A demand for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of India can be granted when, on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service, the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement.This is known as
The Constitution provides that the Parliament may make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the nation’s resources, when, on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service, the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in the annual financial statement.
Token grant involves a sum of
Token Grant - It is granted when funds to meet the proposed expenditure on a new service can be made available by reappropriation.
A demand for the grant of a token sum (of Re 1) is submitted to the vote of the Lok Sabha and if assented, funds are made available.
Reappropriation involves transfer of funds from one head to another. It does not involve any additional expenditure.
This type of budget is prepared ordinarily by a committee of legislature on the request of the executive
Legislative and Executive Budget:
A legislative Budget is prepared by the various committees appointed by the legislature from among its members. An executive budget, on the other hand, is the one which is prepared by the executive branch of the government. Such a budget is normally passed and adopted by the legislature but the initiative is in the hand of government.
Country in which “Budget” was first used for carrying financial papers to Parliament
The Chancellor of the Exchequer of UK holds up a red box to the press to symbolise the new budget of the UK government. Gladstone 's red box was in use from 1853 till 2011 when a new one was made. The British tradition was adopted by others.
So, the correct option should be 'D', Britain.
Country in which the financial year of the government begins on January 1.
The legislature has the power of reducing grants. Such a motion may be moved by a member for the reduction of the votable expenditure of the demands for grants submitted to the vote of the House. This is known as
The demands for grants are voted only in the Loka Sabha. The legislature has the power to reduce or refuse the demand for grants. A member has the privilege to move a motion for the reduction of the votable expenditure. Such a motion is called “Cut Motion”.
Such a motion is that the amount of the demand be reduced to Re. 1. This is known as
Cut motion is a power given to the members of the Lok Sabha to oppose a demand in the Financial Bill discussed by the government. If a cut motion is adopted by Parliament and the government does not have the numbers, it is obliged to resign as per rules of the Lok Sabha.
A motion may be moved to reduce the amount of a demand in any of the following ways:-
(1) Disapproval of Policy Cut: That the amount of the demand be reduced to Re.1/-' representing disapproval of the policy underlying the demand. A member giving notice of such a motion shall indicate in precise terms the particulars of the policy which he proposes to discuss. The discussion shall be confined to the specific point or points mentioned in the notice and it shall be open to members to advocate an alternative policy;
(2) Economy Cut: That the amount of the demand be reduced by a specified amount' representing the economy that can be effected. Such specified amount may be either a lump sum reduction in the demand or omission or reduction of an item in the demand. The notice shall indicate briefly and precisely the particular matter on which discussion is sought to be raised and speeches shall be confined to the discussion as to how economy can be effected
(3) Token Cut: That the amount of the demand be reduced by a token cut, say of Rs.100/- in order to ventilate a specific grievance which is within the sphere of the responsibility of the Government of India. The discussion thereon shall be confined to the particular grievance specified in the motion.
The object of this type of cut is to bring pointed attention to a specific grievance which is required to be stated specifically so as to enable the Government to answer
A Token Cut motion is moved so that that the amount of the demand be reduced by Rs. 100. This is to ventilate a specific grievance that is within the sphere of the responsibility of the Government of India. The discussion thereon shall be confined to the particular grievance specified in the motion.
Taken out of context, this sentence is so general it could be used as the introduction to a declaration by any "oppressed" people. Seen within its original context, however, it is a model of subtlety, nuance, and the implication that works on several levels of meaning and allusion to orient readers toward a favorable view of America and to prepare them for the rest of the Declaration. From its magisterial opening phrase, which sets the American Revolution within the whole "course of human events," to its assertion that "the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God" entitle America to a "separate and equal station among the powers of the earth," to its quest for sanction from "the opinions of mankind," the introduction elevates the quarrel with England from a petty political dispute to a major event in the grand sweep of history.
Article of the Constitution which spells out the duties of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India is
The Constitution of India deals with the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. It comprises of four Articles (148-151). Article 148 stipulates that there shall be a Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, who shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal and shall only be removed from office in like manner and on the like grounds as a Judge of the Supreme Court. Article 149 spells out the duties and powers of the CAG. Article 150 specifies the forms of accounts of the Union and of the States.
In view of the declaration under the Provisional Collection of Taxes Act, 1931, the Finance Bill has to be passed by the Parliament and assented to by the President before the expiry of this day after the day on which it was presented
The Finance Bill usually contains a declaration under the Provisional Collection of Taxes Act, 1931, by which the declared provisions of the Bill relating to imposition or increase in duties of customs or excise come into force immediately on the expiry of the day on which the Bill is introduced. In view of such provisions and the provision of Act of 1931, the Finance Bill has to be passed by Parliament and assented to by the President before the expiry of the seventy-fifth day after the day on which it was introduced.
The duty of keeping the accounts of the Union Government devolves upon the
Secretary to the Government of India, often abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or, simply as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post solely rests with the Union Council of Ministers.
Railways accounts are maintained by the
The Financial Commissioner (head of the IRAS) for the Railways represents the Ministry of Finance on the Railway Board and also functions ex-officio as Secretary to Government of India in the Ministry of Railways in financial matters.
Organizationally, the Finance and Accounts functions are integrated with the executive at all levels in the Railways. At the apex policy formulation level, Financial Commissioner aids and guides the Ministry of Railways (Railway Board). At the Zonal Railways level, Financial Adviser and Chief Accounts Officer aid the General Manager.
It is an account comparing the total grants made by Parliament for particular purposes with the actual expenditure incurred for these purposes during the year.The reference is to
The Appropriation Account is an account which compares the total grants made by Parliament for particular purposes with the actual expenditure incurred for various purposes during the year.
Committee of legislature in India which examines the expenditures of the departments and questions the propriety of these expenditures.
The Public Accounts Committee examines these excesses and gives recommendations to the Parliament. The Demand for Excess Grants is made after the actual expenditure is incurred and is presented to the Parliament after the end of the financial year in which the expenses were made.
Questions for which an oral answer is expected along with the written answer
A Starred Question is one to which a member desires an oral answer on the floor of the House. Answers to such questions may be followed by Supplementary Questions by Members. Starred Questions derive their name from the fact that they are always distinguished by an asterisk.
A tool of parliamentary control over the administration
The Parliament keeps a day-to-day watch over the activities of the Executive. As ours is a parliamentary system of Government, the Executive is responsible to the Parliament for all acts of omissions and commissions. The
Parliament may remove a Cabinet out of power by a vote of no confidence. It may reject a bill or a budget proposal of the Cabinet.
Members of the Parliament have a right to ask questions and supplementary question to the Ministers. Any lapses or mishandling on the part of the Government can be exposed in the Parliament. Adjournment motions may be moved to discuss serious administrative lapses. Through adjournment motions, matters of public importance can be brought to the notice of the Government by the members of the Parliament. There is a Committee on ministerial assurances appointed by the Parliament to see that the promises made to the Parliament by the respective ministers are fulfilled. In this matter the Lok Sabha is more powerful than the Rajya Sabha.
Method of legislative control over the executive in the USA
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty. Committee membership enables members to develop specialized knowledge of the matters under their jurisdiction. Congress divides its legislative, oversight, and internal administrative tasks among approximately 200 committees and subcommittees.
Circumstances in which the court issues a writ of injunction to the executive
Writ through which courts control the administration and prevent their illegal or extra jurisdictional action
A is the correct option.While Mandamus commands activity, Prohibition commands inactivity. This writ can be issued only against judicial or quasi-judicial authorities to prevent exercise of excess of jurisdiction by a subordinate court. As such its significance as a method of judicial control over administration is limited.
Official appointed to redress public grievances in respect of the administration in Scandinavian Countries
An ombudsman is an official, usually appointed by government, who investigates complaints (usually lodged by private citizens) against businesses, financial institutions or government departments or other public entities, and attempts to resolve the conflicts or concerns raised.
Indian State in which the Lokayukta is allowed to inquire into grievances against politicians
Help to establish communication between government departments in the service field and clientele served
The Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs constitutes Consultative Committees of Members of both the Houses of Parliament, which are attached to various Ministries, and arranges meetings thereof. The Minister/Minister of State in-charge of the Ministry concerned acts as the chairman of the Consultative Committee of that Ministry.
The main purpose of these Committees is to provide a forum for informal discussions between the Government and Members of Parliament on policies and programmes of the Government and the manner of their implementation.
Political control over public administration is exercised by the
The external control over public administration may be considered from four main standpoints, namely – of the executive, of the legislature, of the judiciary and of the community, respectively.
The most important Parliamentary Committee that exercises control on public administration is the
PAC is traditionally considered the most important financial Committee of Parliament in the financial accountability process. It has wide ambit, it examines the budgetary appropriations and accounts of the government and Reports of CAG on the execution of the projects and programmes by the ministries. By convention, the recommendations of the PAC are considered as the recommendation of the entire House. The Parliament also considers the Action Taken Report on the recommendations of PAC.
The Estimates Committee helps the Government in
There shall be a Committee on Estimates for the examination of such of the estimates as may seem fit to the Committee or are specifically referred to it by the House or the Speaker. The functions of the Committee shall be-
(a) to report what economies, improvements in organization, efficiency or administrative reform, consistent with the policy underlying the estimates, may be effected;
(b) to suggest alternative policies in order to bring about efficiency and economy in administration;
(c) to examine whether the money is well laid out within the limits of the policy implied in the estimates; and
(d) to suggest the form in which the estimates shall be presented to Parliament;
Provided that the Committee shall not exercise its functions in relation to such public undertakings as are allotted to the Committee on Public Undertakings by these rules or by the Speaker.”
The Committee continues the examination of the estimates from time-to-time throughout the financial year and may report to the House as its examination proceeds or on the conclusion of the examination.