Which of the following are the devices through which representation for minorities can be secured?
1. Cumulative Vote system
2. First-part-the-post system
3. Direct democracy
4. Proportional Representation
Select the correct answer from the codes given below:
B is the correct option.
Cumulative voting is a type of voting system that helps strengthen the ability of minority shareholders to elect a director. It is a voting system used by organizations that allow shareholders to vote proportionately to the number of shares they hold.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly. This differs from the majority of currently established democracies, which are representative democracies.
Which one among the following is regarded as a civil right?
The adoption of so-called "right to work" legislation in Michigan, of all places, represents an historic setback for organized labor. First, Republicans went after public employees in the birthplace of public unions, Wisconsin. And now they have taken the fight to private employee unions in the cradle of modern industrial unionism. Conservatives are right that, if they can win in Michigan, they can win almost anywhere.
In India, partyless democracy was first advocated by
In India partyless democracy was first advocated by Jai Prakash Narayan. Jayaprakash Narayan (11 October 1902 - 8 October 1979), widely known as JP Narayan, Jayaprakash or Lok Nayak (Hindi for The People's Hero) was an Indian independence activist and political leader, remembered especially for leading the opposition to Indira Gandhi in the 1970s and for giving a call for peaceful total revolution.
Which one of the following is a serious limitation of the Rule of Law in the UK?
The Rule of Law is an important contribution of the British Constitution. It means that in the eyes of the law all persons, whether big or small, the highest government official or ordinary citizen, a big capitalist or a poor man, are equal. It also means that in the eyes of law, there is no privileged class.The parliament only discusses the outlines and the main principles of the Bills and passes them. The responsibility for framing detailed rules and regulations lies with the cabinet or the executive. This system is called Delegated Legislation. The ministers, with the help of their permanent secretaries, make many rules and regulations for every law.
In which of the following country, the local bodies are in central Jurisdiction?
In France, the central government is far more powerful than it is in the United States. The U.S., after all, is a federal institution; the central government in Washington has the final say in any legal matters it wishes to legislate upon, but a large amount of power is delegated to state and local authorities. Indeed, the U.S. Constitution has even devolved certain powers to state and local authorities that the federal government cannot touch.
A candidate forfeits his security money if he does not get:
The deposit made by a candidate shall be returned if the following conditions are satisfied:-
(i) the candidate is not shown in the list of contesting candidates, that is to say, either his nomination was rejected or after his nomination was accepted, he withdrew his candidature;or
(ii) he dies before the commencement of the poll; or
(iii) he is elected; or
(iv) he is not elected but gets more than 1/6th of the total no.of valid votes polled by all the candidates at the election.
N.B (1) If the candidate has polled exactly 1/6th of the total number of valid votes
polled by all the candidates, the deposit will not be refunded.
(2) if the candidate was elected, the deposit will be refunded even if he did not poll more than 1/6th of the total valid votes polled by all the candidates.
Deposit returnable in one constituency only at general elections.
Constitutional amendments have to be referred to the state as well as the people for their approval before being accepted in which one of the following countries?
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a polity, organization or other type of entity. Amendments are often interwoven into the relevant sections of an existing constitution, directly altering the text. Conversely, they can be appended to the constitution as supplemental additions (codicils), thus changing the frame of government without altering the existing text of the document. Australia and Ireland provide examples of constitutions requiring that all amendments are first passed by the legislature before being submitted to the people; in the case of Ireland, a simple majority of those voting at the electorate is all that is required, whereas a more complex set of criteria must be met in Australia (a majority of voters in a majority of states is also necessary). Switzerland has procedure similar to that of Australia.
In the United States pressure groups make concerted efforts to influence
Pressure group, body, organized or unorganized, that actively seeks to promote its particular interests within a society by exerting pressure on public officials and agencies. Pressure groups direct their efforts toward influencing legislative and executive branches of government, political parties, and sometimes general public opinion.
A major area of concentration for pressure groups in the United States is the Congress, which may draw up legislation affecting the interests of the group (see lobbying ). Through promises of financial support or of votes by interest group members at the next election, the organization hopes to persuade certain legislators, especially appropriate committee chairmen, to endorse favorable legislation. This is one of the reasons that incumbents, regardless of party, receive the preponderance of campaign funds.
In which of the following countries, speaker continues to remain and behave as a party man?
Speakers of the USA continue to remain and behave as a party man.
When did the British pass a law making it an offence to preach nationalism?
The politics of the moderate nationalists were founded on the belief that British rule could be reformed from within. But the spread of knowledge regarding political and economic questions gradually undermined this belief.
The nationalist writers and agitators blamed British rule for the poverty of the people. Politically conscious Indians were convinced that the purpose of British rule was to exploit India economically, that is, to enrich England at the cost of India.
The nationalists realized that India could make little progress in the economic field unless British imperialism was replaced by a government controlled and run by the Indian people.
In 1898, a law was passed making it an offence to excite "feelings of disaffection" towards the foreign government.
'General will' means
General will, in political theory, a collectively held will that aims at the common good or common interest. The general will is central to the political thought of the Swiss-born French political philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and an important concept in modern republican thought. Rousseau distinguishes the general will from the particular and often contradictory wills of individuals and groups. In The Social Contract (1762), Rousseau argues that freedom and authority are not contradictory, since legitimate laws are founded on the general will of the citizens. In obeying the law, the individual citizen is thus only obeying himself as a member of the political community.
The public opinion need be sound; it should be based on
Public opinion needs to be sound and based upon accurate information and reason otherwise it will lead to chaos and problems.
Press is able to win popular support only if it is
The correct answer is D as all the above mentioned are reasons for Press is able to win popular support.
According to the date of formation arrange the following in chronological order
A. Akali Dal
B. National conference
Akali Dal was formed on 14 December 1920 as a task force of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee, the Sikh religious body.
The Jammu & Kashmir National Conference is a political organisation in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. It was formed on 11 June 1939.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, is a political party in India, particularly in the state of Tamil Nadu and Union Territory of Puducherry. It was formed on 17 september 1949.
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam is an Indian regional political party in the state of Tamil Nadu and in the union territory of Puducherry. It was formed on 17 october 1972.
When legislature and executive are of different parties, there is a constant danger of dead lock This is a negative feature of
Demerits of the Presidential Form of Government
-The executive is not responsible to the legislature and can do whatever it pleases.
-There is always the possibility of deadlocks between the legislature and the executive.
-It is not a flexible form of government.
-The Presidential executive finds it difficult to follow a vigorous foreign policy, as there is no harmonious relationship between the executive and the legislature. The executive may follow a policy which may not be acceptable to the legislature.