Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ


34 Questions MCQ Test CAT Mock Test Series 2020 | Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ


Description
This mock test of Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ for CAT helps you for every CAT entrance exam. This contains 34 Multiple Choice Questions for CAT Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. CAT students definitely take this Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Sample CAT Verbal And RC MCQ extra questions, long questions & short questions for CAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Early on in the film, Antonio Ricci's coveted bicycle is stolen by a bold young thief who snatches it when he is hanging up a poster. Antonio thinks that the police will take the theft very seriously, but they are not really interested in the petty theft of a bike. The only option is for Antonio and his friends to walk the streets of Rome themselves, looking for the bicycle. After trying for hours with no luck, they finally give up and leave.
Desperate for leads and with his better judgment clouded, Antonio even visits the dubious backstreet fortune teller that he had earlier mocked, in the hope that she may be able to shed light upon the bike's whereabouts. However, she merely doles out to him one of the truisms that form her stock in trade: "you'll find the bike quickly, or not at all." Feeling cheated, a crestfallen Antonio hands over to her some of the last money that they have. After a rare treat of a meal in a restaurant, Antonio admits to his son that if he isn't able to work, they will simply starve.
Antonio finally manages to locate the thief (who, it seems, had already sold the bicycle) and Bruno slips off to summon the police to the apartment. Antonio meanwhile, angrily accuses the thief of stealing his bike but the boy denies all knowledge of the crime.
When the policeman arrives, he sees the accused boy lying on the floor feigning a seizure and surrounded by irate neighbours who blame Antonio's accusations for causing the "innocent" boy's fit.
The policeman tells Antonio that although he may have seen the boy stealing the bike, he did not catch the thief red-handed, nor has he any witnesses and that Antonio making an accusation is not good enough. With no proof and with the thiefs neighbours willing to give him a false alibi, he abandons his cause. Antonio walks away from the house in despair, as the thiefs neighbours follow, jeering at him about his lost bicycle.

At the end of the film in one of the most resonant scenes, Antonio is sitting on the curb outside the packed football stadium. He looks at the hundreds and hundreds of bicycles that are parked outside the stadium and as he cradles his head in despair, a fleet of bicycles mockingly speeds past him. After vacillating for some time about whether to steal one for himself, he decides he has no other option but to snatch one that he spots outside an apartment. Unluckily, he is seen taking the bike and caught by a crowd of angry men who slap and humiliate him in front of his son. Ironically, this time with an army of witnesses who catch him, he is frogmarched off to the police station but after seeing how upset Bruno is, the owner of the bicycle declines to press charges.The film ends with Antonio and his son, sad and let down from what has just happened; they walk along in a crowd, leaving us with a dim outlook for the two. Holding hands, they are both reduced to tears.

Q.Why is that particular scene the most “resonant”?

Solution:

The word “resonant” means “having a lasting presence or effect; enduring”. That particular scene is resonant because of the irony of the fact that he needs a bike to survive and can’t have it despite the many numbers that surround him.
Option 1 is wrong because it only indirectly influences the scene.

Option 3 is wrong as it does not express the irony of the situation.

Option 4 is wrong, as it is one of the factors responsible for his despair, but can’t be a reason for the resonance of the scene.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 2

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Early on in the film, Antonio Ricci's coveted bicycle is stolen by a bold young thief who snatches it when he is hanging up a poster. Antonio thinks that the police will take the theft very seriously, but they are not really interested in the petty theft of a bike. The only option is for Antonio and his friends to walk the streets of Rome themselves, looking for the bicycle. After trying for hours with no luck, they finally give up and leave.
Desperate for leads and with his better judgment clouded, Antonio even visits the dubious backstreet fortune teller that he had earlier mocked, in the hope that she may be able to shed light upon the bike's whereabouts. However, she merely doles out to him one of the truisms that form her stock in trade: "you'll find the bike quickly, or not at all." Feeling cheated, a crestfallen Antonio hands over to her some of the last money that they have. After a rare treat of a meal in a restaurant, Antonio admits to his son that if he isn't able to work, they will simply starve.
Antonio finally manages to locate the thief (who, it seems, had already sold the bicycle) and Bruno slips off to summon the police to the apartment. Antonio meanwhile, angrily accuses the thief of stealing his bike but the boy denies all knowledge of the crime.
When the policeman arrives, he sees the accused boy lying on the floor feigning a seizure and surrounded by irate neighbours who blame Antonio's accusations for causing the "innocent" boy's fit.
The policeman tells Antonio that although he may have seen the boy stealing the bike, he did not catch the thief red-handed, nor has he any witnesses and that Antonio making an accusation is not good enough. With no proof and with the thiefs neighbours willing to give him a false alibi, he abandons his cause. Antonio walks away from the house in despair, as the thiefs neighbours follow, jeering at him about his lost bicycle.

At the end of the film in one of the most resonant scenes, Antonio is sitting on the curb outside the packed football stadium. He looks at the hundreds and hundreds of bicycles that are parked outside the stadium and as he cradles his head in despair, a fleet of bicycles mockingly speeds past him. After vacillating for some time about whether to steal one for himself, he decides he has no other option but to snatch one that he spots outside an apartment. Unluckily, he is seen taking the bike and caught by a crowd of angry men who slap and humiliate him in front of his son. Ironically, this time with an army of witnesses who catch him, he is frogmarched off to the police station but after seeing how upset Bruno is, the owner of the bicycle declines to press charges. The film ends with Antonio and his son, sad and let down from what has just happened; they walk along in a crowd, leaving us with a dim outlook for the two. Holding hands, they are both reduced to tears.

Q.Which of the following emotions accurately sums up Antonio’s state before he visits the fortune teller? 

Solution:

The clue lies in the first word of paragraph 2 - Antonio is “desperate for leads.” The word that comes closest in meaning to “desperate” is “despondent” which means “depression of spirits from loss of courage or hope; dejection.” Desolation means “the state of being abandoned or forsaken; loneliness.” Disregard means “to pay no attention to; leave out of consideration; ignore” Decadency means “deterioration or decay, in morals or art”. Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 3

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Early on in the film, Antonio Ricci's coveted bicycle is stolen by a bold young thief who snatches it when he is hanging up a poster. Antonio thinks that the police will take the theft very seriously, but they are not really interested in the petty theft of a bike. The only option is for Antonio and his friends to walk the streets of Rome themselves, looking for the bicycle. After trying for hours with no luck, they finally give up and leave.
Desperate for leads and with his better judgment clouded, Antonio even visits the dubious backstreet fortune teller that he had earlier mocked, in the hope that she may be able to shed light upon the bike's whereabouts. However, she merely doles out to him one of the truisms that form her stock in trade: "you'll find the bike quickly, or not at all." Feeling cheated, a crestfallen Antonio hands over to her some of the last money that they have. After a rare treat of a meal in a restaurant, Antonio admits to his son that if he isn't able to work, they will simply starve.
Antonio finally manages to locate the thief (who, it seems, had already sold the bicycle) and Bruno slips off to summon the police to the apartment. Antonio meanwhile, angrily accuses the thief of stealing his bike but the boy denies all knowledge of the crime.
When the policeman arrives, he sees the accused boy lying on the floor feigning a seizure and surrounded by irate neighbours who blame Antonio's accusations for causing the "innocent" boy's fit.
The policeman tells Antonio that although he may have seen the boy stealing the bike, he did not catch the thief red-handed, nor has he any witnesses and that Antonio making an accusation is not good enough. With no proof and with the thiefs neighbours willing to give him a false alibi, he abandons his cause. Antonio walks away from the house in despair, as the thiefs neighbours follow, jeering at him about his lost bicycle.

At the end of the film in one of the most resonant scenes, Antonio is sitting on the curb outside the packed football stadium. He looks at the hundreds and hundreds of bicycles that are parked outside the stadium and as he cradles his head in despair, a fleet of bicycles mockingly speeds past him. After vacillating for some time about whether to steal one for himself, he decides he has no other option but to snatch one that he spots outside an apartment. Unluckily, he is seen taking the bike and caught by a crowd of angry men who slap and humiliate him in front of his son. Ironically, this time with an army of witnesses who catch him, he is frogmarched off to the police station but after seeing how upset Bruno is, the owner of the bicycle declines to press charges.The film ends with Antonio and his son, sad and let down from what has just happened; they walk along in a crowd, leaving us with a dim outlook for the two. Holding hands, they are both reduced to tears.

Q.Which of the following statements is not true about Antonio’s character?

Solution:

Option 1 can be inferred as it is clear that Antonio doesn’t give up easily, because he looks for his bike with his friends, goes to the fortune teller, confronts the thief and then even tries to steal a bike himself.

Option 3 can be inferred from the line “After vacillating for some time about whether to steal one for himself, he decides he has no other option but to snatch one that he spots outside an apartment.” shows that he stole the bike only as a last resort.

Option 4 can be inferred from his confiding in his son- “Antonio admits to his son that if he isn't able to work, they will simply starve,” and “Holding hands, they are both reduced to tears.” There is nothing in the passage to suggest that he works hard at his job.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 4

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Working at Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, in 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a supersensitive, 6 meters (20 ft) horn antenna originally built to detect radio waves bounced off echo balloon satellites. To measure these faint radio waves, they had to eliminate all recognizable interference from their receiver. They removed the effects of radar and radio broadcasting, and suppressed interference from the heat in the receiver itself by cooling it with liquid helium to -269 °C, only 4 °C above absolute zero.
When Penzias and Wilson reduced their data they found a low, steady, mysterious noise that persisted in their receiver. This residual noise was 100 times more intense than they had expected, was evenly spread over the sky, and was present day and night. They were certain that the radiation they detected on a wavelength of 7.35 centimeters did not come from the Earth, the Sun, or our galaxy. After thoroughly checking their equipment, removing some pigeons nesting in the antenna and cleaning out the accumulated droppings, the noise remained. Both concluded that this noise was coming from outside our own galaxy although they were not aware of any radio source that would account for it.
At that same time, Robert H. Dicke, Jim Peebles, and David Wilkinson, astrophysicists at Princeton University just 60 km (40 miles) away, were preparing to search for microwave radiation in this region of the spectrum. Dicke and his colleagues reasoned that the Big Bang must have scattered not only the matter that condensed into galaxies but also must have released a tremendous blast of radiation. With the proper instrumentation, this radiation should be detectable.

When a friend (Bernard F. Burke, Prof, of Physics at MIT) told Penzias about a preprint paper he had seen by Jim Peebles on the possibility of finding radiation left over from an explosion that filled the universe at the beginning of its existence, Penzias and Wilson began to realize the significance of their discovery. The characteristics of the radiation detected by Penzias and Wilson fit exactly the radiation predicted by Robert H. Dicke and his colleagues at Princeton University. Penzias called Dicke at Princeton, who immediately sent him a copy of the still-unpublished Peebles paper. Penzias read the paper and called Dicke again and invited him to Bell Labs to look at the Horn Antenna and listen to the background noise. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpreted this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang.

To avoid potential conflict, they decided to publish their results jointly. Two notes were rushed to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. In the first, Dicke and his associates outlined the importance of cosmic background radiation as substantiation of the Big Bang Theory. In a second note, jointly signed by Penzias and Wilson titled, “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Megacycles per Second,” they noted the existence of the residual background noise and attributed a possible explanation to that given by Dicke in his companion letter.

Q.Which of the following methods was not adopted by penzias and Wilson to remove interference from their receiver?

Solution:

Options 1,2 and 4 can clearly be deduced from the passage through the sentences- “They removed the effects of radar and radio broadcasting,” and “suppressed interference from the heat in the receiver itself by cooling it with liquid helium”.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 5

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Working at Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, in 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a supersensitive, 6 meters (20 ft) horn antenna originally built to detect radio waves bounced off echo balloon satellites. To measure these faint radio waves, they had to eliminate all recognizable interference from their receiver. They removed the effects of radar and radio broadcasting, and suppressed interference from the heat in the receiver itself by cooling it with liquid helium to -269 °C, only 4 °C above absolute zero.
When Penzias and Wilson reduced their data they found a low, steady, mysterious noise that persisted in their receiver. This residual noise was 100 times more intense than they had expected, was evenly spread over the sky, and was present day and night. They were certain that the radiation they detected on a wavelength of 7.35 centimeters did not come from the Earth, the Sun, or our galaxy. After thoroughly checking their equipment, removing some pigeons nesting in the antenna and cleaning out the accumulated droppings, the noise remained. Both concluded that this noise was coming from outside our own galaxy although they were not aware of any radio source that would account for it.
At that same time, Robert H. Dicke, Jim Peebles, and David Wilkinson, astrophysicists at Princeton University just 60 km (40 miles) away, were preparing to search for microwave radiation in this region of the spectrum. Dicke and his colleagues reasoned that the Big Bang must have scattered not only the matter that condensed into galaxies but also must have released a tremendous blast of radiation. With the proper instrumentation, this radiation should be detectable.

When a friend (Bernard F. Burke, Prof, of Physics at MIT) told Penzias about a preprint paper he had seen by Jim Peebles on the possibility of finding radiation left over from an explosion that filled the universe at the beginning of its existence, Penzias and Wilson began to realize the significance of their discovery. The characteristics of the radiation detected by Penzias and Wilson fit exactly the radiation predicted by Robert H. Dicke and his colleagues at Princeton University. Penzias called Dicke at Princeton, who immediately sent him a copy of the still-unpublished Peebles paper. Penzias read the paper and called Dicke again and invited him to Bell Labs to look at the Horn Antenna and listen to the background noise. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpreted this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang.

To avoid potential conflict, they decided to publish their results jointly. Two notes were rushed to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. In the first, Dicke and his associates outlined the importance of cosmic background radiation as substantiation of the Big Bang Theory. In a second note, jointly signed by Penzias and Wilson titled, “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Megacycles per Second,” they noted the existence of the residual background noise and attributed a possible explanation to that given by Dicke in his companion letter.

Q.Choose an appropriate title for the passage from the options given below:

Solution:

Option 1 provides a partial answer. The scientists and their discovery are equally important elements of the passage.

Option 3 is more narrow than option 1.

Option 4 can be eliminated as the passage doesn’t mention Nobel Prize anywhere.

Option 2 is correct because the passage reads like a story; it takes us through the various elements that came together for the discovery of a phenomenon as monumental as cosmic background radiation, and the two main architects whose efforts led to the discovery - Penzias and Wilson.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 6

A passage is followed by questions pertaining to the passage. Read the passage and answer the questions. Choose the most appropriate answer.

Working at Bell Labs in Holmdel, New Jersey, in 1964, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson were experimenting with a supersensitive, 6 meters (20 ft) horn antenna originally built to detect radio waves bounced off echo balloon satellites. To measure these faint radio waves, they had to eliminate all recognizable interference from their receiver. They removed the effects of radar and radio broadcasting, and suppressed interference from the heat in the receiver itself by cooling it with liquid helium to -269 °C, only 4 °C above absolute zero.
When Penzias and Wilson reduced their data they found a low, steady, mysterious noise that persisted in their receiver. This residual noise was 100 times more intense than they had expected, was evenly spread over the sky, and was present day and night. They were certain that the radiation they detected on a wavelength of 7.35 centimeters did not come from the Earth, the Sun, or our galaxy. After thoroughly checking their equipment, removing some pigeons nesting in the antenna and cleaning out the accumulated droppings, the noise remained. Both concluded that this noise was coming from outside our own galaxy although they were not aware of any radio source that would account for it.
At that same time, Robert H. Dicke, Jim Peebles, and David Wilkinson, astrophysicists at Princeton University just 60 km (40 miles) away, were preparing to search for microwave radiation in this region of the spectrum. Dicke and his colleagues reasoned that the Big Bang must have scattered not only the matter that condensed into galaxies but also must have released a tremendous blast of radiation. With the proper instrumentation, this radiation should be detectable.

When a friend (Bernard F. Burke, Prof, of Physics at MIT) told Penzias about a preprint paper he had seen by Jim Peebles on the possibility of finding radiation left over from an explosion that filled the universe at the beginning of its existence, Penzias and Wilson began to realize the significance of their discovery. The characteristics of the radiation detected by Penzias and Wilson fit exactly the radiation predicted by Robert H. Dicke and his colleagues at Princeton University. Penzias called Dicke at Princeton, who immediately sent him a copy of the still-unpublished Peebles paper. Penzias read the paper and called Dicke again and invited him to Bell Labs to look at the Horn Antenna and listen to the background noise. Robert Dicke, P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll and D. T. Wilkinson interpreted this radiation as a signature of the Big Bang.

To avoid potential conflict, they decided to publish their results jointly. Two notes were rushed to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. In the first, Dicke and his associates outlined the importance of cosmic background radiation as substantiation of the Big Bang Theory. In a second note, jointly signed by Penzias and Wilson titled, “A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Megacycles per Second,” they noted the existence of the residual background noise and attributed a possible explanation to that given by Dicke in his companion letter.

Q.Which of the following, if transpired, wouldn’t have impeded the discovery of the cosmic background radiation? 

Solution:

If Dicke, Peebles and Wilkinson were conducting simultaneous experiments, the discovery of cosmic background radiation wouldn’t have been impeded. It would have still happened, though its ownership may have been disputed.

Option 2 would have impeded the discovery as Bernard Burke wouldn’t have introduced Dicke, Peebles and Wilkinson to Penzias and Wilson, and therefore the latter two would never have realized what they had discovered.

Option 3 would have impeded the discovery as Dicke, Peebles and Wilkinson would have never embarked on a project this momentous without the proper resources.

Option 4 would have impeded as Penzias and Wilson stumbled upon cosmic background radiation while trying to detect radio waves bounced off echo balloon satellites.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 7

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.How is a woman’s marriage related to the land she owns in some cultures? 

Solution:

The last paragraph of the passage talks about marrying a cousin or a family member positively influencing women to own a greater percentage of land. This validates option 2.

Option 1 is incorrect as the passage does not mention the “law” placing married women above unmarried women when it comes to owning land.

Option 3 can be ruled out as the passage does not talk about “co-owning” land.

Option 4 too can be ruled out as there is nothing mentioned about “special privileges”.

Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 8

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.What argument does Bina Agrawal make in “A Field of One’s Own”?

Solution:

The passage states ““If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go.

It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.”” This validates option 4.

Option 1 is incorrect as it states “land ownership” instead of “landlessness”.

Option 2 is not the main argument of Agrawal. The passage talks about the book becoming a harbinger for land rights movements.

Although the argument put forth by Bina Agrawal mentions about "second-class citizenship of women”, the main argument does not revolve around land rights movements for upliftment of women from second-class citizenship. Hence, option 3 can be ruled out.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 9

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.The “pattas” are a symbol of: 

Solution:

The passage mentions “The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture” This directly validates option 4. We can infer from the passage that the “pattas” received by the women are a symbol of India’s progressive laws and a move against the oppressive culture that discriminates against women.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 10

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.“More than three-quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers” implies:

Solution:

The passage mentions “More than three-quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers”. A comparison can thus be made about women working in the agricultural sector versus women who do not work in this sector.

Options 1 and 2 can be ruled out as a comparison is made between men and women.

Option 4 is also ruled out as it talks about “productivity” and there is nothing in the passage to support that.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 11

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.Which of the following , if true, most weakens the landmark event of 5th March 2016?

Solution:

The landmark event on 5th March 2016 was that women in Baripada received pattas which was huge in terms of women’s land rights. Its corollary would mean that these women are not treated well. In fact the first paragraph states - “They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.”Hence, option 1 would weaken the cause of the landmark event of 5th March 2016.

Option 2 talks about children and can be ruled out.
Option 3 is too generic and not women-centric.
Option 4 strengthens the given statement instead of weakening it.
Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 12

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

This month, 600 women gathered under a huge blue-and-yellow- striped tent in Baripada, a small city in Odisha, a state in India’s east. They were among India’s most neglected people. Widowed, abandoned or divorced, many had ended up living like servants in the households of their fathers, brothers or in-laws.
But on March 5th, 2016, each woman clutched a single light-green sheet of paper that would change her life: a patta, or title to a small plot of land.
The women were among 1,800 getting pattas that day across the district. The documents were hard-won. The battle for women’s land rights in India pits progressive law against oppressive culture — and the culture has largely prevailed. But the pattas show that small victories for law are also possible.

Agriculture in India is a woman’s occupation. More than three- quarters of Indian women make their living as farmers — a far higher percentage than men, who seek nonfarm jobs. Yet less than 13 percent of land is owned by women. A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.
The consequences are enormous. Without title, female farmers acting on their own don’t have access to credit, subsidies, government programs for seeds, irrigation or fertilizer. They cannot get loans and do not invest to improve their yields. They live in fear that someone more powerful — which is everyone — can kick them off their land.
When women’s incomes suffer, so do their children. More than 40 percent of all children under the age of 5 in India are malnourished. And India’s agricultural productivity is needlessly diminished.
Landlessness also raises the risk of domestic violence, said Bina Agarwal, a longtime professor at the Institute of Economic Growth at the University of Delhi, and now a professor of development economics and environment at the University of Manchester in Britain. In 1994, Agarwal wrote “A Field of One’s Own,” arguing that landlessness is the single most important factor in the second-class citizenship of women in India. The book became the founding document of the women’s land-rights movement. “If a woman owns land, the husband would know that the woman has an alternative place to go. It hugely increases women’s bargaining power within marriage,” she said. “She knows she has an exit option that’s credible.” Agarwal said that women owned a higher percentage of the land in places where local culture permitted a woman to bring her husband into her family, marry a cousin, or marry inside her village and stay there. That way, a daughter’s land stays in the family, or at least nearby.

Q.What can be said about the World Bank from the passage?

Solution:

The passage states “A study financed by the World Bank found that women own only 3.3 percent of the land in Odisha.” This validates option 2.
Option 1 is true however cannot be validated from the paragraph.
Option 3 is not precise. The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs. Nothing in the paragraph can validate “expertise in global laws”.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 13

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q.Which of these is an example of constructivism in the classroom?

Solution:

Refer to the second paragraph of the passage.
Option 1 is an example of what happens in a regular classroom based on rote-learning.
Option 2 with “asking” makes it sound like the teacher is using didactic means of teaching. Also, the emphasis on reading and language is too high.
Option 4 with “a couple of chances” does not seem like a conducive environment for learning. An active construct classroom is one where students are free to express, are allowed to err and learn from their mistakes with appropriate supervision.
Option 3 exemplifies just that.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 14

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q.In my school, subtraction is taught through role plays between a shopkeeper and a customer. This is an example of:

A. A Vygotskian classroom

B. A conventional classroom

C. A neo-constructivist classroom

Solution:

The passage states - A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The fact that the classroom concerned is bringing the real life experience such as shopping at a store into the classroom is an example of a Vygotskian classroom.

B talks about a traditional teacher-student approach and

C talks about neo-constructivism which is not mentioned in the passage.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 15

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q.Which of the following cannot be called as a constructivist activity? 

Solution:

According to the passage, in a contructivist classroom, there is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas.
Therefore, options 1,3 and 4 are proper examples of a constructivist activity.
Option 2 involves students working alone devoid of any interaction and communication. Thus, it cannot be called as a constructivist activity.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

QUESTION: 16

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q. What is the basic premise for constructivism?

Solution:

The passage states “The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by....When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination,.....and to draw verifiable conclusions.”
This validates option 1.
Options 2, 3 and 4 are also true of constructivism but they are not the basic or fundamental premises.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 17

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q.An appropriate title for this passage would be? 

Solution:

The passage is about constructivism and how constructivism is being used in the classrooms.

Options 2 and 3 do not capture the essence of the passage which is constructivism in learning.

Option 1 has a broad view on learning but does not capture the important component of constructivism.

Option 4 is complete in that sense.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 18

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow.

Constructivism is a new approach in education that claims humans are better able to understand the information they have constructed by themselves. According to constructivist theories, learning is a social advancement that involves language, real world situations, and interaction and collaboration among learners. The learners are considered to be central in the learning process. Learning is affected by our prejudices, experiences, the time in which we live, and both physical and mental maturity. When motivated, the learner exercises his will, determination, and action to gather selective information, convert it, formulate hypotheses, test these suppositions via applications, interactions or experiences, and to draw verifiable conclusions. Constructivism transforms today’s classrooms into a knowledge-construction site where information is absorbed and knowledge is built by the learner.

In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

A Vygotskian classroom emphasizes creating one’s own concepts and making knowledge one’s property; this requires that school learning takes place in a meaningful context, alongside the learning that occurs in the real world. The Vygotskian classroom stresses assisted discovery through teacher-student and student-student interaction. Some of the cognitive strategies that group members bring into the classroom are questioning, predicting, summarizing, and clarifying.
In a Vygotskian classroom, dynamic support and considerate guidance are provided based on the learner’s needs, but no will or force is dictated. Students are exposed to discussions, research collaborations, electronic information resources, and project groups that work on problem analysis.
Some examples of classroom activities that might be used in a constructive classroom are as follows: Students in a political science class can use a computer simulation to decide on global issues as representatives of United Nations. A geography class studying Turkey can take a virtual trip of tourist and historical sites and parks. The journalism class may publish a newsletter with scanned photographs, excerpts from the press and charts about a recent journey to space.

Q.An appropriate title for this passage would be? 

Solution:

A conventional teacher uses the lecture method.

Options 1 and 4 are examples of constructive classrooms where students work in teams, discuss, learn practically and are encouraged to reason and showcase skills.

Option 2 is a way of conventional teaching but since Reema dislikes it, it does not strengthen the role of the conventional teacher.

Option 3 is the answer as Karthik seems to be enjoying the lecture method.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 19

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.Which of the following is not true about “primary consciousness”? 

Solution:

The passage clearly validates options 1,2 and 4 - “The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment.” The paragraph clearly states that the primary consciousness does NOT know the future.

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 20

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives” implies: 

Solution:

Option 1 is a statement mentioned in the passage but is not an implication drawn from the highlighted statement.

Option 2 is another fact mentioned in the passage but does not capture the essence of the quote.

Option 4 is close, however, there is no emphasis on the “present” or the “now” that the author talks about in the entire passage.

Option 3 is the best option - It talks about our present or our here and now influencing our future (“...spend our lives”.)

Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 21

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.According to the author, the pursuit of the future will lead us to:

Solution:

Option 1 is validated by the last line - “Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.”.

Option 2 negates what is mentioned in the last line.

Option 3 is not mentioned in the passage.

Option 4 contradicts what is mentioned in the passage “This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed...”

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 22

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.Mindfulness entails: 
A. To be fully aware of one’s experiences

B. To find a balance between the pleasure and productivity

C. To live a fulfilling life 

Solution:

The passage states that mindfulness is the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience. This validates statements A and C.
Hence, the correct answer is option 3.

QUESTION: 23

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.Which of the following would weaken Watt’s argument?

Solution:

Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future.

Option 1 strengthens his beliefs, option 2 is unrelated, option 3 shows a connection between preaching and actual behaviour, and has nothing to do with the present and future.

Option 4 is apt. It talks about thinking about the future and not living completely in the moment.

Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 24

The passage given below is followed by a set of questions. Choose the most appropriate answer to each question.

“How we spend our days is, of course, how we spend our lives,” Annie Dillard wrote in her timeless reflection on presence over productivity — a timely antidote to the central anxiety of our productivity-obsessed age. Indeed, my own New Year’s resolution has been to stop measuring my days by degree of productivity and start experiencing them by degree of presence. But what, exactly, makes that possible?

This concept of presence is rooted in Eastern notions of mindfulness — the ability to go through life with crystalline awareness and fully inhabit our experience — largely popularized in the West by British philosopher and writer Alan Watts (January 6, 1915-November 16, 1973), who also gave us this fantastic meditation on the life of purpose. In the altogether excellent 1951 volume The Wisdom of Insecurity: A Message for an Age of Anxiety (public library), Watts argues that the root of our human frustration and daily anxiety is our tendency to live for the future, which is an abstraction. What keeps us from happiness, Watts argues, is our inability to fully inhabit the present.

The “primary consciousness,” the basic mind which knows reality rather than ideas about it, does not know the future. It lives completely in the present, and perceives nothing more than what is at this moment. The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.

But the future is still not here, and cannot become a part of experienced reality until it is present. Since what we know of the future is made up of purely abstract and logical elements — inferences, guesses, deductions — it cannot be eaten, felt, smelled, seen, heard, or otherwise enjoyed. To pursue it is to pursue a constantly retreating phantom, and the faster you chase it, the faster it runs ahead. This is why all the affairs of civilization are rushed, why hardly anyone enjoys what he has, and is forever seeking more and more. Happiness, then, will consist, not of solid and substantial realities, but of such abstract and superficial things as promises, hopes, and assurances.

Q.What can be said about the ingenious brain making highly accurate predictions? 

Solution:

The passage states, “The ingenious brain, however, looks at that part of present experience called memory, and by studying it is able to make predictions. These predictions are, relatively, so accurate and reliable (e.g., “everyone will die”) that the future assumes a high degree of reality — so high that the present loses its value.” This validates option 1.

Option 2 states “past memories” which is inaccurate.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

QUESTION: 25

In the question given below, there is a sentence of which some parts have been jumbled up. Rearrange these parts which are labelled as P, Q, R, and S to produce the correct sentence. Choose the proper sequence.

When he 

P: did not know

Q: he was nervous and

R: heard the hue and cry at midnight

S: what to do

The proper sequence should be:

Solution:

After looking at the given parts P,Q,R and S
it can be concluded that the correct order will be:
When he → heard the hue and cry at midnight → he was nervous and → did not know → what to do.
so correct order is RQPS
 

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 26

Four sentences are given below labeled (1), (2), (3) and (4). Of these, three sentences need to be arranged in a logical order to form a coherent paragraph/passage. Pick out the sentence that does not fit the sequence.

1. No one ever doubted that Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier had potential: he had been a star student in secondary school, winner of second prize in a national mathematics competition, eighth in his class at the polytechnique.

2. It was that in 1833 a young man, freshly minted as a graduate of the celebrated £cole polytechnique, could be found every working day at the Quai d’Orsay, reporting for duty at the research arm of the factory, France’s £cole des Tabacs.

3. But his early career offered no hints to what would follow; funneled into the tobacco engineering section in university, he was more or less shunted directly toward the Quai d’Orsay and the task of solving French big tobacco’s problems.

4. At the same time, it was, as Le Verrier knew, still preliminary work, nothing more than recasting an old calculation.


Solution:

Statement 2 opens the paragraph by talking about some exceptional potential possessed by Urbain-Jean-Joseph Le Verrier and also about his past achievements.

Statement 1 takes the flow in some other direction and begins to talk about the unexpected turn of events in his career. This is followed by statement 3 which explicitly talks about the odd job handed over to him at his university.

Statement 4 which talks specifically about a certain project does not connect logically with the remaining statements.

Hence, the correct answer is 4.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 27

The following question consists of a certain number of sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the total number of sentences that are grammatically incorrect.

1. Accustomed as we are to think of China as greatest peace-loving nation on earth, we are in some danger of forgetting her experience of war.

2. Her long military annals stretch back to point at which they are lost in the mists of time.

3. The perpetual collisions of the ancient feudal states accompanied the overthrow of many dynasties.

4. No less remarkable is the succession of illustrious captains to who China can point with pride.


Solution:

When we use the superlative, we need to precede it with the definite article ‘the’. Statement 1 should read as ‘the greatest peace-loving nation...’.

The phrase “to point” means ‘to show specifically’ or ‘show direction of. In statement 2, it should be ‘to a point’, which means a certain point in the history or past.

In statement 4, the pronoun should be ‘whom’ (objective) and not “who” (subjective) as it follows the preposition “to”. Statement 3 is grammatically correct.

There are three incorrect sentences.
Hence, the correct answer is 3.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 28

The following question consists of a certain number of sentences. Some sentences are grammatically incorrect or inappropriate. Identify the total number of sentences that are grammatically incorrect.

1. In forty-five states and territories, the teaching of hygiene with special reference to alcohol and tobacco are made compulsory.

2. To hygiene alone, of the scores of subjects found in our modem grammar-school curriculum, is given a statutory right of way for so many minutes per week, so many pages per text-book, or many pages per chapter.

3. For the neglect of no other study may teachers be removed from office and fined.

4. Yet, school garrets and closets are full of hygiene text-books that have not been opened.

5. To complete the paradox, this least interesting subject happens to be the most vital to the child, to the home, and to the industry.


Solution:

The subject for verb “are” in sentence 1 is “teaching” which is singular, therefore the verb should be ‘is’.

The error in sentence 2 is perhaps easy to figure out. With three elements in the list, two of them being preceded with the word “so”, the third element should also use the same format. Therefore, sentence 2 should end with, ‘...or so many pages per chapter’.
The other sentences are grammatically correct.
There are two incorrect sentences.

Hence, the correct answer is 2.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 29

Answer the question based on the passage given below.

A recent survey reveals that a majority of engineers prefer an MBA over a Masters program in their related engineering field. However, there is a higher percentage of non-engineers than engineers in most of the B-schools surveyed.
Which of the following can explain the above situation?

1. Many engineers choose to pursue their Master’s degree a few years after graduating from engineering colleges.

2. Engineers often take up job offers right after graduation.

3. B-schools are difficult to get into because of the entrance exams and other selection procedures.

4. B-schools decide on their batches based on certain demographic calculations for the students in each batch.


Solution:

Only if the B-schools actively chose the type of students in each batch could the higher ratio of non-engineers to engineers be explained.

Options 1 and 2 merely explain a trend amongst engineers, which has nothing to do with the demographics of the B-schools.

Option 3 states a fact which doesn’t explain whether engineers are able to gain admission into B-schools or not.

Hence, the correct answer is  4.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 30

Select the odd man out from the given alternatives. 

Comprehend

1. It is difficult to comprehend the mindset of an online punter.

2. The Indian patent act comprehends all the basic tenets of patent and copyright issues.

3. The infinite universe is too complex for a human mind to comprehend in a single life time.

4. Elders cannot comprehend why youngsters would risk their lives for such petty reasons.


Solution:

The meaning of the given word in options 1,3 and 4 is ‘to understand or assimilate’ whereas the meaning in option 2 is ‘to completely encompass or be comprehensive in nature’.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 31

A base word has been used in the options given below. Choose the option in which the usage of the word stands out as ODD in comparison to the other options.

Desolate

1. The idea of losing the job made him feel utterly desolate.

2. Cops discovered the dead body of the official in a desolate place.

3. The parents' attempts to cheer up the desolate frame of mind of their son remained futile.

4. Party men are desolated by the death of their charismatic leader.


Solution:

The meaning of the given word in options 1,3, and 4 is ‘depressing and sad’ whereas the meaning of “desolate” in option 2 is ‘isolated’.
Hence, the correct answer is option 2.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 32

Fill in the blank with the appropriate option.

Seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong admitted in January 2013 that he used performance-enhancing drugs to______ all of his victories.

1. retain

2. acquire

3. reminisce

4. achieve


Solution:

The word “victory” in the sentence is mostly associated with ‘achieve’ meaning ‘to successfully bring about or reach (a desired objective or result) by effort, skill, or courage’. “Retain” and “reminisce” can be eliminated since they do not fit contextually. Although “acquire” seems to be right, it does not form a coherent sentence.
Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

*Answer can only contain numeric values
QUESTION: 33

The following question has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.

It will be China’s year in 2008. The Olympic Games - no doubt perfectly organized, without a protester, homeless person, religious dissenter, or any other kind of spoilsport in sight - will probably bolster China’s global prestige. While the American economy gets dragged down further in a swamp of bad property debts, China will continue to boom. Exciting new buildings, designed by the world’s most famous architects, will make Beijing and Shanghai look like models of twenty-first century modernity. More Chinese will be featured in annual lists of the world’s richest people.____

1. But China’s success story is also the most serious challenge that liberal democracy has faced since fascism in the 1930’s.

2. China’s appeal is growing in the Western world as well.

3. What if the bargain struck between the Chinese middle classes and the one-party state were to fall apart, owing to a pause, or even a setback, in the race for material wealth?

4. And Chinese artists will command prices at international art auctions that others can only dream of.


Solution:

Perhaps this will seem to be the most unexpected answer, but we need to merely close the paragraph with the best sentence available from the options. The only option that can be accommodated to reinforce the first sentence of the paragraph which is then exemplified in all the following sentences of the paragraph, is option 4.
None of the other options are suitable. All have the same flaw that they go well beyond the scope and purpose of the paragraph- establishment of China as a star on the world stage. Hence, the correct answer is option 4.

QUESTION: 34

From among the options, choose the summary of the passage that is written in the same style as that of the passage.

A century and a half ago, Karl Marx both gloomily and exuberantly predicted that the modern capitalism he saw evolving would prove incapable of producing an acceptable distribution of income. Wealth would grow, Marx argued, but would benefit the few, not the many: the forest of upraised arms looking for work would grow thicker and thicker, while the arms themselves would grow thinner and thinner._____________ .

1. This injustice would provoke revolt and revolution, producing a new, better, fairer, more prosperous, and far more egalitarian system.

2. But this was- or was supposed to be- transient.

3. Ever since, mainstream economists have earned their bread and butter patiently explaining why Marx was wrong.

4. As a result, high prices for scarce resources lead not to zero-or negative-sum political games of transfer but to positive-sum economic games.

Solution:

Option 1 is completely justified in the concluding sentence because of what Marx “both gloomily and exuberantly predicted...”, as stated in the first sentence, “revolt and revolution” is the gloom and the ‘egalitarian system’ is probably the exuberance.

Option 2 is limited explaining nothing. It can be in no way construed to be an effective ending.

Option 3 is irrelevant or requires elaborate explanation. It does not link well with the last statement in the paragraph.

Option 4 contradicts the projected ‘egalitarian’ system as well as Marx's theory.
Besides, notice the quality of prediction in the paragraph: would prove, would grow, would benefit... etc. The concluding sentence should match this tenor/tone.

Hence, the correct answer is option 1.

Related tests