Spectrum Test: The Foundation & the Moderate Phase of the INC


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements. 

1. The first session of the Indian National Congress was attended by 72 Delegates. 

2. It was organized at the Gokul das Tejpal Sanskrit college in Bengal.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

1. The first meeting of the Indian National Congress was organized by A. O. Hume. It was held in Gokuldas Tejpal Sanskrit College of Bombay in 1885. It was presided by W. C. Banarjee. 72 delegates had participated and most of them belonged to a background of lawyers, and there weren’t any women in this session.

2. Total 9 resolutions were passed. One of them demanded abolition of Indian Council of the Secretary of State for India. Other important resolutions passed were - Appointment of a commission to enquire into the working of the Indian Administration; The creation of legislative councils for the North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Sindh and Awadh; Reduction of Military Expenditure and Civil Services Reform.

QUESTION: 2

What were the limitations of Indian councils act 1892? 

1. The officials retained their majority in the council, thus making ineffective the non-official voice.

2. The budget could be voted upon, but could not any amendments be made to it. 

3. Supplementaries could be asked, but could not answers to any question be discussed 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  

Limitations of the Act: 

  • The officials retained their majority in the council, thus making ineffective the non-official voice. 

  • The 'reformed' Imperial Legislative Council met, during its tenure till 1909, on an average for only thirteen days in a year. 

  • The number of unofficial Indian members present was only five out of twenty-four. 

  • The budget could not be voted upon, nor could any amendments be made to it. Supplementaries could not be asked, nor could answers to any question be discussed.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following statements are correct about Moderate Nationalists? 

1. The early nationalists, led by Dada Naoroji and RC Dutt put forwarded the drain theory to explain British exploitation in India 

2. The moderates were failed to create an all India public opinion against the British rule in India 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:
  • The early nationalists, led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, carefully analyzed the political economy of British rule in India and put forward the "drain theory" to explain British exploitation of India. 

  • They opposed transforming a basically self-sufficient Indian economy into a colonial economy (i.e., a supplier of raw materials and foodstuff, an importer of finished goods and a field of investment for British capital). 

  • Thus, the Moderates created an all-India public opinion that British rule in India was the major cause of India's poverty and economic backwardness.

QUESTION: 4

Which among the following were the contributions of moderate Nationalists? 

1. Economic critique of British imperialism 

2. Constitutional reforms and propaganda in the legislature 

3. Campaign for general Administrative Reforms 

4. Defence of civil rights 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Contributions of moderate Nationalists: 

1. Economic critique of British imperialism 

2. Constitutional reforms and propaganda in the legislature 

3. Campaign for general Administrative Reforms 

4. Defence of civil rights

QUESTION: 5

Conspiracy theory was given by

Solution:  

Safety valve theory - Lala Lajpat Rai 

Conspiracy theory - RP Dutt 

Lightning conductor theory - Bipin Chandra (Bipan Chandra observes, the early Congress leaders used Hume as a 'lightning conductor,' i.e., as a catalyst to bring together the nationalistic forces even if under the guise of a 'safety valve')

QUESTION: 6

Which among the following were methods of early nationalists? 

1. Constitutional agitation within four walls of law 

2. Political education of people 

3. Campaign for support to Indian demands in England 

4. Direct challenge to Colonial rule 

5. Political connections with Britain India's interests at that stage 

Choose from the following options.

Solution: Nationalists always believed that this was not the correct time for a direct challenge to Colonial rule.

QUESTION: 7

The Congress is tottering to its fall, and one of my great ambitions while India is to assist it to a peaceful demise. This statement is given by

Solution: Lord Curzon gives this statement.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements. 

1. The moderate phase of national movement had a wide social base, and the masses played an active role 

2. The early Nationalist lacked political faith in the masses 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The moderate phase of the national movement had a narrow social base, and masses played a passive role. 

  • Because the early nationalists lacked political faith in the masses, they felt numerous divisions and sub-divisions in the Indian society, and the masses were generally ignorant and had conservative ideas and thoughts. 

  • The Moderates felt that these heterogeneous elements had first to be welded into a nation before entering the political sphere. 

  • They failed to realize that it was only during the freedom struggle that these diverse elements could come together with political participation.

QUESTION: 9

Who called Congress "a factory of sedition".

Solution:  
  • The British Indian Government was hostile to the Congress from the beginning despite its moderate methods and emphasis on loyalty to the British Crown. 

  • The official attitude stiffened further after 1887, when the government failed to persuade Congress to confine itself to social issues when Congress was becoming increasingly critical of the colonial rule. 

  • Now, the government resorted to open condemnation of the Congress, calling the nationalists "seditious brahmins", "disloyal babus", etc. Dufferin called the Congress "a factory of sedition". Later, the government adopted a 'divide and rule' policy towards Congress.

QUESTION: 10

The moderates criticized British rule on their 

1. Foreign policy 

2. Low expenditure on welfare 

3. Separate Judiciary from executive functions 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • The moderates called for the separation of judicial from executive functions. They criticized the aggressive foreign policy, which resulted in the annexation of Burma and attack on Afghanistan. 

  • The criticized Lo expenditure on welfare. They criticized the expensive and time-consuming judicial system. The criticized oppressive bureaucracy. They demanded better treatment for Indian labour abroad.