Laxmikanth Test: Historical Development of the Constitution of India- 2


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following act, passed under British India, has led to the establishment of Supreme Court of Calcutta ?

Solution:

The Regulating Act, 1773 provisioned for setting up the Supreme Court of Calcutta with 1 Chief justice and 3 other judges.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following:​
1. Dyarchy at Provinces
2. Dyarchy at the center
3. Establishment of RBI
4. Bicameralism in Bengal, Bombay and Madras Provinces
5. Establishment of a Federal Court of India

Which of the above is a feature of Government of India Act, 1935?

Solution:

Important provisions of the Government of India Act, 1935:

  • Established All India Federation consisting of provinces and princely states as units.

  • Divided powers into three lists: Federal list (for Centre, with 59 items), Provincial list (for Provinces, with 54 items) and the Concurrent list (for both, with 36 items). The Viceroy was empowered with all the residuary powers.

  • Abolished dyarchy in the provinces and introduced provincial autonomy. It introduced responsible Governments in provinces where the Governor needed to work on advice of ministers responsible to the provincial legislature.

  • Provided for adoption of dyarchy at the Centre. Federal subjects were divided into transferred subjects and reserved subjects.

  • Introduced bicameralism in 6 out of 11 provinces (Bengal, Bombay, Madras, Bihar, Assam and the United Provinces).

  • Provisioned for separate electorates for Scheduled Castes, women and labour.

  • Abolished the Council of India.

  • Established Reserve Bank of India to control currency and credit of the country.

  • Established Federal Public Service Commission, Provincial Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission.

  • Provided for setting up a Federal Court.

QUESTION: 3

Match List-I with List-II and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists:
Code:

Solution:

QUESTION: 4

“This Act introduced, local representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative Council. It provided for the separation of the executive and legislative functions of the Governor General’s Council.” The above passage best describes which of the following Act?

Solution:

Features of the Charter Act, 1853 are:

  • Introduced local representation in the Indian (Central) Legislative Council. (out of 6 members 4 to be appointed by the local governments of Madras, Bombay, Bengal and Agra)

  • Separated legislative and executive functions of the Governor-General’s Council.

  • Provided for a separate 6 members Indian Legislative Council to function as mini parliament. 

  • Provisioned for open competition system for Indian Civil Services for Indians also.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following institutions was/were introduced by The Government of India Act, 1858?
1. Imperial Legislative Council
2. Board of Control
3. Council of India

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution:
  • Imperial Legislative Council was formed by the Indian Councils Act, 1861.
  • Board of Control was established by the Pitt’s India Act, 1784.
  • Council of India was formed by the Government of India Act, 1858.
QUESTION: 6

The Constitution of India was adopted by the

Solution:

The Republic is governed in terms of the Constitution of India which was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949 and came into force on 26th January, 1950.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following statement is not true?

Solution:

In 1927, the British Government appointed a 7-member statutory commission under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon to report on the condition of India under its new constitution. The commission submitted its report in 1930 and recommended the abolition of diarchy, extension of responsible Government in the provinces, establishment of a federation of British India and princely states, continuation of communal electorates and so on. The recommendations of the commission were incorporated in the Government of India Act, 1935. 

QUESTION: 8

Which of the following is a provision of the Government of India Act, 1858?
1. Company rule was replaced by Crown rule.
2. Establishment of Board of Control over the Court of Directors.
3. Indians were allowed to take part in Indian Civil Services.
4. Separating the executive and legislative functions of the Governor-General.
5. Creation of a new office of Secretary of State for India.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

Solution:

 

  • Government of India Act, 1858: Post 1857 revolt British Government took control over entire territory of India under Company rule. The act is also known as the Act of Good Government of India. The Government of India Act 1858 was an Act of the British parliament that transferred the government and territories of the East India Company to the British Crown. So, Statement 1 is correct.

  • Establishment of Board of Control over the Court of Directors was a provision under the Pitt’s India Act, 1784. So, Statement 2 is incorrect.

  • As per the Charter Act, 1853, Indians were allowed to take part in Indian Civil Services and the executive and legislative functions of the Governor-General were separated. So, Statement 3 and 4 is incorrect.

  • Government of India Act, 1858: Created office of Secretary of State for India, vested with complete authority and control over Indian administration. So, statement 5 is correct. Hence, The correct answer is Option D: 1 and 5 only.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following is/are true regarding the Morley Minto Reforms? 
1) Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. 
2) The reforms introduced separate electorates.

Solution:

1909 Act is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). It was to appease the moderates. 
1. It increased the size of Central and provincial legislative councils. 
2. The number of members in the Central Legislative Council was raised from 16 to 60. 
3. The number of members in the provincial legislative councils was not uniform.
4. It retained official majority in the Central Legislative Council (majority of British officials) 
5. However, it allowed the provincial legislative councils to have non-official majority. 
6. It enlarged the deliberative functions (right to discuss and ask questions) of the legislative councils at both the levels. 
7. For example, members could move resolutions on the budget, ask supplementary questions, etc. 
8. For the first time, it provided for the association of Indians with the executive Councils of the Viceroy and Governors. 
9. Satyendra Prasad Sinha became the first Indian to join the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as the law member. 
10. It introduced ‘separate electorate’, a system of communal representation for Muslims. 
11. Under this, the Muslim members were to be elected only by Muslim voters. 
12. Thus, the Act ‘legalized communalism’ and Lord Minto came to be known as the Father of Communal Electorate.
13. It also provided for the separate representation of presidency corporations, chambers of commerce, universities and zamindars.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the following act passed during British India, empowered the Viceroy to issue ordinances in the times of emergency?

Solution:

The Indian Councils Act, 1861 empowered the Viceroy of India to issue ordinances in emergency without the concurrence of the legislative council and with a validity of 6 months.