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Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I


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10 Questions MCQ Test History for UPSC CSE | Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I

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Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 1

Which of the following statements are correct about Bahadur Shah, successor of Aurangzeb?

1) He was very intolerant towards Hindu chiefs and rajas.
2) He made peace with the tenth Sikh Guru – Guru Gobind Singh.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 1

1. Bahadur Shah I followed a policy of compromise and reconciliation, and there was evidence of reversal of some of the narrow-minded policies of Aurangzeb. He was more tolerant towards Hindu chiefs and rajas. There was no destruction of temples during his reign.
2. Bahadur Shah tried to conciliate Sikhs, giving high position (mansab) to the tenth guru Guru Gobind Singh. However, he took strong action against Sikhs who rebelled after the death of Guru Gobind Singh, under leadership of Banda Bahadur. 

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 2

Which of the following statements is correct regarding politics in Delhi court after death of Aurangzeb in 1707?

1) Nobles became very powerful, sometimes even more influential than the Mughal Emperor himself.
2) Marathas and Rajpoots were selectively favoured by the nobles.
3) Mughal Emperors became puppets of their own nobles, who in turn became the Kingmakers.

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Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 2

1. Specially after death of Bahadur Shah I in 1712, court politics became very intense in Delhi. Infighting among nobles became an important reason in succession. For example, Jahandar Shah, who was actually a weak personality, became Emperor because he was supported by a strong party of nobles.
2. Nobles always tried to outnumber each other by making alliance with one or the other Rajpoot or Maratha chief. Marathas gained prominence inside Delhi as a result of infighting of nobles.
3. Saiyad Brothers are given title of King-makers in Indian history. They managed to pick and post at four puppet Mughal Emperors on throne.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 3

The famous Koh-i-nur / Kohinoor diamond was taken away from India in 18th century, during invasion of Delhi by

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 3

1. Nadir Shah, the Shah of Persia (Iran) invaded India in 1739, defeated Muhammad Shah, the Mughal Emperor and took away the famous Kohinoor diamond, Peacock Throne of Shahjahan and a huge wealth. With the looted wealth, he was able to exempt taxes in his kingdom for three years!
2. Nizam-ul-Mulk and Saadat Khan were rulers of states of Hyderabad and Awadh at that time. They fought on side of Mughals in the Battle of Karnal fought between Mughals and Nadir Shah in 1739.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 4

Who was the Mughal Emperor when Marathas were defeated by Afghans led by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1761?

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 4

1. Reigns of latter Mughals –Muhammad Shah (1719-48), Shah Alam II (1759-1806),Akbar II (1806-37), Bahadur Shah Zafar (1837-57)
2. Shah Alam II ascended the throne in 1759, but could not see face of Delhi for long time because he lived in mortal fear of his own wazir who was present in Delhi. In 1764, he sided with Mir Qasim of Bengal and Shuja-ud-Daula of Awadh against British East India Company in Battle of Buxar, in which he was defeated and confined to Allahabad. It was Shah Alam II who officially granted Diwani (Revenue) of Bengal to British East India Company. He returned to Delhi in 1772 under protection of Marathas.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 5

Which of the following were causes of downfall of Mughal Empire?

1) Narrow religious policies of Aurangzeb
2) Alliance with Rajpoots
3) Rise of Marathas
4) Infighting among nobles

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 5

1. Narrow religious policies of Aurangzeb like re-imposition of Jizya (tax on non-Muslim) which removed during the reign of Akbar created much discontent among the majority non-Muslim population of the country.
2. Alliance with Rajpoots strengthened the Empire and provided stability to it, as proved by the reigns of Humayun, Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.
3. Rise of Marathas and failure of Mughals in successfully accommodating and befriending them within the Mughal Empire caused great harm to Mughals, as well as to India as whole. If there could have been a ruler like Akbar and a Rajpoot-Mughal like alliance in case of Maratha and Mughals, history of India could have been something else.
4. Last but not the least, infighting among the nobles proved last nail in the coffin of Mughal Empire. Nobles became king-makers and authority of Emperor became weaker by every passing day. By 1721, within 15 years from death of Aurangzeb, Mughal glory had become history.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 6

In Mughal administration the practice of ijarah was

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 6

1. After the death of Aurangzeb, the practice of ijarah or farming the land revenue to the highest bidder, who was permitted to raise what he could from the peasantry, became more common.
2. The practice of ijarah made peasants at mercy of the highest bidder of land revenue and peasants were forced to abandon agriculture due to high irrational demands of the revenue farmers.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 7

Khalisa lands were

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 7

1. During medieval times, lands were divided into Khalisa and jagir or iqta lands.
2. Revenue collected from Khalisa lands was directly deposited into the Central treasury (Delhi in case of Mughals or Delhi Sultanate). Revenue was collected by agents of Emperor / Sultan in these lands.
3. Responsibility of revenue collection in Jagir or Iqta lands was given to Jagirdar (Mughals) or Iqtedar (Sultanate) respectively. Only a part of revenue collection from these lands went to the central treasury, rest was used for administration of these Jagirs and Iqtas.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 8

Why did India lag behind Europe in 18th-19th centuries?

1) Indian industry did not make any new advances during this period.
2) Self-sufficient nature of village economy.
3) Neglect of overseas trade and navy.
4) Lack of talent in Indians.
5) Focus of Indian on spiritualism rather than science.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 8

1. During Mughal times, Indian industry was quite advance by contemporary world standards. But unlike Europe at this time, Indian industry did not make any new advances in science and technology.
2. Growth of trade was hampered by self-sufficient village economies.
3. Land was considered source of wealth and power, and so trade and navy were neglected.
4. Indians never lacked talent and focus on science, as proved by glorious history of India, which is full of scientific innovations.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 9

Which of the following was not one of the regional kingdoms that emerged in 18th century?

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 9

1. After decline of Mughal power in first half of 18th century, Indian political map was dotted with numerous regional kingdoms – Awadh, Bengal, Hyderabad, Mysore, Maratha, were prominent among them.
2. Kabul was lost to Iran and then to Afghans when during attacks of Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali between 1739 and 1767.

Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 10

Which of the following statements is / are correct regarding economic situation of India during 18th century?

1) Revenue from agriculture was on decline.
2) Regional states of Awadh and Hyderabad became centers of Industrialization.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Detailed Solution for Satish Chandra Test: Climax And Disintegration of Mughal Empire- I - Question 10

1. While the number of Zamindars and Jagirdars (landlords) was on increase, incomes from agriculture was on decline due to neglect of land.
2. States of Awadh and Hyderabad emerged as centers of Culture and not industrialization.

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