Test: Biomacromolecules (NCERT)


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QUESTION: 1

Which of the following is a saturated fatty acid?

Solution:

Fatty acids are two main types- saturated and unsaturated fatty acids are without double bonds in their carbon chains. They have higher melting points and are solids at room temperature. They have a general formula of Cn​H2n​O2​,e.g., C16​H32​O2​ (palmitic acid), C18​H36​O2​ (stearic acid).

Animal fats are mostly saturated fats.

Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chains. They have lower meting points and are liquids at room temperature. Their general formula is Cn​H2n−2x​O2​,e.g., oleic acid (with one double bond, monoene, C18​H34​O2​), linoleic acid (with two double bonds, diene,C18​H32​O2​),linolenic acid (with three double bonds,triene, C18​H30​O2​).arachidonic acid (with four double bonds,tetraene,C20​H32​O2​).Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats.

So, the  correct answer is 'Palmitic acid'.

QUESTION: 2

Essential amino acids include?

Solution:

Essential amino acid are those which cannot be systhesised by organism in the body and are obtained from plants, e.g., valine, leucine, isoleucine phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, tryptophan, methionine.
Non-essential amino acids can be synthesised by the organism and may not be the requisite components of diet, e.g., serine cysteine, proline, glycine asparagine, glutamine and tyrosine.

QUESTION: 3

The component present in both nucleotides, and nucleosides is

Solution:

Nucleoside is compound formed by the union of a nitrogen base with a pentose sugar. It is a component of nucleotide. Each nucleotide is composed of three units; a nitrogen base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group.

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The nucleoside combines with a phosphate group at 5'position by an ester bond to form a nucleotide or nucleoside monophosphate.

So, the correct option is 'both (a) and (c)'

QUESTION: 4

Saturated fatty acids possess____ bonds between carbon atoms and are____ at room temperature.

Solution:

Fatty acids are of two main types- saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fatty acids are without double bonds in their carbon chains. They have higher melting points and are solids at room temperature. They have a general formula of CnH2nO2, e.g., C16H32O2 (Palmitic acid), C18H36O2 (stearil acid). Animal fats are mostly saturated fats.

Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chains. They have lower melting points and are liquids at room temperature. Their general formula is CnH2n2xO2, e.g., oleic acid (with one double bond, monoene, C18H34O2), linoleic acid (with two double bonds, diene, C18H30O2), linolenic acid (with three double bonds, triene, C18H30O2), arachidonic acid (with four double bonds, tetraene, C20H32O2). Plant fats are generally unsaturated fats.

QUESTION: 5

Cytidine is a

Solution:

Cytosine (C) is a pyrimidine i.e, a nitrogenous base. A combination of a nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine) with a pentose sugar is known as a nucleoside. Thus the combination of cytosine with ribose sugar results in the formation of a nucleoside called as cytidine, Similarly, The combination of cytosine with deoxyribose sugar is called as deoxycytidine.

QUESTION: 6

Lecithin is

Solution:

Phospholipids are triglyceride lipids, in which one fatty acid is replaced by phosphoric acid residue of the linked to additional nitrogenous groups, e.g., choline in lecith in.

QUESTION: 7

Which of the following statements about amino acids is incorrect?

Solution:

Acidic amino acids have an extra carboxylic group (mono-amino dicarboxylic), e.g., glutamate (glutamic acid or Glu), asparate (aspartic acid or Asp).

Basic amino acids have an additional amino group without forming amides (diamino monocarboxylic), e.g., arginine (Arg), lysine (Lys).

QUESTION: 8

Given structural formula is correctly identified along with its related function by which of the following options?

Solution:

Cholesterol is the most abundant steroid in the animal tissues. It is present in food especially that rich in animal fats. Cholesterol is an essential component of animal plasma membrane as it regulates the fluidity of membrane. It also act as precursor for many important biomolecules. It also occurs in the cell membrane of mycoplasmas.

QUESTION: 9

The inorganic compounds like sulphate, phosphate, etc. are found in?

Solution:

The inorganic compounds like sulphate, phosphate, etc. are found in acid-soluble pool.

QUESTION: 10

The sum total composition of acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fraction represents the entire composition of

Solution:

Cellular pool is the aggregation of various kinds of biomolecules in a cell. It comprises of over 5000 chemical both inorganic and organic. Inorganic molecules generally occur in aqueous pool while organic molecules are found in both aqueous and non aqueous pool.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the two groups of the given formula is involved in peptide bond formation between different amino acids?

Solution:

Proteins are polymers of different amino acids, which are linked by peptide (CONH) bond formed by dehydration (polymerisation) between COOH group of one amino acid and NH2​ group of next amino acid with the removal of H2​O.

So, the correct answer is '1 and 3'.

QUESTION: 12

Identify the amino acids given below and select the correct option.

Solution:

(i) The amino acid is the basic units of proteins and is formed by one carboxyl bond plus one amine group on the side chain.
(ii) On the basis of the compound present, they are divided into various types, for example, simple amino acid, sulphur containing amino acids, basic amino acids, an aromatic amino acid.
(iii) On the given structure CH3 is present on the side chain, and here the amino acid is alanine and in the second image hydrogen is present as the side chain and so it is the simplest amino acid that is glycine.
(iv) On the third chain, CH₂OH is present and the amino acid is serine.
So, the correct option is 'i - Alanine, ii - Glycine, iii - Serine'

QUESTION: 13

An example of aromatic amino acid is

Solution:

Aromatic amino acids possess cyclic structure in the side chain, e.g., phenylalanine, tryptophan (actually heterocyclic) or tyrosine (having OH group).

QUESTION: 14

Identify the given structural formulae and select the correct option.

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Solution:

Nitrogen bases are heterocyclic compounds. They are of two types, substituted purines and substituted pyrimidines. Purines are larger-sized nitrogen containing biomolecules. They have 9−9-membered double rings. A purine has imidazole ring joined to pyrimidine ring at 44 and 55 positions. It has nitrogens at 1, 3, 7 and 9 positions. There are two types of purines- adenine (A) and guanine (G). Pyrimidines are 6−6- membered rings. A pyrimidine ring has nitrogen at 11 and 33 positions. Pyrimidine bases are of three types-cytosine (C), thymine (T) and uracil (U).

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following options correctly identifies the structural formulae shown in figure?

Solution:

Glucose ans ribose both are carbohydrates. Ribose sugar constitutes RNA nucleotides. Glucose is a hexose sugar while ribose is a pentose sugar.

QUESTION: 16

Given, molecular formula belongs to which of the following groups of biomolecules?

Solution:

Lipids are estres of fatty acids and alcohol. These are hydrophobic in nature and they are insoluble in water but are soluble in organic solvents like benzene, ether and chloroform. 
Simple lipids are the esters of fatty acid and glycerol. Fats and oils are the triglycerides of fatty acid and glycerol. 

QUESTION: 17

Biological molecules are primarily joined by

Solution:

Biological molecules, also known as biomolecules, are large structures that are responsible for the catalysis, structure and function of the cell. The molecules (C,H, O, N etc.) within the biomolecules are joined by covalent bond because it is strong bond that maintains structural integrity. The biomolecules will then combine to form a functional cell. The examples include peptide bond, glycosidic bond, phosphodiester bond etc.

A. Peptide bond is a type of covalent bond found in polypeptides. So only proteins will show peptide bonds.

B. Ionic bonds result in formation of cation and anion which could hamper the vital activities within the cells.

C. Hygrogen bonds are weak bonds and they do not confer structural integrity to the molecules.

D. Covalent bonds form the backbone of the structure of biomolecules. 

Hence, the correct answer is 'covalent bond'.

QUESTION: 18

The 20 different amino acids have different

Solution:

The amino acid at the structural and functional unit of protein and they combine through peptide Bond to form proteins. The amino acids have one carboxyl group along with one amino group and a side chain which is different in all the amino acids.

On the basis of the side chain, amino acids are categorised into a variety of types, for example, simple amino acids, sulphur containing amino acids, aromatic amino acids and so on.

QUESTION: 19

Which of the following is a triglyceride?

Solution:

Hard fats (e.g., butter, ghee) and oils (e.g., sunflower oil, mustard oil, groundnut oil, etc.) are the examples of triglycerides.

QUESTION: 20

How many carbon atoms are generally used in composition of monosaccharides?

Solution:

Carbohydrates are also called saccharides because their basic components are sugars. Monosaccharides are those sugars or simple carbohydrate monomers which cannot be hydrolysed further into smaller components. They have a general formula of Cn​H2n​On​. Depending upon the number of carbon atoms, monosaccharides are of five types : trioses (having 3 carbon atoms, glyceraldehyde), tetroses (having four carbon atoms, e.g., erythrose), pentoses (having five carbon atoms, e.g, ribose), hexoses (having six carbon atoms, e.g.; glucose), heptoses (having seven carbon atoms, e.g., sedoheptulose).

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