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Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - UPSC MCQ


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20 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE - Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns

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Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 1

Independent farmers were called

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 1
Independent farmers were called Grihapatis.

Explanation:


During ancient times, agriculture was the main source of livelihood for many people. The Indian society was divided into various social groups, and one of them was the grihapatis. Grihapatis were independent farmers who owned and cultivated their land. They played a crucial role in the agrarian economy and were responsible for the production of food grains.


Key Points:



  • The term "grihapati" literally translates to "master of the house" or "householder."

  • Grihapatis were considered to be the head of their households and were responsible for managing their land and agricultural activities.

  • They had the authority to make decisions regarding farming techniques, crop selection, and distribution of produce.

  • Grihapatis were also expected to provide financial support to their families and fulfill their social and religious obligations.

  • They were an integral part of the village community and played an active role in local governance and decision-making.

  • The status of a grihapati was determined by the size and productivity of their land.


Overall, grihapatis were independent farmers who played a significant role in the agricultural sector and were respected members of the society during ancient times.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 2

In which region landowners were known as Vellalars?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 2

Vellalars were a prominent social class of landowners in the Tamil region, particularly in the ancient and medieval periods. They played a crucial role in the agrarian economy and were known for their ownership and management of land. The term "Vellalar" is specific to the Tamil region's social and historical context, distinguishing them from landowning classes in other Indian regions.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 3

Northern Black Polished Ware were known for its

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 3
The correct answer is C: Fine pottery. Here is a detailed explanation:
Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) refers to a type of pottery that was prevalent in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during the Maurya and Shunga-Kushan periods (circa 600 BCE to 200 CE). It is known for its distinct black color and polished surface.
Characteristics of NBPW:
- Black color: NBPW gets its name from its characteristic black color, which is achieved through a special firing technique.
- Polished surface: The pottery is known for its smooth and shiny surface, achieved through a meticulous polishing process.
- Fine craftsmanship: NBPW exhibits a high level of craftsmanship with intricate designs and motifs.
- Thin walls: The pottery is typically characterized by thin walls, which demonstrate the skill of the potters.
Significance of NBPW:
- Status symbol: NBPW was considered a luxury item and was associated with the elite and affluent class of society. It was often used by the ruling class as a symbol of their power and authority.
- Trade and exchange: The fine quality of NBPW made it highly sought after and it was traded extensively within and beyond the Indian subcontinent. It played a significant role in promoting cultural exchange and trade routes.
- Ritual and religious purposes: NBPW vessels were used in various religious and ritualistic practices. They were often found in burial sites, indicating their importance in funerary rituals.
Conclusion:
Northern Black Polished Ware was primarily known for its fine pottery craftsmanship, reflecting the skill and artistic sensibilities of the potters during the Maurya and Shunga-Kushan periods. It served as a status symbol, facilitated trade and cultural exchange, and played a role in religious and ritual practices.
Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 4

Where is Arikamedu at present

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 4
Location of Arikamedu:
Arikamedu is located in Pondicherry, which is a union territory in southern India. It is situated near the city of Puducherry, formerly known as Pondicherry.
Details about Arikamedu:
- Arikamedu is an archaeological site that dates back to the 1st century BCE.
- It was an ancient trading port that had connections with the Roman Empire and other civilizations in the Indian Ocean region.
- The site was excavated by the French archaeologist, Jean-Marie Casal, in the 1940s and 1950s.
- The excavations revealed evidence of a thriving maritime trade network, with artifacts such as Roman pottery, beads, and coins being found.
- Arikamedu was an important center for the trade of goods such as spices, precious stones, and textiles.
- The site also had a significant influence on the cultural and artistic exchange between India and the Roman Empire.
Present-day significance:
- Today, Arikamedu is a popular tourist attraction and a site of historical importance.
- Visitors can explore the ruins of the ancient port and learn about its rich history through the onsite museum.
- The museum houses a collection of artifacts found during the excavations, providing insights into the trade and cultural interactions of the past.
Therefore, Arikamedu is presently located in Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu.
Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 5

In Arikamedu found pottery from which region

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 5

Potteries found were from the Mediterranean region, such as amphorae (tall double-handled jars that contained liquids such as wine or oil) and stamped red glazed pottery, known as Arretine Ware which was named after a city in Italy. This was made by pressing wet clay into a stamped mould.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 6

People who had no land of their own and worked for others were

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 6

Dasa Karamakaras refers to people in ancient India who did not own land and typically worked as servants or laborers for others. This term is often associated with servitude or bonded labor in the historical context of the Indian subcontinent.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 7

Which of the following was the means of irrigation that were built around 2500 years

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 7

The kings and kingdoms could not have existed without the support of flourishing villages. While new tools and the system of transplantation increased production, irrigation was also used. Irrigation works that were built during this time included canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 8

Where was salt produced plentifully along?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 8

Historically, sea water has been a major source for salt production through the process of evaporation. Coastal areas have been known for their salt pans where sea water is allowed to evaporate, leaving behind salt. This method has been used globally, making the sea a primary source for salt production.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 9

Why was Mathura famous for?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 9

Mathura, located in the northern part of India, is historically renowned as a major religious center, particularly in Hinduism and Buddhism. It is considered a sacred city and is associated with many religious stories and figures, including Lord Krishna in Hinduism. Its religious significance overshadows other aspects of the city.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 10

Roman lamps, glassware and gems have also been found at the site

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 10
Answer:
The correct answer is C: Arikamedu.
Explanation:
Roman lamps, glassware, and gems have been discovered at the site of Arikamedu, which provides evidence of Roman trade and influence in the region. Here is a detailed explanation of why Arikamedu is the correct answer:
1. Arikamedu:
- Arikamedu is an archaeological site located near Pondicherry, India.
- It was an ancient port and trading center that had connections with the Roman Empire.
2. Roman Trade and Influence:
- The discovery of Roman lamps, glassware, and gems at Arikamedu indicates the presence of Roman trade and influence in the region.
- Roman lamps were commonly used for lighting in Roman households.
- Glassware and gems were luxury items that were imported from Rome.
3. Importance of Arikamedu:
- Arikamedu played a significant role in maritime trade between the Roman Empire and the Indian subcontinent.
- It served as a major center for the trade of goods such as textiles, beads, spices, and precious stones.
4. Other Options:
- Varanasi (Option A) is a holy city in India known for its religious significance, but it does not have a specific association with Roman lamps, glassware, or gems.
- Sanchi (Option B) is famous for its Buddhist stupa and does not have any direct connection to Roman artifacts.
- Mathura (Option D) is an ancient city in northern India associated with Hinduism and Buddhism, but it does not have evidence of Roman trade or artifacts.
In conclusion, the discovery of Roman lamps, glassware, and gems at Arikamedu provides strong evidence of Roman trade and influence in the region, making it the correct answer.
Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 11

The gram-bhojaka often got his land cultivated by the ____

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 11

The gram-bhojaka often got his land cultivated by the slaved and hired workers. Here is a detailed explanation:
Explanation:
The gram-bhojaka, also known as the village headman, was responsible for the administration and management of the village. One of his duties was to ensure that the agricultural land in the village was cultivated and productive. To achieve this, he relied on the labor of slaved and hired workers.
Reasoning:
The gram-bhojaka did not possess any land of his own, so he depended on the labor of others to cultivate the land. Slaved workers were individuals who were legally bound to provide labor in exchange for protection and support from the gram-bhojaka. These workers were often from lower castes and were considered to be at the bottom of the social hierarchy.
The gram-bhojaka also hired additional workers to help with the cultivation process. These hired workers could be individuals from the village who were willing to work for a wage, or they could be migrants from other regions who were seeking employment.
Summary:
In summary, the gram-bhojaka got his land cultivated by the slaved and hired workers. The slaved workers were legally bound to provide labor, while the hired workers were individuals who were paid for their work. This system allowed the gram-bhojaka to maintain control over the agricultural activities in the village and ensure the productivity of the land.
Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 12

In Tamil, ordinary ploughmen were known as—

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 12

In Tamil society, 'Uzhavar' refers to the ordinary ploughmen or farmers who actively engaged in agricultural activities. Unlike Vellalars, who were landowners, Uzhavars typically worked on the fields, either as small-scale farmers or as laborers in agriculture.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 13

The use of iron tools began how many years ago?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 13

The use of iron tools is believed to have begun around 3000 years ago, marking a significant technological advancement in human history. This period, known as the Iron Age, saw the widespread adoption of iron for tools and weapons, which was a major step forward from the earlier Bronze Age.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 14

The notable feature of northern black polished ware was

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 14

Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW), a type of Indian pottery, is distinguished by its highly glossy, almost mirror-like finish. This type of pottery, dating back to around 700-300 BCE, is known for its fine quality and smooth black surfaces, which set it apart from other contemporary pottery types.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 15

Which is the second capital of the Kushanas?

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 15

Mathura (referred to here as Mothura) is often cited as a significant center or capital of the Kushan Empire, especially under the rule of Emperor Kanishka. The Kushanas had multiple capitals during their rule, and Mathura was notable for its cultural and economic importance in their empire.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 16

Common people of the southern India were known as

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 16

B is the correct option.Kadaiyar (also spelled Kadayar) is a Tamil caste found in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. They are also known as Kadaisiyar.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 17

The design of the earliest coins were:

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 17

The earliest known coins, dating back to around the 6th or 5th century BCE, were made by punching symbols and designs into metal. This technique involved using a punch to imprint designs onto metal discs, a method significantly different from later coin-minting techniques.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 18

____ was the port lies close to modern ____

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 18
The port that lies close to modern Pondicherry is Arikamedu. Here is a detailed explanation:
Port Location: Arikamedu is the port that is located close to modern Pondicherry.
Identification of Options: To determine the correct answer, we need to analyze each option given:
- Option A: Saurashtra and Kerala. This option does not include Pondicherry.
- Option B: Saurashtra and Pondicherry. This option includes Pondicherry, but there is no historical evidence of a port in Saurashtra in close proximity to Pondicherry.
- Option C: Arikamedu and Pondicherry. This option includes both Arikamedu and Pondicherry, which is historically accurate.
- Option D: Arikamedu and Kerala. This option includes Arikamedu, but there is no historical evidence of a port in Kerala in close proximity to Pondicherry.
Selection of Correct Answer: Based on the analysis of each option, the correct answer is C: Arikamedu and Pondicherry. Arikamedu was an ancient port city located on the east coast of India, near modern-day Pondicherry. It was an important trading center during the Roman period.
In conclusion: The port that lies close to modern Pondicherry is Arikamedu, as mentioned in option C.
Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 19

Some of the largest collections of iron tools and weapons were found in the

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 19

The correct option is C.

  • The use of iron began in the subcontinent around 3000 years ago.

  • Some of the largest collections of iron tools and weapons were found in the megalithic burials.

  • Around 2500 years ago, there is evidence for the growing use of iron tools like axes for clearing forests and the iron ploughshare for increasing agricultural production.

Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 20

An assembly of gathering of literacy persons

Detailed Solution for Important Questions Test: Vital Villages, Thriving Towns - Question 20

'Sangam' refers to an ancient assembly or gathering of Tamil poets, scholars, and literary figures in southern India. These gatherings were significant in the history of Tamil literature, leading to the creation of a rich body of classical Tamil literature known as Sangam literature.

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