into easy prey for fake-news pedlars, conspiracy theorists and charlatans. And letting ourselves become hosts to these false beliefs is morally wrong because, as we have seen, the error cost for society can be devastating. Epistemic alertness is a much more precious virtue today than it ever was, since the need to sift through conflicting information has exponentially increased, and the risk of becoming a vessel of credulity is just a few taps of a smartphone away.
Clifford’s third and final argument as to why believing without evidence is morally wrong is that, in our capacity as communicators of belief, we have the moral responsibility not to pollute the well of collective knowledge. In Clifford’s time, the way in which our beliefs were woven into the ‘precious deposit’ of common knowledge was primarily through speech and writing. Because of this capacity to communicate, ‘our words, our phrases, our forms and processes and modes of thought’ become ‘common property’. Subverting this ‘heirloom’, as he called it, by adding false beliefs is immoral because everyone’s lives ultimately rely on this vital, shared resource.
While Clifford’s final argument rings true, it again seems exaggerated to claim that every little false belief we harbour is a moral affront to common knowledge. Yet reality, once more, is aligning with Clifford, and his words seem prophetic. Today, we truly have a global reservoir of belief into which all of our commitments are being painstakingly added: it’s called Big Data. You don’t even need to be an active netizen posting on Twitter or ranting on Facebook: more and more of what we do in the real world is being recorded and digitised, and from there algorithms can easily infer what we believe before we even express a view. In turn, this enormous pool of stored belief is used by algorithms to make decisions for and about us. And it’s the same reservoir that search engines tap into when we seek answers to our questions and acquire new beliefs. Add the wrong ingredients into the Big Data recipe, and what you’ll get is a potentially toxic output. If there was ever a time when critical thinking was a moral imperative, and credulity a calamitous sin, it is now.

Q. Which of the following statements is the author most likely to disagree with?

Solution:

From the first paragraph, we can infer that the author will agree to option A.

►At the beginning of the last paragraph, the author says that it seems exaggerated to say that every false belief is a moral affront to common knowledge. Later, he mentions that reality aligns with Clifford. Therefore, he will agree with Clifford.

►The author agrees with the views of Clifford pertaining to our belief and its consequences. Also, in the first paragraph, the author talks about the greatness of Clifford. He will agree with option C.

►In the fifth paragraph, the author says that our beliefs used to be inconsequential, but now they are not. The author will not agree with option D.
Hence, option D is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 34

Read the following passage and answer the set of four questions that follow.

You have probably never heard of William Kingdon Clifford. He is not in the pantheon of great philosophers - perhaps because his life was cut short at the age of 33 - but I cannot think of anyone whose ideas are more relevant for our interconnected, AI-driven, digital age. This might seem strange given that we are talking about a Victorian Briton whose most famous philosophical work is an essay nearly 150 years ago. However, reality has caught up with Clifford. His once seemingly exaggerated claim that ‘it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’ is no longer hyperbole but a technical reality.
In ‘The Ethics of Belief’ (1877), Clifford gives three arguments as to why we have a moral obligation to believe responsibly, that is, to believe only what we have sufficient evidence for, and what we have diligently investigated. His first argument starts with the simple observation that our beliefs influence our actions. Everyone would agree that our behaviour is shaped by what we take to be true about the world - which is to say, by what we believe. If I believe that it is raining outside, I’ll bring an umbrella. If I believe taxis don’t take credit cards, I make sure I have some cash before jumping into one. And if I believe that stealing is wrong, then I will pay for my goods before leaving the store.
What we believe is then of tremendous practical importance. False beliefs about physical or social facts lead us into poor habits of action that in the most extreme cases could threaten our survival. If the singer R Kelly genuinely believed the words of his song ‘I Believe I Can Fly’ (1996), I can guarantee you he would not be around by now.
But it is not only our own self-preservation that is at stake here. As social animals, our agency impacts on those around us, and improper believing puts our fellow humans at risk. As Clifford warns: ‘We all suffer severely enough from the maintenance and support of false beliefs and the fatally wrong actions which they lead to …’ In short, sloppy practices of belief-formation are ethically wrong because - as social beings - when we believe something, the stakes are very high.
The most natural objection to this first argument is that while it might be true that some of our beliefs do lead to actions that can be devastating for others, in reality most of what we believe is probably inconsequential for our fellow humans. As such, claiming as Clifford did that it is wrong in all cases to believe on insufficient evidence seems like a stretch. I think critics had a point - had - but that is no longer so. In a world in which just about everyone’s beliefs are instantly shareable, at minimal cost, to a global audience, every single belief has the capacity to be truly consequential in the way Clifford imagined. If you still believe this is an exaggeration, think about how beliefs fashioned in a cave in Afghanistan lead to acts that ended lives in New York, Paris and London. Or consider how influential the ramblings pouring through your social media feeds have become in your very own daily behaviour. In the digital global village that we now inhabit, false beliefs cast a wider social net, hence Clifford’s argument might have been hyperbole when he first made it, but is no longer so today.
The second argument Clifford provides to back his claim that it is always wrong to believe on insufficient evidence is that poor practices of belief-formation turn us into careless, credulous believers. Clifford puts it nicely: ‘No real belief, however trifling and fragmentary it may seem, is ever truly insignificant; it prepares us to receive more of its like, confirms those which resembled it before, and weakens others; and so gradually it lays a stealthy train in our inmost thoughts, which may someday explode into overt action, and leave its stamp upon our character.’ Translating Clifford’s warning to our interconnected times, what he tells us is that careless believing turns us into easy prey for fake-news pedlars, conspiracy theorists and charlatans. And letting ourselves become hosts to these false beliefs is morally wrong because, as we have seen, the error cost for society can be devastating. Epistemic alertness is a much more precious virtue today than it ever was, since the need to sift through conflicting information has exponentially increased, and the risk of becoming a vessel of credulity is just a few taps of a smartphone away.
Clifford’s third and final argument as to why believing without evidence is morally wrong is that, in our capacity as communicators of belief, we have the moral responsibility not to pollute the well of collective knowledge. In Clifford’s time, the way in which our beliefs were woven into the ‘precious deposit’ of common knowledge was primarily through speech and writing. Because of this capacity to communicate, ‘our words, our phrases, our forms and processes and modes of thought’ become ‘common property’. Subverting this ‘heirloom’, as he called it, by adding false beliefs is immoral because everyone’s lives ultimately rely on this vital, shared resource.
While Clifford’s final argument rings true, it again seems exaggerated to claim that every little false belief we harbour is a moral affront to common knowledge. Yet reality, once more, is aligning with Clifford, and his words seem prophetic. Today, we truly have a global reservoir of belief into which all of our commitments are being painstakingly added: it’s called Big Data. You don’t even need to be an active netizen posting on Twitter or ranting on Facebook: more and more of what we do in the real world is being recorded and digitised, and from there algorithms can easily infer what we believe before we even express a view. In turn, this enormous pool of stored belief is used by algorithms to make decisions for and about us. And it’s the same reservoir that search engines tap into when we seek answers to our questions and acquire new beliefs. Add the wrong ingredients into the Big Data recipe, and what you’ll get is a potentially toxic output. If there was ever a time when critical thinking was a moral imperative, and credulity a calamitous sin, it is now.

Q. Which of the following is not an argument given by Clifford to emphasize that our belief must be based on evidence?

Solution:
• Option A is the second argument as mentioned in the passage.
• Option B is the third argument as per the passage.
• Option D is the first argument in the passage.
• Option C has been presented as an argument by the author.

Hence, option C is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 35

Read the following passage and answer the set of four questions that follow.

You have probably never heard of William Kingdon Clifford. He is not in the pantheon of great philosophers - perhaps because his life was cut short at the age of 33 - but I cannot think of anyone whose ideas are more relevant for our interconnected, AI-driven, digital age. This might seem strange given that we are talking about a Victorian Briton whose most famous philosophical work is an essay nearly 150 years ago. However, reality has caught up with Clifford. His once seemingly exaggerated claim that ‘it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’ is no longer hyperbole but a technical reality.
In ‘The Ethics of Belief’ (1877), Clifford gives three arguments as to why we have a moral obligation to believe responsibly, that is, to believe only what we have sufficient evidence for, and what we have diligently investigated. His first argument starts with the simple observation that our beliefs influence our actions. Everyone would agree that our behaviour is shaped by what we take to be true about the world - which is to say, by what we believe. If I believe that it is raining outside, I’ll bring an umbrella. If I believe taxis don’t take credit cards, I make sure I have some cash before jumping into one. And if I believe that stealing is wrong, then I will pay for my goods before leaving the store.
What we believe is then of tremendous practical importance. False beliefs about physical or social facts lead us into poor habits of action that in the most extreme cases could threaten our survival. If the singer R Kelly genuinely believed the words of his song ‘I Believe I Can Fly’ (1996), I can guarantee you he would not be around by now.
But it is not only our own self-preservation that is at stake here. As social animals, our agency impacts on those around us, and improper believing puts our fellow humans at risk. As Clifford warns: ‘We all suffer severely enough from the maintenance and support of false beliefs and the fatally wrong actions which they lead to …’ In short, sloppy practices of belief-formation are ethically wrong because - as social beings - when we believe something, the stakes are very high.
The most natural objection to this first argument is that while it might be true that some of our beliefs do lead to actions that can be devastating for others, in reality most of what we believe is probably inconsequential for our fellow humans. As such, claiming as Clifford did that it is wrong in all cases to believe on insufficient evidence seems like a stretch. I think critics had a point - had - but that is no longer so. In a world in which just about everyone’s beliefs are instantly shareable, at minimal cost, to a global audience, every single belief has the capacity to be truly consequential in the way Clifford imagined. If you still believe this is an exaggeration, think about how beliefs fashioned in a cave in Afghanistan lead to acts that ended lives in New York, Paris and London. Or consider how influential the ramblings pouring through your social media feeds have become in your very own daily behaviour. In the digital global village that we now inhabit, false beliefs cast a wider social net, hence Clifford’s argument might have been hyperbole when he first made it, but is no longer so today.
The second argument Clifford provides to back his claim that it is always wrong to believe on insufficient evidence is that poor practices of belief-formation turn us into careless, credulous believers. Clifford puts it nicely: ‘No real belief, however trifling and fragmentary it may seem, is ever truly insignificant; it prepares us to receive more of its like, confirms those which resembled it before, and weakens others; and so gradually it lays a stealthy train in our inmost thoughts, which may someday explode into overt action, and leave its stamp upon our character.’ Translating Clifford’s warning to our interconnected times, what he tells us is that careless believing turns us into easy prey for fake-news pedlars, conspiracy theorists and charlatans. And letting ourselves become hosts to these false beliefs is morally wrong because, as we have seen, the error cost for society can be devastating. Epistemic alertness is a much more precious virtue today than it ever was, since the need to sift through conflicting information has exponentially increased, and the risk of becoming a vessel of credulity is just a few taps of a smartphone away.
Clifford’s third and final argument as to why believing without evidence is morally wrong is that, in our capacity as communicators of belief, we have the moral responsibility not to pollute the well of collective knowledge. In Clifford’s time, the way in which our beliefs were woven into the ‘precious deposit’ of common knowledge was primarily through speech and writing. Because of this capacity to communicate, ‘our words, our phrases, our forms and processes and modes of thought’ become ‘common property’. Subverting this ‘heirloom’, as he called it, by adding false beliefs is immoral because everyone’s lives ultimately rely on this vital, shared resource.
While Clifford’s final argument rings true, it again seems exaggerated to claim that every little false belief we harbour is a moral affront to common knowledge. Yet reality, once more, is aligning with Clifford, and his words seem prophetic. Today, we truly have a global reservoir of belief into which all of our commitments are being painstakingly added: it’s called Big Data. You don’t even need to be an active netizen posting on Twitter or ranting on Facebook: more and more of what we do in the real world is being recorded and digitised, and from there algorithms can easily infer what we believe before we even express a view. In turn, this enormous pool of stored belief is used by algorithms to make decisions for and about us. And it’s the same reservoir that search engines tap into when we seek answers to our questions and acquire new beliefs. Add the wrong ingredients into the Big Data recipe, and what you’ll get is a potentially toxic output. If there was ever a time when critical thinking was a moral imperative, and credulity a calamitous sin, it is now.

Q. What can be inferred from the last line of the passage?

Solution:

In the last line, the author has said that since technology has made the world more interconnected, we should be more careful before accepting any belief and be less credulous. It is more relevant in modern times because of the ease with which we can share our beliefs with anyone using digital technology. Option A concurs well with this.

Hence, option A is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 36

Read the following passage and answer the set of four questions that follow.

You have probably never heard of William Kingdon Clifford. He is not in the pantheon of great philosophers - perhaps because his life was cut short at the age of 33 - but I cannot think of anyone whose ideas are more relevant for our interconnected, AI-driven, digital age. This might seem strange given that we are talking about a Victorian Briton whose most famous philosophical work is an essay nearly 150 years ago. However, reality has caught up with Clifford. His once seemingly exaggerated claim that ‘it is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence’ is no longer hyperbole but a technical reality.
In ‘The Ethics of Belief’ (1877), Clifford gives three arguments as to why we have a moral obligation to believe responsibly, that is, to believe only what we have sufficient evidence for, and what we have diligently investigated. His first argument starts with the simple observation that our beliefs influence our actions. Everyone would agree that our behaviour is shaped by what we take to be true about the world - which is to say, by what we believe. If I believe that it is raining outside, I’ll bring an umbrella. If I believe taxis don’t take credit cards, I make sure I have some cash before jumping into one. And if I believe that stealing is wrong, then I will pay for my goods before leaving the store.
What we believe is then of tremendous practical importance. False beliefs about physical or social facts lead us into poor habits of action that in the most extreme cases could threaten our survival. If the singer R Kelly genuinely believed the words of his song ‘I Believe I Can Fly’ (1996), I can guarantee you he would not be around by now.
But it is not only our own self-preservation that is at stake here. As social animals, our agency impacts on those around us, and improper believing puts our fellow humans at risk. As Clifford warns: ‘We all suffer severely enough from the maintenance and support of false beliefs and the fatally wrong actions which they lead to …’ In short, sloppy practices of belief-formation are ethically wrong because - as social beings - when we believe something, the stakes are very high.
The most natural objection to this first argument is that while it might be true that some of our beliefs do lead to actions that can be devastating for others, in reality most of what we believe is probably inconsequential for our fellow humans. As such, claiming as Clifford did that it is wrong in all cases to believe on insufficient evidence seems like a stretch. I think critics had a point - had - but that is no longer so. In a world in which just about everyone’s beliefs are instantly shareable, at minimal cost, to a global audience, every single belief has the capacity to be truly consequential in the way Clifford imagined. If you still believe this is an exaggeration, think about how beliefs fashioned in a cave in Afghanistan lead to acts that ended lives in New York, Paris and London. Or consider how influential the ramblings pouring through your social media feeds have become in your very own daily behaviour. In the digital global village that we now inhabit, false beliefs cast a wider social net, hence Clifford’s argument might have been hyperbole when he first made it, but is no longer so today.
The second argument Clifford provides to back his claim that it is always wrong to believe on insufficient evidence is that poor practices of belief-formation turn us into careless, credulous believers. Clifford puts it nicely: ‘No real belief, however trifling and fragmentary it may seem, is ever truly insignificant; it prepares us to receive more of its like, confirms those which resembled it before, and weakens others; and so gradually it lays a stealthy train in our inmost thoughts, which may someday explode into overt action, and leave its stamp upon our character.’ Translating Clifford’s warning to our interconnected times, what he tells us is that careless believing turns us into easy prey for fake-news pedlars, conspiracy theorists and charlatans. And letting ourselves become hosts to these false beliefs is morally wrong because, as we have seen, the error cost for society can be devastating. Epistemic alertness is a much more precious virtue today than it ever was, since the need to sift through conflicting information has exponentially increased, and the risk of becoming a vessel of credulity is just a few taps of a smartphone away.
Clifford’s third and final argument as to why believing without evidence is morally wrong is that, in our capacity as communicators of belief, we have the moral responsibility not to pollute the well of collective knowledge. In Clifford’s time, the way in which our beliefs were woven into the ‘precious deposit’ of common knowledge was primarily through speech and writing. Because of this capacity to communicate, ‘our words, our phrases, our forms and processes and modes of thought’ become ‘common property’. Subverting this ‘heirloom’, as he called it, by adding false beliefs is immoral because everyone’s lives ultimately rely on this vital, shared resource.
While Clifford’s final argument rings true, it again seems exaggerated to claim that every little false belief we harbour is a moral affront to common knowledge. Yet reality, once more, is aligning with Clifford, and his words seem prophetic. Today, we truly have a global reservoir of belief into which all of our commitments are being painstakingly added: it’s called Big Data. You don’t even need to be an active netizen posting on Twitter or ranting on Facebook: more and more of what we do in the real world is being recorded and digitised, and from there algorithms can easily infer what we believe before we even express a view. In turn, this enormous pool of stored belief is used by algorithms to make decisions for and about us. And it’s the same reservoir that search engines tap into when we seek answers to our questions and acquire new beliefs. Add the wrong ingredients into the Big Data recipe, and what you’ll get is a potentially toxic output. If there was ever a time when critical thinking was a moral imperative, and credulity a calamitous sin, it is now.

Q. What is the tone of the passage?

Solution:

In the passage, the author has analysed why evidence is necessary to believe anything. Using the theory propounded by Clifford, he has tried to shed light on the disastrous effects of believing something without evidence, especially in recent times. Therefore, the tone of the passage is analytical.

Hence, option B is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 37

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

A handsome youth with shoulder-length golden hair sits in a London garret, pondering. He is composing his first book — a work he believes will transform him from a penniless foreigner into a literary cause célèbre. But first he must answer a self-imposed question: what do Taiwanese aristocrats eat for breakfast?
Inspiration hits, and his quill nib glides over linen paper. “All who can live without working, eat their Breakfasts about seven of the Clock in the Morning”, the young man scribbles. “First they smoke a Pipe of Tobacco, then they drink Bohea, Green or Sage Tea; afterwards they cut off the Head of a Viper, and suck the Blood out of the Body.” His quill pauses, waiting for the mixture of innocence and archness that comes so easily. “This, in my humble Opinion,” he concludes, “is the most wholsom Breakfast a Man can make.”
Roughly a year later, in a cluttered meeting chamber, a crowd presses around a periwigged physician as he exhibits a “foot of a human Body dried in Tenariffe” alongside a piece of Indian Ocean driftwood carved with cryptic letters. The assembled gentlemen, all fellows of the Royal Society, debate the plausibility of a letter written by a woman “who pretended to live without food”. A new invention — the world’s first air pump capable of creating a vacuum—makes its debut, the fellows aware that the hand-blown glass bell topping the device could implode at any moment.
At the evening’s close, the same young man — his dreams of literary fame now fulfilled — stands to address the crowd of scientists and savants. An aging Isaac Newton sits at the head of the table. Upon catching sight of the speaker’s pale skin and honey-colored locks, a member of the audience privately notes to himself that the foreigner seems to “look like a young Dutch-man”. But the speaker declares that he is actually a native of one of the world’s most remote and mysterious nations. In the twenty-first century we call it Taiwan; in 1704 it was known to Europeans as “Formosa, an Island belonging to the Emperor of Japan.” The man contends that he is a Formosan aristocrat, reared from infancy in the capitol city of Xternetsa and tutored in Greek by an evil Jesuit. He refuses to divulge his Formosan name, but he calls himself George Psalmanazar.
Psalmanazar describes an island nation populated by a skillful and learned people. Yet it is a place which oscillates strangely between civility and savagery. His countrymen possess “a very sharp natural Wit” and are capable of making “Pictures with great Art and Skill”, as well as porcelain dishes, a technology unknown to European craftsmen. Yet “they have no Shoe-makers, Brewers or Bakers,” and they use crude pine torches for lighting. And although Formosan parents refuse to beat their children — a level of tolerance unknown in Europe — they are also capable of appalling violence. In the capital at Xternetsa, Psalmanazar calmly explains, his people have erected an enormous “Tabernacle” where they sacrifice infants to an ox-shaped god, to the tune of approximately 102,000 babies a year.
Clearly, starting their morning with fresh viper’s blood wasn’t the only thing that Formosans did differently.
Who was this man? The available facts remain surprisingly slim. Despite hundreds of years of research by everyone from the father of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to contemporary scholars at Penn and the National Taiwan University, we still don’t even know Psalmanazar’s real name or place of origin (although he was likely from southern France). We know that elite figures ranging from the scientists of the Royal Society to the Bishop of London initially believed his claims, but he eventually fell into disgrace as competing experts confirmed that he was a liar. Beyond this, we move into the fictional realms that “Psalmanazar”, like a Borges character come to life, summoned into existence with his voice and pen.
Fascinatingly, however, we also possess a confessional autobiography that an aged Psalmanazar wrote as an act of personal penance. The Memoirs of ****, Commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar; a Reputed Native of Formosa went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died in old age, Psalmanazar had abandoned his claims of Formosan origin, lamenting his “unaccountable pride, folly, and stupid villainy, in opposition to reason, religion, and all checks of conscience.” Yet he still refused to reveal his real name or place of birth, and his old Formosan habits died hard — not least the “vast quantity of laudanum” (opium tincture) he continued to take on a daily basis, which Psalmanazar attributed to his “vanity and senseless affectation of singularity”
Posterity has treated Psalmanazar as little more than a literary footnote. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, authors would retell his story as either a humorous anecdote or a tragic tale, depending on their personal inclinations. But is it also something more?

Q. From the information provided in the passage, we can infer that

Solution:

From the passage, we can infer that Psalmanazar's version of the Taiwanese people and their habits is a bluff. Therefore, the truthfulness of any statement that has been derived from Psalmanazar's account cannot be ascertained.

Psalmanazar stated that the Taiwanese people cut the head off viper and drank its blood, refrained from beating their children, and sacrificed a large number of infants at Tabernacle. However, it has not been mentioned that Psalamnazar told that Taiwan was known as Formosa. The author mentions that Taiwan was known as Formosa in the 18th century.

Therefore, option B is the right answer.

QUESTION: 38

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

A handsome youth with shoulder-length golden hair sits in a London garret, pondering. He is composing his first book — a work he believes will transform him from a penniless foreigner into a literary cause célèbre. But first he must answer a self-imposed question: what do Taiwanese aristocrats eat for breakfast?
Inspiration hits, and his quill nib glides over linen paper. “All who can live without working, eat their Breakfasts about seven of the Clock in the Morning”, the young man scribbles. “First they smoke a Pipe of Tobacco, then they drink Bohea, Green or Sage Tea; afterwards they cut off the Head of a Viper, and suck the Blood out of the Body.” His quill pauses, waiting for the mixture of innocence and archness that comes so easily. “This, in my humble Opinion,” he concludes, “is the most wholsom Breakfast a Man can make.”
Roughly a year later, in a cluttered meeting chamber, a crowd presses around a periwigged physician as he exhibits a “foot of a human Body dried in Tenariffe” alongside a piece of Indian Ocean driftwood carved with cryptic letters. The assembled gentlemen, all fellows of the Royal Society, debate the plausibility of a letter written by a woman “who pretended to live without food”. A new invention — the world’s first air pump capable of creating a vacuum—makes its debut, the fellows aware that the hand-blown glass bell topping the device could implode at any moment.
At the evening’s close, the same young man — his dreams of literary fame now fulfilled — stands to address the crowd of scientists and savants. An aging Isaac Newton sits at the head of the table. Upon catching sight of the speaker’s pale skin and honey-colored locks, a member of the audience privately notes to himself that the foreigner seems to “look like a young Dutch-man”. But the speaker declares that he is actually a native of one of the world’s most remote and mysterious nations. In the twenty-first century we call it Taiwan; in 1704 it was known to Europeans as “Formosa, an Island belonging to the Emperor of Japan.” The man contends that he is a Formosan aristocrat, reared from infancy in the capitol city of Xternetsa and tutored in Greek by an evil Jesuit. He refuses to divulge his Formosan name, but he calls himself George Psalmanazar.
Psalmanazar describes an island nation populated by a skillful and learned people. Yet it is a place which oscillates strangely between civility and savagery. His countrymen possess “a very sharp natural Wit” and are capable of making “Pictures with great Art and Skill”, as well as porcelain dishes, a technology unknown to European craftsmen. Yet “they have no Shoe-makers, Brewers or Bakers,” and they use crude pine torches for lighting. And although Formosan parents refuse to beat their children — a level of tolerance unknown in Europe — they are also capable of appalling violence. In the capital at Xternetsa, Psalmanazar calmly explains, his people have erected an enormous “Tabernacle” where they sacrifice infants to an ox-shaped god, to the tune of approximately 102,000 babies a year.
Clearly, starting their morning with fresh viper’s blood wasn’t the only thing that Formosans did differently.
Who was this man? The available facts remain surprisingly slim. Despite hundreds of years of research by everyone from the father of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to contemporary scholars at Penn and the National Taiwan University, we still don’t even know Psalmanazar’s real name or place of origin (although he was likely from southern France). We know that elite figures ranging from the scientists of the Royal Society to the Bishop of London initially believed his claims, but he eventually fell into disgrace as competing experts confirmed that he was a liar. Beyond this, we move into the fictional realms that “Psalmanazar”, like a Borges character come to life, summoned into existence with his voice and pen.
Fascinatingly, however, we also possess a confessional autobiography that an aged Psalmanazar wrote as an act of personal penance. The Memoirs of ****, Commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar; a Reputed Native of Formosa went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died in old age, Psalmanazar had abandoned his claims of Formosan origin, lamenting his “unaccountable pride, folly, and stupid villainy, in opposition to reason, religion, and all checks of conscience.” Yet he still refused to reveal his real name or place of birth, and his old Formosan habits died hard — not least the “vast quantity of laudanum” (opium tincture) he continued to take on a daily basis, which Psalmanazar attributed to his “vanity and senseless affectation of singularity”
Posterity has treated Psalmanazar as little more than a literary footnote. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, authors would retell his story as either a humorous anecdote or a tragic tale, depending on their personal inclinations. But is it also something more?

Q. According to the passage, Psalmanazar is most likely to be a

Solution:

It has been explicitly mentioned in the passage that Psalmanazar is likely to be from Southern France in the line "although he was likely from southern France".

Therefore, option C is the right answer.

QUESTION: 39

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

A handsome youth with shoulder-length golden hair sits in a London garret, pondering. He is composing his first book — a work he believes will transform him from a penniless foreigner into a literary cause célèbre. But first he must answer a self-imposed question: what do Taiwanese aristocrats eat for breakfast?
Inspiration hits, and his quill nib glides over linen paper. “All who can live without working, eat their Breakfasts about seven of the Clock in the Morning”, the young man scribbles. “First they smoke a Pipe of Tobacco, then they drink Bohea, Green or Sage Tea; afterwards they cut off the Head of a Viper, and suck the Blood out of the Body.” His quill pauses, waiting for the mixture of innocence and archness that comes so easily. “This, in my humble Opinion,” he concludes, “is the most wholsom Breakfast a Man can make.”
Roughly a year later, in a cluttered meeting chamber, a crowd presses around a periwigged physician as he exhibits a “foot of a human Body dried in Tenariffe” alongside a piece of Indian Ocean driftwood carved with cryptic letters. The assembled gentlemen, all fellows of the Royal Society, debate the plausibility of a letter written by a woman “who pretended to live without food”. A new invention — the world’s first air pump capable of creating a vacuum—makes its debut, the fellows aware that the hand-blown glass bell topping the device could implode at any moment.
At the evening’s close, the same young man — his dreams of literary fame now fulfilled — stands to address the crowd of scientists and savants. An aging Isaac Newton sits at the head of the table. Upon catching sight of the speaker’s pale skin and honey-colored locks, a member of the audience privately notes to himself that the foreigner seems to “look like a young Dutch-man”. But the speaker declares that he is actually a native of one of the world’s most remote and mysterious nations. In the twenty-first century we call it Taiwan; in 1704 it was known to Europeans as “Formosa, an Island belonging to the Emperor of Japan.” The man contends that he is a Formosan aristocrat, reared from infancy in the capitol city of Xternetsa and tutored in Greek by an evil Jesuit. He refuses to divulge his Formosan name, but he calls himself George Psalmanazar.
Psalmanazar describes an island nation populated by a skillful and learned people. Yet it is a place which oscillates strangely between civility and savagery. His countrymen possess “a very sharp natural Wit” and are capable of making “Pictures with great Art and Skill”, as well as porcelain dishes, a technology unknown to European craftsmen. Yet “they have no Shoe-makers, Brewers or Bakers,” and they use crude pine torches for lighting. And although Formosan parents refuse to beat their children — a level of tolerance unknown in Europe — they are also capable of appalling violence. In the capital at Xternetsa, Psalmanazar calmly explains, his people have erected an enormous “Tabernacle” where they sacrifice infants to an ox-shaped god, to the tune of approximately 102,000 babies a year.
Clearly, starting their morning with fresh viper’s blood wasn’t the only thing that Formosans did differently.
Who was this man? The available facts remain surprisingly slim. Despite hundreds of years of research by everyone from the father of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to contemporary scholars at Penn and the National Taiwan University, we still don’t even know Psalmanazar’s real name or place of origin (although he was likely from southern France). We know that elite figures ranging from the scientists of the Royal Society to the Bishop of London initially believed his claims, but he eventually fell into disgrace as competing experts confirmed that he was a liar. Beyond this, we move into the fictional realms that “Psalmanazar”, like a Borges character come to life, summoned into existence with his voice and pen.
Fascinatingly, however, we also possess a confessional autobiography that an aged Psalmanazar wrote as an act of personal penance. The Memoirs of ****, Commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar; a Reputed Native of Formosa went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died in old age, Psalmanazar had abandoned his claims of Formosan origin, lamenting his “unaccountable pride, folly, and stupid villainy, in opposition to reason, religion, and all checks of conscience.” Yet he still refused to reveal his real name or place of birth, and his old Formosan habits died hard — not least the “vast quantity of laudanum” (opium tincture) he continued to take on a daily basis, which Psalmanazar attributed to his “vanity and senseless affectation of singularity”
Posterity has treated Psalmanazar as little more than a literary footnote. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, authors would retell his story as either a humorous anecdote or a tragic tale, depending on their personal inclinations. But is it also something more?

Q. We can infer that Psalmanazar died

Solution:

►It has been given in the passage that "The Memoirs of ****, Commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar; a Reputed Native of Formosa went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died in old age, Psalmanazar had abandoned his claims of Formosan origin, lamenting his “unaccountable pride, folly, and stupid villainy, in opposition to reason, religion, and all checks of conscience.”".

►It has been given that Psalmanazar abandoned his claims of Formosan origin. Therefore, we can eliminate option C.

►The book went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died. Therefore, we can eliminate options A and B.

►It has been given that Psalmanazar was an octogenarian when he died. 'Octogenerian' is a term used to describe someone who is in his/her eighties. Therefore, we can infer that Psalmanazar was over 80 years old when he died and
hence, option D is the right answer.

QUESTION: 40

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

A handsome youth with shoulder-length golden hair sits in a London garret, pondering. He is composing his first book — a work he believes will transform him from a penniless foreigner into a literary cause célèbre. But first he must answer a self-imposed question: what do Taiwanese aristocrats eat for breakfast?
Inspiration hits, and his quill nib glides over linen paper. “All who can live without working, eat their Breakfasts about seven of the Clock in the Morning”, the young man scribbles. “First they smoke a Pipe of Tobacco, then they drink Bohea, Green or Sage Tea; afterwards they cut off the Head of a Viper, and suck the Blood out of the Body.” His quill pauses, waiting for the mixture of innocence and archness that comes so easily. “This, in my humble Opinion,” he concludes, “is the most wholsom Breakfast a Man can make.”
Roughly a year later, in a cluttered meeting chamber, a crowd presses around a periwigged physician as he exhibits a “foot of a human Body dried in Tenariffe” alongside a piece of Indian Ocean driftwood carved with cryptic letters. The assembled gentlemen, all fellows of the Royal Society, debate the plausibility of a letter written by a woman “who pretended to live without food”. A new invention — the world’s first air pump capable of creating a vacuum—makes its debut, the fellows aware that the hand-blown glass bell topping the device could implode at any moment.
At the evening’s close, the same young man — his dreams of literary fame now fulfilled — stands to address the crowd of scientists and savants. An aging Isaac Newton sits at the head of the table. Upon catching sight of the speaker’s pale skin and honey-colored locks, a member of the audience privately notes to himself that the foreigner seems to “look like a young Dutch-man”. But the speaker declares that he is actually a native of one of the world’s most remote and mysterious nations. In the twenty-first century we call it Taiwan; in 1704 it was known to Europeans as “Formosa, an Island belonging to the Emperor of Japan.” The man contends that he is a Formosan aristocrat, reared from infancy in the capitol city of Xternetsa and tutored in Greek by an evil Jesuit. He refuses to divulge his Formosan name, but he calls himself George Psalmanazar.
Psalmanazar describes an island nation populated by a skillful and learned people. Yet it is a place which oscillates strangely between civility and savagery. His countrymen possess “a very sharp natural Wit” and are capable of making “Pictures with great Art and Skill”, as well as porcelain dishes, a technology unknown to European craftsmen. Yet “they have no Shoe-makers, Brewers or Bakers,” and they use crude pine torches for lighting. And although Formosan parents refuse to beat their children — a level of tolerance unknown in Europe — they are also capable of appalling violence. In the capital at Xternetsa, Psalmanazar calmly explains, his people have erected an enormous “Tabernacle” where they sacrifice infants to an ox-shaped god, to the tune of approximately 102,000 babies a year.
Clearly, starting their morning with fresh viper’s blood wasn’t the only thing that Formosans did differently.
Who was this man? The available facts remain surprisingly slim. Despite hundreds of years of research by everyone from the father of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to contemporary scholars at Penn and the National Taiwan University, we still don’t even know Psalmanazar’s real name or place of origin (although he was likely from southern France). We know that elite figures ranging from the scientists of the Royal Society to the Bishop of London initially believed his claims, but he eventually fell into disgrace as competing experts confirmed that he was a liar. Beyond this, we move into the fictional realms that “Psalmanazar”, like a Borges character come to life, summoned into existence with his voice and pen.
Fascinatingly, however, we also possess a confessional autobiography that an aged Psalmanazar wrote as an act of personal penance. The Memoirs of ****, Commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar; a Reputed Native of Formosa went to press in 1764, a year after its octogenarian author had died in old age, Psalmanazar had abandoned his claims of Formosan origin, lamenting his “unaccountable pride, folly, and stupid villainy, in opposition to reason, religion, and all checks of conscience.” Yet he still refused to reveal his real name or place of birth, and his old Formosan habits died hard — not least the “vast quantity of laudanum” (opium tincture) he continued to take on a daily basis, which Psalmanazar attributed to his “vanity and senseless affectation of singularity”
Posterity has treated Psalmanazar as little more than a literary footnote. Throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, authors would retell his story as either a humorous anecdote or a tragic tale, depending on their personal inclinations. But is it also something more?

Q. Which of the following statements cannot be concluded as true based on the passage?

Solution:

►Psalmanazar mentions that the Taiwanese people were skillful in making porcelain dishes. The author mentions that it is a technology unknown to European men. Therefore, we can infer that the Europeans lacked the know-how to make Porcelain dishes.

►In the third last paragraph, the author mentions that even scientists from the royal society believed in Psalamanazar's claims.

►Psalamanazar declares himself as the native of one of the world's most mysterious and remotest nations. Therefore, we can infer that Formosa was considered a mysterious and remote nation by Europeans.

►The author mentions that "Despite hundreds of years of research by everyone from the father of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli to contemporary scholars at Penn and the National Taiwan University, we still don’t even know Psalmanazar’s real name or place of origin."

►Benjamin Disraeli was the British Prime Minister, not his father. Option A states that Benjamin Disraeli's father was a British Prime Minister.
Therefore, option A is incorrect.

QUESTION: 41

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

A. On this matter, historian Jules Michelet remarked, “England is an empire, Germany is a nation, a race, France is a person” quite like statesman Charles de Gaulle, who, too, famously complained, “Only peril can bring the French together as one can’t impose unity on a country with 265 kinds of cheese.”
B. Even so, this centralist tendency is often at odds with another long-standing theme of the French nation: the insistence on the supremacy of the individual.
C. The French people look to the state as the primary guardian of liberty, and the state, in turn, provides generous amenities for its citizens, from free education to health care and pension plans.
D. Today, as in that era, central authority is vested in the state, even though a measure of autonomy has been granted to the country’s 21 régions in recent decades.
E. France is among the globe’s oldest nations, the product of an alliance of duchies and principalities under a single ruler in the Middle Ages.

Solution:

►The passage should open with a general, introductory remark, which is easily found here in line E. Note carefully the words a single ruler, which go very well with the words central authority in line D (E-D).

►Notice the contrasting thoughts in given lines C and B, which talk of extreme views in turn, thereby giving us another logical pairing C-B. Also notice this centralist tendency in line B. Hence E-D-C-B.

►On this matter in line A refers to the precise point raised by line B only (EDCBA).

QUESTION: 42

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the origin / source of the words given below.

Q. The phrase “Patio” belongs to which language?

Solution:

►In English, “patio” generally describes an area outside a house which often has a table and chairs, but no roof.

►It has its origin in early 19th century: from Spanish, denoting an inner courtyard

QUESTION: 43

DIRECTION for the question: Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning:

Solution:

The word is Ascetic ,which means someone who practices self-denial as a spiritual discipline.

So the correct ans. is Puritan

QUESTION: 44

DIRECTIONS for the question: Complete the sentence by filling in the appropriate blank/blanks from the options provided.

Q. Jim’s under-explained transition through hazy stages labeled Incarnation, Examination and Debut leave the __________ portions of this science fiction more to imagination than desired.

Solution:

►The key to this question is the phrase ''more to imagination that desired''.

►This helps us identify speculative as the correct answer in this case.

Speculative means: not based on fact or investigation/engaged in, expressing, or based on conjecture rather than knowledge. Effectively, this means there is a lot of guesswork involved when we use speculative to describe something.

►Keeping this in mind, we see that it fits our context perfectly.

QUESTION: 45

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the option which is grammatically correct and expresses the meaning of sentence correctly.

The Courage Magazine, a firm supporter of the social equality and significant as a publication in social science as well, represent the workmanship of diverse writers.

Solution:

►The subject of the verb ''represents'' is ''The Courage Magazine''. Clearly, this is a singular subject and therefore, a singular verb is required in this case.

►Remember, the phrase (a firm supporter of the social equality as well as a significant publication in social science) simply defines a quality of the subject and is not a subject in itself.

QUESTION: 46

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the pair of words which best expresses the relationship similar to that expressed in the capitalized pair.

BOOMING : STENTORIAN

Solution:

►Stentorian is a word used for voice and it means loud, resonant and powerful.

►Booming and stentorian are synonymous.

►We find a similar relationship in sparkly and glittering.

QUESTION: 47

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question consists of five statements labelled A, B, C, D and E which when logically ordered form a coherent passage. Choose the option that represents the most logical order.

A. Nature’s imagination, as Freeman Dyson likes to say, is richer than ours, and he speaks, marvellingly, of this richness in the physical and biological worlds, the endless diversity of physical forms and forms of life.
B. Thus while one may be horrified by the ravages of developmental disorder or disease, one may sometimes see them as creative too—for if they destroy particular paths, particular ways of doing things, they may force the nervous system into making other paths and ways, force on it an unexpected growth and evolution.
C. Defects, disorders, diseases, in this sense, can play a paradoxical role, by bringing out latent powers, developments, evolutions, forms of life, that might never be seen, or even be imaginable, in their absence.
D. For me, as a physician, nature’s richness is to be studied in the phenomena of health and disease, in the endless forms of individual adaptation by which human organisms, people, adapt and reconstruct themselves.
E. It is the paradox of disease, in this sense, its “creative” potential, that forms the central theme of this book.

Solution:

►The paragraph is talking about nature’s richness and then the views about a physician – he thinks that nature’s richness is to be studied in the phenomenon of health and disease. Hence A will be followed by D.

►The before paradox in E suggests that the paradox has been spoken about before. Hence C will be before E. Therefore option C is the answer

QUESTION: 48

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question consists of four/five sentences on a topic. Select the option that indicates grammatically correct or appropriate sentence/s.

Solution:

Sentence 1: ‘Require enormous strength, confidence and ability’ instead of ‘requires’. This is because the subject consists of two infinitives, ‘to illustrate’ and ‘to express’, which effectively act as two subjects in the sentence. Thus, we need a plural verb.

Sentence 2: ‘The couple are separating’ instead of ‘is separating’. The collective noun is not acting collectively here.

Sentence 4: Instead of ‘hoard (a secret store of valuables or money)’, the correct word will be ‘horde (a vast multitude)’.

QUESTION: 49

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the question and mark the appropriate answer.

Solution:

en passant - French by the way (literally ‘in passing’)

faute de mieux - French for want of a better alternative

gîte - French a small furnished holiday house in France

haute cuisine - French high-quality cooking (literally ‘high cookery’)

QUESTION: 50

DIRECTION for the question: Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning:

Solution:

The word is Bashful, which means self-consciously timid. So the correct answer is demure.

QUESTION: 51

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the question and mark the appropriate answer.

Solution:

►Timidly means in a manner that shows a lack of courage or confidence.

►Fortitude means bravery

►Efface means to remove

QUESTION: 52

DIRECTIONS for the question: Identify the nature of the underlined word (parts of speech) in the given sentences.

Some people buy expensive cars simply because they can.

Solution:

This clause answers the question "why," showing cause, so it is an adverb clause. It does not act as a subject or object, and it does not modify a noun or pronoun.

QUESTION: 53

DIRECTIONS for the question: Create a word using all the given letters from the jumbled letters and identify its appropriate meaning.

Solution:

The word after rearranging becomes BILKED which means cheat.

QUESTION: 54

DIRECTIONS for the question: The following sentence has a missing punctuation mark, choose the right answer.

Many people believe in aliens however I've never seen one.

Solution:

The semicolon can be used to separate two main clauses, which could each stand alone as complete sentences.You can also use a semicolon when you join two independent clauses together with one of the following conjunctive adverbs (adverbs that join independent clauses): however, moreover, therefore, consequently, otherwise, nevertheless, thus, etc.

QUESTION: 55

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the option which is most Similar in meaning of the underlined word as used in the context of the sentence.

The young is quite sanguine about the result of his competitive examination.

Solution:

Sanguine means cheerfully optimistic.

QUESTION: 56

DIRECTIONS for the question: In the given paragraph, the last line has been deleted. Choose the option that logically follows the paragraph.

Each September, the wood frogs of Alaska do a very strange thing: They freeze. They do not freeze totally solid, but they do freeze mostly solid. Two-thirds of their body water turns to ice. If you picked them up, they would not move. If you bent one of their legs, it would break. Inside these frozen frogs other weird physiological things are going on. Their hearts stop beating, their blood no longer flows and their glucose levels sky rocket. "On an organismal level they are essentially dead," said Don Larson, a graduate student at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks who studies frogs.

Solution:

Option B is the best option because it takes the paragraph forward.

►A – This cannot be a continuation of the paragraph. It would do better as the introductory sentence.

►C – This would have fitted well after the sentence “ their hearts stop beating …………….sky rocket” because it tells you why the glucose level increase.

►D – This would fit better after “Two thirds ………ice “ because it explains how the freezing is not instant but one which is worked at.

QUESTION: 57

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the question and mark the appropriate answer.

Solution:

►Ipso facto(by that very fact or act) is adverb,

►Carte blanche(complete freedom to act as one wishes) is noun,

►Je ( in French means ''I''/ ''Me'') a pronoun

►Mais(in French means ''but'') is conjunction.

QUESTION: 58

DIRECTIONS for the question: Complete the sentence by filling in the appropriate blank/blanks from the options provided.

It would be far better to conduct investigations and __________out punishments at the national level.

Solution:

Mete means to ''dispense justice''.

QUESTION: 59

DIRECTION for the question: Answer the question based on the information given in the passage.

Natural flavourings and fragrances are often costly and limited in supply. For example, the vital ingredient in a rose fragrance is extracted from natural rose oil at a cost of thousands of dollars a pound; an identical synthetic substance can be made for 1% of this cost. Since the early twentieth century, success in reproducing these substances has created a new industry that today produces hundreds of artificial flavours and fragrances. Some natural fragrances are easily synthesized; these include vanillin, the aromatic ingredient in vanilla, and benzaldehyde, the aromatic ingredient in wild cherries. Other fragrances, however, have dozens, even hundreds of components. Only recently has it been possible to separate and identify these ingredients by the use of gas chromatography and spectroscopy. Once the chemical identity is known, it is often possible to synthesize them. Nevertheless, some complex substances, such as the aroma of fresh coffee, have still not been duplicated satisfactorily. Many of the chemical compounds making up these synthetics are identical to those found in nature, and are as harmless or harmful as the natural substances. New products must be tested for safety, and when used in food, must be approved by Food and Drug Administration.

Q. What can be inferred from the passage given above?

I. Fragrances extracted from naturally occurring substances can cost hundred times more to extract than the artificial fragrance.
II. All natural fragrances have the ease of manufacture, which makes them very popular.
III. Knowledge of the components of the fragrance does not guarantee definite synthesizing success.
IV. All natural or artificial flavourings and fragrances must be approved by the FDA.

Solution:

As per the passage, both I and III can be inferred. The passages says that - natural rose oil at a cost of thousands of dollars a pound; an identical synthetic substance can be made for 1% of this cost. Also - Once the chemical identity is known, it is often possible to synthesize them, means that it is not always possible.

Statements II and IV are incorrect – Some natural fragrances are easy to synthesize, not all. Only those that are used in food have to be approved by FDA.

QUESTION: 60

DIRECTIONS for the question: Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

A. At the same time, the historian searches for a coherent network of relationships among the pieces of evidence in order to provide a satisfactory set of answers to the research questions.
B. Through this critical analysis of evidence, the historian then writes a narrative that becomes a secondary account of the subject; admittedly, there exist certain biases in the posing of the questions, the evaluation of evidence, and the construction of a coherent network and secondary text.
C. At one end of the spectrum, the historian collects evidence and then writes an individualist, yet coherent, narrative account as response to the research question while at the other end of the spectrum, social science models or frameworks are used to organize and interpret historical evidence.
D. Narrative history places considerable value on collecting all the available evidence related to the particular questions posed for the study, and then subjecting the evidence to an evaluation of its relative importance or influence.
E. Narrative historians would claim, however, that to adopt an explicit theoretical model to explain or organize historical evidence constitutes even more of a bias.

Solution:

Note the words at the same time in line A, which speak of nothing but the idea broached in line C only (C-A). Line D talks of collecting evidence while line B talks of analysis of evidence, thus giving us another strongly linked pair (D-B). Line B alludes to certain biases, an idea further touched upon in line E. Note the word however in line E, which puts it in contrast with line B (B-E).

QUESTION: 61

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question is based on the following table. The table shows the number of emergencies attended by 6 fire brigade sub stations during May-October 2002­.

Q. Total number of emergencies attended by the 6 sub stations was the same in the months of

Solution:

Both in June and October, it was 94.

QUESTION: 62

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question is based on the following table. The table shows the number of emergencies attended by 6 fire brigade sub stations during May-October 2002­.

Q. Which of the following substations showed a greater increase in the number of emergencies attended in August as compared to July?

Solution:

From table we can see that the maximum increase is of 4 for A.

QUESTION: 63

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question is based on the following table. The table shows the number of emergencies attended by 6 fire brigade sub stations during May-October 2002­.

Q. Which substation attended to maximum number of complaints in the given period?

Solution:

B attended 109 cases, the maximum.

QUESTION: 64

DIRECTIONS for the question: The question is based on the following table. The table shows the number of emergencies attended by 6 fire brigade sub stations during May-October 2002­.

Q. Which two months aggregated over 36% of the total number of emergencies in the six-month period?

Solution:

July = 1000, September = 111, total = 577.

Therefore  required % = (211/577) x 100 = 36.55 %

QUESTION: 65

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The table about the Poverty Ratio – i.e. the number of poor people (below poverty line) in every hundred of population of that area

The figures in brackets show the Total Poor population in millions

Q. What was the urban population above the poverty line in 1979 – 80?

Solution:

The urban population forms 19% of the total 350 million poor people. So the number of urban poor people = [(19/100) × 350] = 66.5 million.

These form 43% of the urban population.

Therefore the urban Population = 66.5 × 100/43 « 155 million. Those above the Poverty Line 155 – 66.5 = 88 million.

QUESTION: 66

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The table about the Poverty Ratio – i.e. the number of poor people (below poverty line) in every hundred of population of that area

The figures in brackets show the Total Poor population in millions

Q. What is the number of people who lived in rural areas in 1977 – 78?

Solution:

82% of the total poor people (310million) within the country were from the rural area.

[(82/100) 310] « 255 million. These 255 million form approx. 51% of the rural population, so the total number of rural people will be 100%, which is slightly less than twice of 255 i.e. 500 million.

QUESTION: 67

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Venkat, a stockbroker, invested a part of his money in the stock of four companies --- A, B, C and D. Each of these companies belonged to different industries, viz., Cement, Information Technology (IT), Auto, and Steel, in no particular order. At the time of investment, the price of each stock was Rs. 100. Venkat purchased only one stock of each of these companies. He was expecting returns of 20%, 10%, 30%, and 40% from the stock of companies A, B, C and D, respectively. Returns are defined as the change in the value of the stock after one year, expressed as a percentage of the initial value. During the year, two of these companies announced extraordinarily good results. One of these two companies belonged to the Cement or the IT industry, while the other one belonged to either the Steel or the Auto industry. As a result, the returns on the stocks of these two companies were higher than the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Cement or the IT industry with extraordinarily good results, the returns were twice that of the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Steel or the Auto industry, the returns on announcement of extraordinarily good results were only one and a half times that of the initially expected returns. For the remaining two companies, which did not announce extraordinarily good results, the returns realized during the year were the same as initially expected.

Q. What is the minimum average return Venkat would have earned during the year?

Solution:

For Min. Average return, B would give double return

A would one and a half time return

Hence option 1.

QUESTION: 68

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Venkat, a stockbroker, invested a part of his money in the stock of four companies --- A, B, C and D. Each of these companies belonged to different industries, viz., Cement, Information Technology (IT), Auto, and Steel, in no particular order. At the time of investment, the price of each stock was Rs. 100. Venkat purchased only one stock of each of these companies. He was expecting returns of 20%, 10%, 30%, and 40% from the stock of companies A, B, C and D, respectively. Returns are defined as the change in the value of the stock after one year, expressed as a percentage of the initial value. During the year, two of these companies announced extraordinarily good results. One of these two companies belonged to the Cement or the IT industry, while the other one belonged to either the Steel or the Auto industry. As a result, the returns on the stocks of these two companies were higher than the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Cement or the IT industry with extraordinarily good results, the returns were twice that of the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Steel or the Auto industry, the returns on announcement of extraordinarily good results were only one and a half times that of the initially expected returns. For the remaining two companies, which did not announce extraordinarily good results, the returns realized during the year were the same as initially expected.

Q. If Venkat earned a 35% return on average during the year, then which of these statements would necessarily be true?

I. Company A belonged either to Auto or to Steel Industry.
II. Company B did not announce extraordinarily good results.
III. Company A announced extraordinarily good results.
IV. Company D did not announce extraordinarily good results.

Solution:

►35% Return = Total 140 for A, B, C and D.

►This is possible if A gives double and D gives 1.5 times return.

►So, A belonged to Cement or IT.

►So, D belonged to Auto or Steel.

►So, A & D announced extra ordinary good results and other not.
Hence option (2) is true.

QUESTION: 69

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

Venkat, a stockbroker, invested a part of his money in the stock of four companies --- A, B, C and D. Each of these companies belonged to different industries, viz., Cement, Information Technology (IT), Auto, and Steel, in no particular order. At the time of investment, the price of each stock was Rs. 100. Venkat purchased only one stock of each of these companies. He was expecting returns of 20%, 10%, 30%, and 40% from the stock of companies A, B, C and D, respectively. Returns are defined as the change in the value of the stock after one year, expressed as a percentage of the initial value. During the year, two of these companies announced extraordinarily good results. One of these two companies belonged to the Cement or the IT industry, while the other one belonged to either the Steel or the Auto industry. As a result, the returns on the stocks of these two companies were higher than the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Cement or the IT industry with extraordinarily good results, the returns were twice that of the initially expected returns. For the company belonging to the Steel or the Auto industry, the returns on announcement of extraordinarily good results were only one and a half times that of the initially expected returns. For the remaining two companies, which did not announce extraordinarily good results, the returns realized during the year were the same as initially expected.

Q.  If Venkat earned a 38.75% return on average during the year, then which of these statements would necessarily be true?

I.  Company C belonged either to Auto or to Steel Industry.
II. Company D belonged either to Auto or to Steel Industry.
III. Company A announced extraordinarily good results.
IV. Company B did not announce extraordinarily good results.

Solution:

►38.75% Return = Total 155 for A, B, C and D.

►This is possible if D gives double and C give 1.5 times return.

►D Cement or IT. C Auto or steel.

►So, option I & IV are true and hence option (3)

QUESTION: 70

DIRECTIONS for the question: Given an input line;  the machine arranges the words and numbers in steps in a systematic manner as illustrated afterwards : Study the pattern and answer the question that follows.

Input line: 56 dress fine shine 32 66 72 offer
Step I:  72 56 dress fine shine 32 66 offer
Step II: 72 shine 56 dress fine 32 66 offer
Step III: 72 shine 66 56 dress fine 32 offer
Step IV: 72 shine 66 offer 56 dress fine 32
Step V: 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine dress 32
Step VI: 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine 32 dress
Step VI is the last step and the output in Step VI is the final output.
As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.

Step II of an input is '53 window 42 50 door lock key 36'. How many more steps will be required to complete the arrangement?

Solution:

In Step I the largest number occupies the leftmost position, pushing ‘he rest of the line rightwards. In the next step the word that comes last in the alphabetical order occupies the second position from the left and the re­maining terms move rightwards. This goes on alternately till all the numbers get arranged in descending order and the words in reverse al­phabetical order at alternate positions. In case a term is already arranged, the machine moves on to the next one.

Step II : 53 window 42 50 door lock key 36
Step III : 53 window 50 42 door lock key 36
Step IV : 53 window 50 lock 42 door key 36
Step V : 53 window 50 lock 42 key door 36
Step VI : 53 window 50 lock 42 key 36 door.
Hence, four more steps are required.

QUESTION: 71

DIRECTIONS for the question: Given an input line;  the machine arranges the words and numbers in steps in a systematic manner as illustrated afterwards: Study the pattern and answer the question that follows.

Input line: 56 dress fine shine 32 66 72 offer
Step I:  72 56 dress fine shine 32 66 offer
Step II: 72 shine 56 dress fine 32 66 offer
Step III: 72 shine 66 56 dress fine 32 offer
Step IV: 72 shine 66 offer 56 dress fine 32
Step V: 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine dress 32
Step VI: 72 shine 66 offer 56 fine 32 dress
Step VI is the last step and the output in Step VI is the final output.
As per the rules followed in the above steps, find out in each of the following questions the appropriate step for the given input.

Step IV of an input is '62 sound 56 sleep roam present 33 49'. What will be the input definitely?

Solution:

►In Step I the largest number occupies the leftmost position, pushing the rest of the line rightwards.

►In the next step the word that comes last in the alphabetical order occupies the second position from the left and the re­maining terms move rightwards.

►This goes on alternately till all the numbers get arranged in descending order and the words in reverse al­phabetical order at alternate positions.

►In case a term is already arranged, the machine moves on to the next one.

►We cannot determine the arrangement in the reverse direction.

QUESTION: 72

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight persons from different banks viz. UCO bank, Syndicate bank, Canara bank, PNB, Dena Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Indian bank and Bank of Maharashtra are sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C and D are seated and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R and S are seated and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row. (All the information given above does not necessarily represent the order of seating as in the final arrangement)

• C sits second to right of the person from Bank of Maharashtra. R is an immediate neighbor of the person who faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Only one person sits between R and the person for PNB. Immediate neighbour of the person from PNB faces the person from Canara Bank.
• The person from UCO bank faces the person from Oriental Bank of Commerce. R is not from Oriental Bank of Commerce. P is not from PNB. P does not face the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Q faces the person from Dena bank. The one who faces S sits to the immediate left of A.
• B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The person from Bank of Maharashtra does not face the person from Syndicate bank.

Q. Who amongst the following sit at extreme ends of the rows?

Solution:

Correct pattern is

The person from Syndicate bank and D are sitting at extreme ends of row.

QUESTION: 73

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight persons from different banks viz. UCO bank, Syndicate bank, Canara bank, PNB, Dena Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Indian bank and Bank of Maharashtra are sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C and D are seated and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R and S are seated and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row. (All the information given above does not necessarily represent the order of seating as in the final arrangement)

• C sits second to right of the person from Bank of Maharashtra. R is an immediate neighbor of the person who faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Only one person sits between R and the person for PNB. Immediate neighbour of the person from PNB faces the person from Canara Bank.
• The person from UCO bank faces the person from Oriental Bank of Commerce. R is not from Oriental Bank of Commerce. P is not from PNB. P does not face the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Q faces the person from Dena bank. The one who faces S sits to the immediate left of A.
• B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The person from Bank of Maharashtra does not face the person from Syndicate bank.

Q. Who amongst the following faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra?

Solution:

Correct pattern is

S who is from Indian bank faces the person from bank of Maharashtra. Thus first option is the answer.

QUESTION: 74

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight persons from different banks viz. UCO bank, Syndicate bank, Canara bank, PNB, Dena Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Indian bank and Bank of Maharashtra are sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C and D are seated and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R and S are seated and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row. (All the information given above does not necessarily represent the order of seating as in the final arrangement)

• C sits second to right of the person from Bank of Maharashtra. R is an immediate neighbor of the person who faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Only one person sits between R and the person for PNB. Immediate neighbour of the person from PNB faces the person from Canara Bank.
• The person from UCO bank faces the person from Oriental Bank of Commerce. R is not from Oriental Bank of Commerce. P is not from PNB. P does not face the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Q faces the person from Dena bank. The one who faces S sits to the immediate left of A.
• B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The person from Bank of Maharashtra does not face the person from Syndicate bank.

Q. P is related to Dena bank in the same way as B is related to PNB based on the given arrangement. To whom amongst the following is D related to, following the same pattern?

Solution:

Correct pattern is

According to question they are related diagonally. so D is related to Indian Bank(IB)

QUESTION: 75

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

Eight persons from different banks viz. UCO bank, Syndicate bank, Canara bank, PNB, Dena Bank, Oriental Bank of Commerce, Indian bank and Bank of Maharashtra are sitting in two parallel rows containing four people each, in such a way that there is an equal distance between adjacent persons. In row-1 A, B, C and D are seated and all of them are facing south. In row-2 P, Q, R and S are seated and all of them are facing north. Therefore, in the given seating arrangement each member seated in a row faces another member of the other row. (All the information given above does not necessarily represent the order of seating as in the final arrangement)

• C sits second to right of the person from Bank of Maharashtra. R is an immediate neighbor of the person who faces the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Only one person sits between R and the person for PNB. Immediate neighbour of the person from PNB faces the person from Canara Bank.
• The person from UCO bank faces the person from Oriental Bank of Commerce. R is not from Oriental Bank of Commerce. P is not from PNB. P does not face the person from Bank of Maharashtra.
• Q faces the person from Dena bank. The one who faces S sits to the immediate left of A.
• B does not sit at any of the extreme ends of the line. The person from Bank of Maharashtra does not face the person from Syndicate bank.

Q. Four of the following five are alike in a certain way based on the given seating arrangement and thus form a group. Which is the one that does not belong to that group?

Solution:

Correct pattern is

All of them are at extreme ends except Q.
Hence 4th option is the answer.

QUESTION: 76

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.
The following question based on the Diagram below, which reports country XX's monthly outward Investment flows to various contries and the World. The FOI figures are reported in US\$ Million.

Q. What is the compounded monthly average growth rate of Country XX's overall Outward Investment (in the world category) during the period January 2011 and May 2011?

Solution:

CAGR = [(Final/Initial)1 No. of Periods - 1] x 100
So, CAGR  = (3701/3075)1/4  - 1] x 100 = 4.74%
Hence option 4

Alternatively
it can be seen the total growth happens to be around 21% in with four increases. As per the simple growth rate as well it has to be 21/4 = 5.25%.

Now for the same total growth, the compounded rate has to be lesser than the simple rate. Only the fourth option given is lesser than that.

QUESTION: 77

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following question based on the Diagram below, which reports country XX's monthly outward Investment flows to various contries and the World. The FOI figures are reported in US\$ Million.

Q. In which month Country XX's Outward Investment to Singapore dropped most and what is the 'month on month' growth in that period?

Solution:

Country XX's outward investment to singapore dropped in March and April only.
Percentage growth in March

Percentage growth in April

It is max. in april nearly - 49 %.
Hence option C.

QUESTION: 78

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following question based on the Diagram below, which reports country XX's monthly outward Investment flows to various contries and the World. The FOI figures are reported in US\$ Million.

Q. What is the share of County XX's Outward Investment together in USA and UK in February 2011 of its total investment in the world?

Solution:

Required percentage

Hence, Option 1.

QUESTION: 79

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following question based on the Diagram below, which reports country XX's monthly outward Investment flows to various contries and the World. The FOI figures are reported in US\$ Million.

Q. In which month the share of Country XX's total Outward Investment together in Singapore and UAE achieved the highest level out of the world and what is the value?

Solution:

Share of outwards investment to Singapore and UAE together in
which is highest of all. Hence option 2.

QUESTION: 80

DIRECTIONS for the question: Analyse the graph/s given below and answer the question that follows.

The following question based on the Diagram below, which reports country XX's monthly outward Investment flows to various contries and the World. The FOI figures are reported in US\$ Million.

Q. Between February 2011 and April 2011, to which country did Outward Investment from XX witness the highest decline?

Solution:

Percentage decline for:

QUESTION: 81

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The Question based on the table below, which reports certain data series from National Accounts Statistics of India at Current Prices.

Q. The GDP is sum total of the contributions from primary sector, secondary sector and the tertiary sector. If that be the case, then over 2004-05 to 2009-10, the share of tertiary sector at factor cost in GDP has increased from:

Solution:

Value (in Rs. Crore) of tertiary sector in 2004 - 2005

= 2971464 - (650454 + 744755)
= 1576255
Share of tertiary sector in 2004 - 2005

Value (in Rs. Crore) of tertiary sector in 2009 - 2010

= 6133230 - (1243566 + 1499601)
= 3390063
Share of tertiary sector in 2009 - 2010

Hence option 1.

QUESTION: 82

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The Question based on the table below, which reports certain data series from National Accounts Statistics of India at Current Prices.

Q. The annual growth rate in the GNP series at factor cost was highest between:

Solution:

Growth rate in GNP series between 2005-06 and 2006-07

2006-07 and 2007-08

2007-08 and 2008-09

2008-09 and 2009-10

Therefore, it is highest between 2005-06 and 2006-07
Hence option 4

QUESTION: 83

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The Question based on the table below, which reports certain data series from National Accounts Statistics of India at Current Prices.

Q. Had Gross Domestic Savings (GDS) between 2008-09 and 2009-10 increased by 30 percent, then during 2009-10 GDS expressed as a percentage of GDP at market prices would have been:

Solution:

Value ( in Rs. crore) of GDS in 2009-10
= 1.3 x 1798347 = 2337851
Required percentage

Hence Option 3.

QUESTION: 84

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The Question based on the table below, which reports certain data series from NAtional Accounts Statistics of India at Current Prices.

Q. Mark the highest figure from the following:

Solution:

Going by option

Hence option 4

QUESTION: 85

DIRECTIONS for the question: Study the following Graph & table given below and answer the question that follows.

The Question based on the table below, which reports certain data series from National Accounts Statistics of India at Current Prices.

Q.  Identify the correct Statement

Solution:

The ratio of GDP (at factor cost) and GNP in 2006-07 is 2971464/2949089.

►Note that the difference between the numerator and the denominator in die above given ratio is around 30 thousand and the denominator is dose to 30 lakhs and hence this value will be around 1.01 If we observe the rest of the data for GDP at factor cost and GNP for the rest of the years, we can see that for the year 2005-06 is the ratio of GDP (at factor cost) to that of GNP is 3389621 /3363505.

►Note that the difference between the numerator and the denominator in the above given ratio is around 25 thousand and the denominator is dose to 33.5 lakhs. Thus the ratio will be around 1.007 which is less than 1.01

Thus option 1 is incorrect.

►The ratio of GDP (at factor cost) to that of GDP (at market price) for 2006-07 is 3952241/4293672 This ratio turns out to be 0.9204 If we observe the rest of the data for the GDP (at factor cost) and that of GDP (at market price), vve can see that for the year 2007-08. the ratio is 4581422/4986426 This ratio turns out to be 0.9187

QUESTION: 86

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The Vice Chancellor of a University wants to select a team of five member organizing committee for the next convocation of the University to be held in March 2012. The committee members are to be selected from five shortlisted professors (Prof. Ahuja, Prof. Banerjee, Prof, Chakravarty, Prof Das and Prof. Equbal) and four short listed students (Prakash, Queen, Ravi and Sushil). Some conditions for selection of the committee members are given below:

(i) Prof. Ahuja and Sushil have to be together
(ii) Prakash cannot be put with Ravi
(iii) Prof. Das and Queen cannot go together
(iv) Prof. Chakravarty and Prof. Equbal have to be selected
(v) Ravi cannot be selected with Prof. Banerjee

Q. If two members of the committee are students and Prof. Das is one of the members of the committee, who are the other committee members?

Solution:

Since, Prof. Das is one of the members. The two other members are professors and two are students.

►According to the (iv) statement the two professors have to be Prof. Equbal and Prof. Chakravarty.

►Now, let us analyze the options.
Prof. Equbal is not present in option A and option B hence first two options are wrong. Also according to statement (i) Prof. Ahuja and Sushil always go together so option C is incorrect.
Hence, option D is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 87

DIRECTIONS for the question: Read the information given below and answer the question that follows.

The Vice Chancellor of a University wants to select a team of five member organizing committee for the next convocation of the University to be held in March 2012. The committee members are to be selected from five shortlisted professors (Prof. Ahuja, Prof. Banerjee, Prof, Chakravarty, Prof Das and Prof. Equbal) and four short listed students (Prakash, Queen, Ravi and Sushil). Some conditions for selection of the committee members are given below:

(i) Prof. Ahuja and Sushil have to be together
(ii) Prakash cannot be put with Ravi
(iii) Prof. Das and Queen cannot go together
(iv) Prof. Chakravarty and Prof. Equbal have to be selected
(v) Ravi cannot be selected with Prof. Banerjee

Q. In case Prof. Ahuja and Prof. Chakravarty are members, who are the other members who cannot be selected for the committee?

Solution:

According to statement (iv) Prof. Chakravarty and Prof. Equbal have to be selected, thus option A, B and C cannot be the correct options because all the three options contains Prof. Equbal.

Hence, option D is the correct answer.

QUESTION: 88

DIRECTIONS for the question: Solve the following question and mark the best possible option.

425, 417, 390, 326, ?, -15, -358

Solution:

QUESTION: 89

DIRECTION for the question: Find the missing numbers/letters in following series.

6, 23, 11, 18, 16, 13, 21, ‘?’, 26, 3, 31

Solution:

QUESTION: 90

In a school where there was a compulsion to learn at least one foreign language from the choice given to them, namely German, French and Spanish. Twenty students took French, thirty took German and thirty took Spanish. Six students learnt French and German, eight students learnt German and Spanish, ten students learnt French and Spanish. Fifty four students learnt only one foreign language while twenty students learnt only German. Find the number of students in the school.

Solution:

Let the number of students who learnt all the three languages is x.
Now 20 + 6 – x + x + 8 – x = 30
⇒ 34 – x = 30
⇒ x = 4

Hence the total number of students = 30 + 20 + 30 – 6 – 8 – 10 + 4 = 60

QUESTION: 91

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which article is related to eligibility of the President?

Solution:
QUESTION: 92

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which of the following can be used to control fiscal deficit?

1. Encouraging FDI
2. Privatising higher education institutes
3. Down-sizing of bureaucracy

Solution:
QUESTION: 93

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Who has been appointed as the new Vice-Chancellor of Nalanda University?

Solution:

Sunaina Singh, the choice of the BJP’s ideological fountainhead Rashtriya Swayamsewak Sangh (RSS) and Vice Chancellor of Hyderabad-based EFL University, has been appointed as the new Vice Chancellor of Nalanda University after a long drawn process.

QUESTION: 94

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The atmospheric layer farthest from the Earth's surface is known as

Solution:
QUESTION: 95

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The Kigali doctrine amended:

Solution:
QUESTION: 96

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) under the Department of Science and Technology (DST) recently approved support for research at which of the following IITs (Indian Institutes of Technology) to identify lead compounds from available and approved drugs for fast-track anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug molecules?

Solution:
QUESTION: 97

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The comparative cost theory of International trade was developed by:

Solution:
QUESTION: 98

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Who will represent India at the EY World Entrepreneur of the Year Award (WEOY) in Monte Carlo in June 2020?

Solution:
QUESTION: 99

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The Headquarters of the European Union is located at?

Solution:
QUESTION: 100

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Which Indian cricketer received the 2019 ‘Spirit of Cricket’ award for stopping fans from booing Australia’s Steve Smith during a game at the ICC (International Cricket Council) World Cup in England?

Solution:
QUESTION: 101

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Recently, Name the Indian state which celebrates ‘Hola Mohalla’ festival annually.

Solution:
QUESTION: 102

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

1. Match the following and select the right combination.

Solution:
QUESTION: 103

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Close on the heels of the novel coronavirus being declared a pandemic, the Union Cabinet has authorized all states and union territories to invoke provisions of Section 2 of the Epidemic Diseases Act _____, conferring special powers upon local authorities to implement measures necessary to control epidemics.

Solution:
QUESTION: 104

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Choose the incorrect statement:

I. Bal Gangadhar Tilak was also known as the Father of Indian Unrest
II. He presided over the INC Session 1916 in Lucknow
III. He retired from politics after disappointment with Montague Declaration, 1917

Solution:
QUESTION: 105

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Name NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) boldest-ever Mars rover that was launched recently to seek signs of ancient life.

Solution:
QUESTION: 106

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

With respect to the tax structure under the Union Budget 2020-21, which of the following statements is incorrect?

Solution:
QUESTION: 107

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

The Mallimath Committee Report deals with:

Solution:
QUESTION: 108

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

According to a recent report by the UK-based Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), India is set to overtake which country to become the fourth-largest economy in the world in 2026?

Solution:
QUESTION: 109

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

As per International Cricket Council’s (ICC) latest test ranking released on February 26, 2020, who is the No.1 Test Batsman?

Solution:
QUESTION: 110

DIRECTIONS for the question: Mark the best option:

Tapping into fresh demand for storing data locally in India, which software giant unveiled its first data centre in the country in Mumbai?

Solution:
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