Test: Class 12 Politics In India Since Independence NCERT Based-1


20 Questions MCQ Test NCERT based Tests for UPSC CSE | Test: Class 12 Politics In India Since Independence NCERT Based-1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements.

1. According to the ‘two-nation theory’ advanced by the Muslim League, India consisted of not one but two ‘people’, Hindus and Muslims

2. The Congress opposed the demand for Pakistan but supported this theory

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • The drawing of the border demarcating the territory of each country marked the culmination of political developments that you have read about in the history textbooks. According to the ‘two nation theory’ advanced by the Muslim League, India consisted of not one but two ‘people’, Hindus and Muslims.

  • That is why it demanded Pakistan, a separate country for the Muslims. The Congress opposed this theory and the demand for Pakistan. But several political developments in 1940s, the political competition between the Congress and the Muslim League and the British role led to the decision for the creation of Pakistan.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements about the Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan

1. He was the leader of the North Western Frontier Province and known as ‘Frontier Gandhi'

2. He opposed to the two-nation theory

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan, the undisputed leader of the North Western Frontier Province and known as ‘Frontier Gandhi’, was staunchly opposed to the two nation theory. Eventually, his voice was simply ignored and the NWFP was made to merge with Pakistan.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements.

1. The British Indian Provinces were directly under the control of the British government

2. The Princely States, enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs as long as they opposed British supremacy

3. Princely States covered one-third of the land area of the British Indian Empire

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • British India was divided into what were called the British Indian Provinces and the Princely States. The British Indian Provinces were directly under the control of the British government.

  • On the other hand, several large and small states ruled by princes, called the Princely States, enjoyed some form of control over their internal affairs as long as they accepted British supremacy.

  • This was called paramountcy or suzerainty of the British crown. Princely States covered one-third of the land area of the British Indian Empire and one out of four Indians lived under princely rule.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements.

1. Just before Independence it was announced by the British that with the end of their rule over India, paramountcy of the British crown over Princely States would also lapse

2. The decision to become was left not to the people but to the princely rulers of these states

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Just before Independence it was announced by the British that with the end of their rule over India, paramountcy of the British crown over Princely States would also lapse. This meant that all these states, as many as 565 in all, would become legally independent.

  • The British government took the view that all these states were free to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent if they so wished. This decision was left not to the people but to the princely rulers of these states. This was a very serious problem and could threaten the very existence of a united India.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements.

1. The people of most of the princely states clearly wanted to become part of the Indian union.

2. The government was prepared to be flexible in giving autonomy to some regions.

3. The idea was to accommodate plurality and adopt a flexible approach in dealing with the demands of the regions

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The interim government took a firm stance against the possible division of India into small principalities of different sizes. The Muslim League opposed the Indian National Congress and took the view that the States should be free to adopt any course they liked.

  • Sardar Patel was India’s Deputy Prime Minister and the Home Minister during the crucial period immediately following Independence. He played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states firmly but diplomatically and bringing most of them into the Indian Union. It may look easy now.

  • But it was a very complicated task which required skilful persuasion. For instance, there were 26 small states in today’s Orissa. Saurashtra region of Gujarat had 14 big states, 119 small states and numerous other different administrations.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements.

1. The rulers of most of the states signed a document called the ‘Instrument of Accession’ which meant that their state agreed to become a part of the Union of India

2. The issue of Junagarh was resolved after a plebiscite confirmed people’s desire to join India

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Before 15 August 1947, peaceful negotiations had brought almost all states whose territories were contiguous to the new boundaries of India, into the Indian Union.

  • The rulers of most of the states signed a document called the ‘Instrument of Accession’ which meant that their state agreed to become a part of the Union of India. Accession of the Princely States of Junagadh, Hyderabad, Kashmir and Manipur proved more difficult than the rest.

  • The issue of Junagarh was resolved after a plebiscite confirmed people’s desire to join India. You will read about Kashmir in Chapter Eight. Here, let us look at the cases of Hyderabad and Manipur.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements

1. The Nizam wanted an independent status for Hyderabad

2. He entered into what was called the Standstill Agreement with India in November 1947 for a year while negotiations with the Indian government were going on

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • Hyderabad, the largest of the Princely States was surrounded entirely by Indian territory. Some parts of the old Hyderabad state are today parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. Its ruler carried the title, ‘Nizam’, and he was one of the world’s richest men.

  • The Nizam wanted an independent status for Hyderabad. He entered into what was called the Standstill Agreement with India in November 1947 for a year while negotiations with the Indian government were going on.

QUESTION: 8

Consider the following statements regarding the merger of Manipur with India.

1. While the state Congress opposed the merger, other political parties were wanted to this

2. The Government of India succeeded in pressurising the Maharaja into signing a Merger Agreement in September 1949, without consulting the popularly elected Legislative Assembly of Manipur

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution: In the Legislative Assembly of Manipur there were sharp differences over the question of merger of Manipur with India. While the state Congress wanted the merger, other political parties were opposed to this. The Government of India succeeded in pressurising the Maharaja into signing a Merger Agreement in September 1949, without consulting the popularly elected Legislative Assembly of Manipur. This caused a lot of anger and resentment in Manipur, the repercussions of which are still being felt.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements.

1. The Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 and it came into effect on 26 January 1950

2. The Election Commission of India was set up in January 1950

3. Sukumar Sen became the first Chief Election Commissioner

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • Constitution was adopted on 26 November 1949 and signed on 24 January 1950 and it came into effect on 26 January 1950. At that time the country was being ruled by an interim government.

  • It was now necessary to install the first democratically elected government of the country. The Constitution had laid down the rules, now the machine had to be put in place. Initially it was thought that this was only a matter of a few months. The Election Commission of India was set up in January 1950.

  • Sukumar Sen became the first Chief Election Commissioner. The country’s first general elections were expected sometime in 1950 itself.

QUESTION: 10

Consider the following statements.

1. In the second and the third general elections, held in 1957 and 1962 respectively, the Congress maintained the same position in the Lok Sabha by winning three-fourth of the seats

2. None of the opposition parties could win even one-tenth of the number of seats won by the Congress

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • It means both are Correct. A look at the electoral map would give you a sense of the dominance of the Congress during the period 1952-1962.

  • In the second and the third general elections, held in 1957 and 1962 respectively, the Congress maintained the same position in the Lok Sabha by winning three-fourth of the seats. None of the opposition parties could win even one-tenth of the number of seats won by the Congress. In the state assembly elections, the Congress did not get a majority in a few cases. The most significant of these cases was in Kerala in 1957.

QUESTION: 11

Consider the following statements.

1. He was the country’s Prime Minister from 1964 to 1966

2. He gave the famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The ease with which the succession after Nehru took place proved all the critics wrong. When Nehru passed away, K. Kamraj, the president of the Congress party consulted party leaders and Congress members of Parliament and found that there was a consensus in favour of Lal Bahadur Shastri.

  • He was unanimously chosen as the leader of the Congress parliamentary party and thus became the country’s next Prime Minister. Shastri was a non-controversial leader from Uttar Pradesh who had been a Minister in Nehru’s cabinet for many years. Nehru had come to depend a lot on him in his last year.

  • He was known for his simplicity and his commitment to principles. Earlier he had resigned from the position of Railway Minister accepting moral responsibility for a major railway accident. Shastri was the country’s Prime Minister from 1964 to 1966.

  • During Shastri’s brief Prime Ministership, the country faced two major challenges. While India was still recovering from the economic implications of the war with China, failed monsoons, drought and serious food crisis presented a grave challenge. As discussed in the previous chapter, the country also faced a war with Pakistan in 1965. Shastri’s famous slogan ‘Jai Jawan Jai Kisan’, symbolised the country’s resolve to face both these challenges.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements.

1. Defection means an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol he/she was elected and joins another party

2. The issue of ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’ was originated in Rajasthan Legislative Assembly

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • Another important feature of the politics after the 1967 election was the role played by defections in the making and unmaking of governments in the States.

  • Defection means an elected representative leaves the party on whose symbol he/she was elected and joins another party. After the 1967 general election, the breakaway Congress legislators played an important role in installing non-Congress governments in three States - Haryana, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.

  • The constant realignments and shifting political loyalties in this period gave rise to the expression ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’. The story of ‘Aya Ram, Gaya Ram’: The expression ‘aya ram, gaya ram’ became popular in the political vocabulary in India to describe the practice of frequent floor-crossing by legislators. Literally translated the terms meant, Ram came and Ram went.

QUESTION: 13

Consider the following statements about the Charu Majumdar.

1. He was the Communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari uprising

2. He participated in the Tebhaga movement after independence

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: Charu Majumdar (1918-1972): Communist revolutionary and the leader of the Naxalbari uprising; participated in the Tebhaga movement before independence; left the CPI and founded the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist); believed in the Maoist path of peasant rebellion and defended revolutionary violence; died in police custody.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements.

1. The Naxalite movement has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless

2. Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: The Naxalite movement has used force to snatch land from the rich landowners and give it to the poor and the landless. Its supporters advocated the use of violent means to achieve their political goals. In spite of the use of preventive detention and other strong measures adopted by the West Bengal government run by the Congress party, the Naxalite movement did not come to an end. In later years, it spread to many other parts of the country.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements.

1. The National Coordination Committee for Railwaymen’s Struggle led by JP Narayan gave a call for nationwide strike by all employees of the Railways

2. Their demands were related to bonus and service conditions

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The National Coordination Committee for Railwaymen’s Struggle led by George Fernandes gave a call for nationwide strike by all employees of the Railways for pressing their demands related to bonus and service conditions. The government was opposed to these demands. So, the employees of India’s largest public sector undertaking went on a strike in May 1974.

  • The strike by the Railway employees added to the atmosphere of labour unrest. It also raised issues like rights of the workers and whether employees of essential services should adopt measures like strikes. The government declared the strike illegal. As the government refused to concede the demands of the striking workers, arrested many of their leaders and deployed the Territorial Army to protect railway tracks, the strike had to be called off after twenty days without any settlement.

QUESTION: 16

Consider the following statements regarding the events in the emergency.

1. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offence, but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence

2. Arrested political workers could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus petitions

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • The government made extensive use of preventive detention. Under this provision, people are arrested and detained not because they have committed any offence, but on the apprehension that they may commit an offence.

  • Using preventive detention acts, the government made large scale arrests during the emergency. Arrested political workers could not challenge their arrest through habeas corpus petitions. Many cases were filed in the High Courts and the Supreme Court by and on behalf of arrested persons, but the government claimed that it was not even necessary to inform the arrested persons of the reasons and grounds of their arrest. Several High Courts gave judgments that even after the declaration of emergency the courts could entertain a writ of habeas corpus filed by a person challenging his/her detention.

  • In April 1976, the constitution bench of the Supreme Court overruled the High Courts and accepted the government’s plea. It meant that during an emergency the government could take away the citizen’s right to life and liberty. This judgment closed the doors of judiciary for the citizens and is regarded as one of the most controversial judgments of the Supreme Court.

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements.

1. In 1977, the Janata Party government appointed a Commission of Inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah

2. It was appointed to inquire into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the Emergency proclaimed in 1975

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:
  • Shah Commission of Inquiry In May 1977, the Janata Party government appointed a Commission of Inquiry headed by Justice J.C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, to inquire “into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the Emergency proclaimed on the 25th June, 1975”.

  • The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies. These included Indira Gandhi who appeared before the Commission but refused to answer any questions.

QUESTION: 18

Consider the following statements.

1. National emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of 'internal disturbance'

2. It is necessary that the advice to the President to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: Now ‘internal’ emergency can be proclaimed only on the grounds of ‘armed rebellion’ and it is necessary that the advice to the President to proclaim emergency must be given in writing by the Council of Ministers.

QUESTION: 19

Consider the following statements.

1. For the second time since independence, the Congress party was defeated in the Lok Sabha elections

2. Janata Party itself won 295 seats and enjoyed a clear majority

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution: For the first time since independence, the Congress party was defeated in the Lok Sabha elections. The Congress could win only 154 seats in the Lok Sabha. Its share of popular votes fell to less than 35 per cent. The Janata Party and its allies won 330 out of the 542 seats in the Lok Sabha; Janata Party itself won 295 seats and thus enjoyed a clear majority. In north India, it was a massive electoral wave against the Congress.

QUESTION: 20

Consider the following statements.

1. In an indirect manner the issue of welfare of the backward castes also began to dominate politics since 1977

2. As we saw above, the results of 1977 elections were at least partly due to a shift among the backward castes of north India

Which of these statements are correct?

Solution:
  • In an indirect manner the issue of welfare of the backward castes also began to dominate politics since 1977. As we saw above, the results of 1977 elections were at least partly due to a shift among the backward castes of north India.

  • Following the Lok Sabha elections, many states also held Assembly elections in 1977. Again, the northern States elected non-Congress governments in which the leaders of the backward castes played an important role.

  • The issue of reservations for ‘other backward classes’ became very controversial in Bihar and following this, the Mandal Commission was appointed by the Janata party government at the centre. You will read more about this and about the role of the politics of backward castes, in the last chapter. The elections after the emergency set off the process of this change in the party system.