Practice Test: Geography - 1

20 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC (Civil Services) Prelims | Practice Test: Geography - 1

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Which one of the following is the dominant element of the earth crust?  


Oxygen is the most abundant element in the Earth's crust, at 461,000 parts per million. This means it makes up roughly 46% of the Earth's crust.


Which one of the following is not a metamorphic rock?      


Conglomerate is not a metamorphic rock. Conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer-grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments and are thus differentiated from breccias, which consist of angular clasts.


Which one of the following is an example of a block mountain?


Black Forest is an example of a block mountain. The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Wurttemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres (4,898 ft). The region is almost rectangular with a length of 160 km (99 mi) and breadth of up to 60 km (37 mi).


With reference to Kober’s Theory of Geosyncline, consider the following:

Q. Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?


A geosyncline may be defined as “a thick, rapidly accumulating body or sediment formed within a long, narrow, subsiding belt of the sea which is usually parallel to a plate margin”. (Oxford Dictionary of Geography). Or we may say a geosyncline is a “very large linear depression or down-warping of the earth’s crust, filled (especially in the central zone) with a deep layer of sediments derived from the land masses on each side and deposited on the floor of the depression at approximately the same rate as it slowly, continuously subsided during a long period of geological time”.


Match list I with list II and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists:


  • Running water – Gorge (A deep, narrow valley with steep rocky sides, often with a stream flowing through it. Gorges are smaller and narrower than canyons and are often a part of a canyon.) 
  • Glacier – Cirque (A cirque is an amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion.)
  • Wind – Barchan, is a crescent-shaped dune.
  • Underground water – Doline

Fog is a phenomenon indicating          


Considered the following pairs?

Q. Which of the following is/are incorrectly matched?


Cyclones occur in the south Pacific and the Indian Oceans. Cyclones are characterized by inward spiralling winds that rotate about a zone of low pressure. In fact, tornadoes have been documented in every state of the United States, and on every continent, with the exception of Antarctica. In fact, wherever the atmospheric conditions are exactly right, the occurrence of a tornadic storm is possible.


Which among the following statements characterized EI Nino?

I. It occurs at irregular intervals

II. It carriers warmer water

III. It carries less saline water

IV. Its atmospheric equivalent is southern oscillation.

Select the correct answer using the code given below


El Niño is a climate cycle in the Pacific Ocean with a global impact on weather patterns. The cycle begins when warm water in the western tropical Pacific Ocean shifts eastward along the equator toward the coast of South America. Normally, these warm water pools near Indonesia and the Philippines. During an El Niño, the Pacific’s warmest surface waters sit offshore of north western South America.


Normally, the temperature decreases with the increase in height from the Earth’s surface because

1. The atmosphere can be heated upwards only from the Earth’s surface.

2. There is more moisture in the upper atmosphere.

3. The air is less dense in the upper atmosphere.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:


The temperature decreases with height in the lowest 10-20 km of the atmosphere (called the troposphere) because most of the solar radiation passes through the atmosphere with little or no effect - that radiation is absorbed by the solid Earth surface and is transferred to the air above the surface by conduction.


Consider the following atmospheric conditions with reference to Tropical cyclones.

1. High relative humidity.

2. Warm oceanic temperature.

3. Region lying between the tropics of cancer and Capricorn.

Q. Which of the above motivates the development of cyclones?


There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to sustain a low pressure center, a pre-existing low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear. While these conditions are necessary for tropical cyclone formation, they do not guarantee that a tropical cyclone will form.


Which among the following phenomena can occur when very warm and humid air is rising over a mass of a very cold air?

1. Calm weather

2. Snowfall

3. Storms and cyclonic storms

4. Intense rain and hail

Select the correct Answer using the codes given below


Calm weather and intense rain and hail occur when very warm and humid air is rising over a mass of very cold air.


Which of the following statement regarding ozone layer within the atmosphere is/are correct?

1. It absorbs most of the Ultraviolet radiation found in the Sun’s rays.

2. Chlorofluorocarbons are a serious threat to the ozone layer.

Select the correct Answer using the codes given below


The ozone layer is a layer in Earth’s atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). This layer absorbs 97-99% of the sun’s high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to life on earth.

Over 90% of ozone in earth’s atmosphere is present here. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from approximately 15 km to 35 km above Earth’s surface, though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically.


Which of the following statements characterize the anticyclones?

1. Anticyclones are low pressure systems.

2. They are characterized by divergent wind circulation.

3. They are indicative of dry weather conditions.

Select the correct answer using the code given below?


An anticyclone -- also known as a high-pressure area -- is a large atmospheric circulation system with the wind flowing clockwise around it in the Northern Hemisphere, and counter-clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Anticyclones form from air masses cooling more than their surroundings, which causes the air to contract slightly making the air denser. Since dense air weighs more, the weight of the atmosphere overlying a location increase,

causing increased surface air pressure. The air mass cooling that results in an anticyclone forming can be caused by either conduction as the air flows over a relatively cool ocean surface, or through the loss of infrared radiation over land during the fall, winter, or spring when little sunlight is available to warm the air mass.


Consider the following statements:

1. All cyclones develop an eye at the centre.

2. The temperature inside the eye is nearly 10°C lesser than that of the surroundings.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the centre of strong tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 km (20–40 miles) in diameter. It is surrounded by the eye wall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather occurs. The cyclone’s lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.


Consider the following statements:

1. The approach of a cyclone is characterised by a rise in barometric reading.

2. In the cyclones of the Northern hemisphere, the winds circulate in anticlockwise direction.

Q. Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Cyclone is a mass of air whose isobars form an oval or circular shape, with low pressure at the centre. The air converges at the centre and rises to be disposed of. In a depression, the winds rotate counter clockwise in the Northern hemisphere. While in the Southern hemisphere, the circular movement of winds is in clockwise direction.


Which one of the following ocean currents is different from others?      


Labrador is different from other ocean currents. It is cold in nature. The Labrador Current is a cold current in the North Atlantic Ocean which flows from the Arctic Ocean south along the coast of Labrador and passes around Newfoundland, continuing south along the east coast of Nova Scotia.


Which is the deepest oceanic trench in the world?     


Mariana trench is the deepest trench located in the pacific ocean near Japan.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part (11 km) of the world’s oceans. It is located in the western Pacific Ocean, to the east of the Mariana Islands.


Which one of the following is not correctly matched


Baffin Bay is located between Baffin Island and the southwest coast of Greenland is a marginal sea of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is connected to the Atlantic via Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea.


Which one of the following is the tide produced as a consequence of Moon and Sun pulling the Earth in the same direction? 


Spring tides occur when the sun and moon are directly in line with the earth and their gravitational pulls reinforce each other.


Which of the following is/are the chief characteristics of commercial grain farming of the middle latitude grasslands?

1. The size of farms are generally large.

2. Cultivation is highly mechanized.

3. It is a type of extensive farming.

Select the correct answer using the code given below:


Midlatitude grassland farming has very large farms,  are mechanised and fall in the category of extensive cultivation. Grasslands are found all across the globe.

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