Which one of the following is wrong statement with respect to the functions of respiratory system?
The function of respiratory system does not deal with the cleaning up of the air.
The principle of exchange of gases at the lungs is :
Exchange of gases at the lungs by simple diffusion.
The regulatory centres for respiration are located in :
A specialisedcentre present in the medulla region of the brain called respiratory rhythm centre is primarily responsible for this regulation. In the pons region of the brain called pneumotaxiccentre can moderate the functions of the respiratory rhythm centre.
In CNS, regulation of respiratory rhythm during normal breathing is largely dependent upon :
In central nervous system, regulation of respiratory rhythm during normal breathing is dependent upon concentration of carbon dioxide gas in air.
Match the following:
TV isapprox. 500 mL., i.e., a healthy man caninspire or expire approximately 6000 to 8000mL of air per minute. IRV averages 2500mL to 3000 mL.ERV averages 1000mL to 1100 mL. RV averages 1100 mL to 1200 mL.
Respiration in insects is direct due to exchange of gases
In insects, the respiration takes place through tracheal tubes which directly exchange gases with haemocoel and then with tissues.
Read the following statements :
i. The affinity of Hb for CO is 200 to 250 times more than its affinity for oxygen therefore CO competes with oxygen for binding to Hb.
ii. The result of this binding are a shift of oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the left and its alteration to a more hyperbolic shape.
Correct Answer :- a
Explanation : a) Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) is formed when CO binds with hemoglobin with an affinity 200 times greater than oxygen, thereby decreasing oxygen-carrying capacity and the release of oxygen to tissues, leading to tissue hypoxia.
b) The reason why the curves are different is because of the
different structures of myoglobin and haemoglobin. Myoglobin contains only a single globin chain: its dissociation curve is a rectangular hyperbola. Haemoglobin contains four globin chains and the oxygenation of each chain causes structural changes which increase the affinity of the haem of the remaining chains for oxygen. This consequence of subunit interaction is known as positive cooperativity and this increasing oxygen affinity as oxygen loads is the cause of the sigmoid shape of the dissociation curve.
RBCs and muscle cells carry out anaerobic respiration, but :
i. RBCs are permanently anaerobic and muscle cells are temporarily anaerobic
ii. RBCs are temporarily anaerobic and muscle cells are permanently anaerobic
iii. Muscle cells lack mitochondria.
Red blood cells and muscle cells carry out anaerobic respiration but RBC’s are permanently anaerobic and muscle cells are temporarily anaerobic in nature.
Loud snoring and labored breathing are symptoms of :
Loud snoring and labored breathing are the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea. Obstructive sleep apnea is a sleep disorder in which breathing is briefly and repeatedly interrupted.
A film of _____ lines lung alveoli that lowers _____ of the alveoli and makes breathing _____ :
A thin film of lecithin lines lung alveoli that lowers surface tension of the alveoli and makes breathing easier. The lining also reduces the friction of alveoli to avoid its damage.
Water breathing is more problematic than air breathing because :
i. water is 800 times more dense and hence holds much more oxygen than air does.
ii. since oxygen dissolved in water diffuses far more slowly than air therefore large quantity of water is required to be passed over the gills.
Water breathing is more problematic than air breathing because oxygen dissolved in water diffuses far more slowly than air therefore large quantity of water is required to be passed over the gills.
Read the following about blood pigments :
i. Hemoglobin is the pigment present in our blood and is iron containing protein.
ii. Haemocyanin is the pigment present in blood of Palaemon and is copper containing protein.
iii. Haemocyanin is much more efficient than haemoglobin.
Haemoglobin is the pigment present in our blood and is iron containing protein. Haemocyanin is the pigment present in blood of Palaemon and is copper containing protein.
The given graph shows O2 consumption and ventilation during exercise so we can infer from this graph :
i. During exercise, oxygen consumption rate in our body increases.
ii. Neural stimulus allows abdominal muscles , which are a kind of smooth muscle to contract to facilitate ventilation while exercising.
iii. Increase in ventilation during exercise prevents large changes in the partial pressure of O2 or CO2
iv. The overall impact is breathing rate increases.
During exercise Oxygen consumption and ventilation changes drastically. Oxygen consumption rate in our body increases during exercise. Increase in ventilation during exercise prevents large change in the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 to increase breathing rate.
The exchange of gases in :
i. the alveoli that lowers the pO2 of blood and raises its pCO2 is external respiration
ii. the tissues that lowers the pCO2 of blood and raises its pO2 is internal respiration
In the alveoli, there is high pO2 , low pCO2 , lesser H+ concentration and lower temperature,
Habit of Cigarette smoking can lead to :
The habit of Cigarette smoking can lead to coughing, emphysema and loss of cilia lining the respiratory tract. It contain nicotine that breaks the wall of alveoli to reduce respiratory surface.
Read the following :
i. During chloride shift , the chloride ions diffuse from RBC’s into the blood plasma.
ii. Chloride shift, helps to maintain ionic balance and chemical neutrality.
iii. Chloride shift occurs during transport of CO2 .
Correct Answer :- d
Explanation : a) The chloride shift is an exchange of ions that takes place in our red blood cells in order to ensure that no build up of electric change takes place during gas exchange. Within our tissues, the cells produce a bunch of carbon dioxide molecules that are ultimately expelled by the cell and travel to the blood plasma.
b) To maintain this ionic balance, the chloride iona diffuse from blood plasma to RBC.This phenomenon of chloride ion diffusing into the erythrocytes to maintain the ionic balance is called chloride shift.
c) Carbon dioxide is produced in tissues as a byproduct of normal metabolism. It dissolves in the solution of blood plasma and into RBC, where carbonic anhydrase catalyzes its hydration to carbonic acid (H2CO3). Carbonic acid then spontaneously dissociates to form bicarbonate Ions (HCO3−) and a hydrogen ion (H+) in response to the decrease in intracellular partial pressure of CO2, more CO2 passively diffuses into the cell.
Insect of family chironomidae eg..chironomous larvae are also known as bloodworms since :
Insects of family Chironomidae eg. Chironomous larvae as also known as blood worms because they contain haemoglobin as their respiratory pigment.
If TLC is 5500ml, IRV is 2950ml, ERV is 900ml and TV is 500ml then what will be value of RV ?
RV = TLC - IRV – ERV– TV. On substituting the values, we get 1150ml.
The correct sequence of respiration is
i) Breathing in oxygen
ii) Transportation of gases by the blood
iii) Diffusion of gases between blood and tissues
iv) Diffusion of gases across alveolar membrane
v) Using of oxygen and releasing of carbondioxide
Respiration involves breathing or pulmonary ventilation by which atmospheric air is drawn in, Diffusion of gases across alveolar membrane, Transport of gases by the blood, Diffusion of gases between blood and tissues.Utilisation of oxygen by the cells.
Match the following:
Respiratory organ of Nereis is parapodia, Limulus is book gills, Palamnaeus is book lungs and respiratory organ of Dugesia is general body surface. Palaemon respire through gills.