Spectrum Test: Civil Disobedience Movement & Round Table Conferences


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements. 

1. It was at the Calcutta session of the Congress in December 1928 that the Nehru Report was approved, but the younger elements led by Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose and Satyamurthy expressed their dissatisfaction with dominion status as the goal of Congress 

2. Younger elements demanded that the Congress adopted purna swaraj or complete independence as its goal

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:

 

  • It was at the Calcutta session of the Congress in December 1928 that the Nehru Report was approved. Still, the younger elements led by Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Bose and Satyamurthy expressed their dissatisfaction with dominion status as the goal of Congress. 

  •  

    Instead, they demanded that Congress adopted purna swaraj or complete independence as its goal. 

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    The older leaders like Gandhi and Motilal Nehru wished that the dominion status demand not to be dropped in haste, as consensus over it had been developed with great difficulty over the years. 

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    They suggested that a two-year grace period be given to the government to accept the demand for dominion status. Later, under pressure from the younger elements, this period was reduced to one year.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements. 

1. In 1929, a conference of prominent national leaders issued a 'Delhi Manifesto' which put forward certain conditions for attending the Round Table Conference 

2. Lord Irwin rejected the demands put forward in the Delhi manifesto 

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:

On November 2, 1929, a conference of prominent national leaders issued a 'Delhi Manifesto' which put forward certain conditions for attending the Round Table Conference: 

1. That the purpose of the Round Table Conference should be not to determine whether or when dominion status was to be reached but to formulate a constitution for implementation of the dominion status (thus acting as a constituent assembly) and the basic principle of dominion status should be immediately accepted; 

2. That the Congress should have majority representation at the conference; and 

3. There should be a general amnesty for political prisoners and a conciliation policy; Gandhi and Motilal Nehru and other political leaders met Lord Irwin in December 1929 (after the viceroy had narrowly escaped after a bomb was detonated meaning to hit the train he was travelling in). 

 

 

QUESTION: 3

Which among the following were Gandhi's 11 demands? 

1. Release Political Prisoners 

2. Introduce textile protection 

3. Reduce salt tax 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:

 

To carry forward the Lahore Congress mandate, Gandhi presented eleven demands to the government and gave an ultimatum of January 31, 1930, to accept or reject these demands. The demands were as follows. Issues of General Interest 

1. Reduce expenditure on Army and civil services by 50 per cent. 

2. Introduce total prohibition. 

3. Carry out reforms in the Criminal Investigation Department (CID). 

4. Change Arms Act allowing popular control of the issue of firearms licences. 

5. Release political prisoners. 

6. Accept Postal Reservation Bill. Specific Bourgeois Demands 

7. Reduce rupee-sterling exchange ratio to ls 4d 

8. Introduce textile protection. 

9. Reserve coastal shipping for Indians. Specific Peasant Demands 

10. Reduce land revenue by 50 per cent. 

11. Abolish (not reduce) salt tax and government's salt monopoly

 

 

QUESTION: 4

Which among the following are the directions given by Gandhi in the starting of salt disobedience?

1. Foreign liquor and clothes shops can be picketed 

2. Government servants can resign from their posts 

3. Lawyers will fight for the freedom fighters in the courts 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Even before the proposed march began, thousands thronged to the ashram. Gandhi gave the following directions for future action. 

• Wherever possible civil disobedience of the salt law should be started. 

• Foreign liquor and cloth shops can be picketed. 

• We can refuse to pay taxes if we have the requisite strength. 

• Lawyers can give up the practice. 

• Public can boycott law courts by refraining from litigation. 

• Government servants can resign from their posts.

QUESTION: 5

After Gandhi's arrest, CWC sanctioned: 

1. Non-payment of revenue in zamindari areas 

2. Non-chowkidar attacks campaign in ryotwari areas 

3. Violation of forest laws in the central provinces 

Choose the correct options

Solution:

 

  • Once the way was cleared by Gandhi's ritual at Dandi, defiance of the salt laws started worldwide.

  •  

    Nehru's arrest in April 1930 for defiance of the salt law evoked huge demonstrations in Madras, Calcutta and Karachi. 

  •  

    Gandhi's arrest came on May 4, 1930, when he had announced that he would lead a raid on Dharasana Salt Works on the west coast. 

  •  

    Massive protests followed Gandhi's arrest in Bombay, Delhi, Calcutta, and Sholapur, where the response was the most fierce. After Gandhi's arrest, the CWC sanctioned: 

 

• non-payment of revenue in ryotwari areas; 

• no-chowkidari-tax campaign in zamindari areas; and 

• violation of forest laws in the Central Provinces.

 

 

QUESTION: 6

Who was the leader of the civil disobedience movement in Orissa?

Solution: Orissa - Under Gopalbandhu Chaudhuri, a Gandhian leader, salt satyagraha proved effective in the coastal regions of Balasore, Cuttack and Puri districts.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements. 

1. Champaran and Saran in Bihar were the last two districts to start salt satyagraha 

2. In landlocked Bihar, manufacture of salt on a large scale was not practicable, and at most places, it was a mere gesture 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • Champaran and Saran were the first two districts to start salt satyagraha. In landlocked Bihar, manufacture of salt on a large scale was not practicable, and at most places, it was a mere gesture. 

  • In Patna, Nakhas Pond was chosen to make salt and break the salt law under Ambika Kant Sinha. 

  • However, very soon, a very powerful no-chaukidari tax agitation replaced the salt satyagraha (owing to physical constraints in making salt). 

  • By November 1930, sale of foreign cloth and liquor dramatically declined and collapsed in several parts like the Barhee administration region of Munger.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements. 

1. The Muslim participation was nowhere in the civil disobedience movement because of appeals by Muslim leaders to stay away from the movement especially in NWFP 

2. Traders' associations and commercial bodies opposed the movement 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution: Muslim participation in NWFP saw overwhelming participation. Merchants and commercial bodies were very enthusiastic.

QUESTION: 9

The viceroy in the Gandhi Irwin pact agreed on which demands of Gandhi?

1. Withdrawal of emergency ordinances 

2. Return of all lands not yet sold to third parties 

3. Public enquiry into police excesses 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Irwin on behalf of the government agreed on- 

1. immediate release of all political prisoners not convicted of violence; 

2. remission of all fines not yet collected; 

3. the return of all lands not yet sold to third parties; 

4. lenient treatment to those government servants who had resigned; 

5. right to make salt in coastal villages for personal consumption (not for sale); 

6. right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing; and 7 withdrawal of emergency ordinances. 

However, the viceroy turned down two of Gandhi's demands- (i) public inquiry into police excesses and (ii) commutation of Bhagat Singh and his comrade's death sentence to life sentence.

Gandhi on behalf of the Congress agreed- 

(i) to suspend the civil disobedience movement, and 

(ii) to participate in the next Round Table Conference on the constitutional question around the three lynch-pins of the federation, Indian responsibility, and reservations and safeguards that may be necessary for India's interests (covering such areas as defence, external affairs, the position of minorities, financial credit of India and discharge of other obligations).

QUESTION: 10

The resolution on fundamental rights at Karachi congress session included

1. Right to assemble 

2. Right to movement 

3. Free speech and free press 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: The Resolution on Fundamental Rights guaranteed 

• free speech and free press 

• right to form associations 

• right to assemble 

• universal adult franchise 

• equal legal rights irrespective of caste, creed and sex 

• neutrality of the state in religious matters 

• free and compulsory primary education protection to culture, language, the script of minorities and linguistic groups

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