The teeth that occur in human beings are
Each tooth is embedded in a socket of jaw bone called thecodont. Human being forms two sets of teeth during their life temporary milk or deciduous teeth replaced by a set of permanent or adult teeth called diphyodont. An adult human has 32 permanent teeth which are of four different types called heterodont.
The enzyme which hydrolyze the starch is
Amylase, which is commonly found in saliva and germinating seeds. It catalyzes the breakdown of starch. When amylase reacts with starch, it cuts off the disaccharide maltose (two glucose molecules linked together). Its function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into glucose.
In the Enteric nervous system :
i. Neurons of Myentric plexus regulates glandular secretions in GI tract.
ii. Neurons of Meissner’s plexus regulates peristaltic waves.
The inner plexus is the main control for GI secretion and local blood flow. The myenteric plexus extends throughout the entire length of the gut as a linear chain of interconnected neurons. Lying within the intestinal smooth muscle, the myenteric plexus focuses on muscle control.
Myenteric plexus stimulates the muscles to contract in peristaltic waves and that it helps keep muscle tone throughout the intestine walls, promotes secretions of intestinal juices, and allows muscular constrictions (sphincters) to open, thus permitting food to pass from one part of the digestive.
Complete the following reaction :
Maltose ( in presence of Maltase) → Glucose + i ,
Lactose ( in presence of Lactase) → Glucose + ii ,
Sucrose (in presence of Sucrase) → Glucose + iii
Maltose in presence of maltase produce two molecules of glucose. Lactose in presence of lactase produces glucose and galactose. Sucrose in presence of sucrase produces glucose and fructose.
Which layer of alimentary canal is formed of loose connective tissues?
Match the following:
The correct option is Option C.
(a) - (iv) : Constipation occurs when bowel movements become less frequent and stools become difficult to pass. It happens most often due to changes in diet or routine, or due to inadequate intake of fiber. You should call your doctor if you have severe pain, blood in your stools, or constipation that lasts longer than three weeks.
(b) - (i) : You can get jaundice if a gallstone passes out of the gallbladder into the bile duct and blocks the flow of bile. Symptoms of jaundice include: yellowing of the skin and eyes. dark brown urine.
(c) - (ii) : Stress and anxiety may provoke acid reflux or make the symptoms worse. For instance, a 2018 study involving more than 19,000 people found that those with anxiety were more likely to experience GERD symptoms.
(d) - (iii) : Classic symptoms of chronic mesenteric ischemia include postprandial abdominal pain associated with significant weight loss, food fear, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. The abdominal pain classically starts 15 to 30 minutes after a meal and typically lasts for ∼30 minutes.
Every cell contains DNA and when we consume plant /animal material , the DNA which reaches our digestive tract is digested by :
Food material consists of plant or animal cells. Each cell contain DNA in their nucleus. Digestion of DNA takes place in small intestine by the action of enzyme succus entricus.
Malnutrition covers :
Malnutrition is the condition of having less than required amount of food or more than required amount of food. Both condition is harmful to health. So, malnutrition covers both undernutrition and overnutrition.
A patient is generally advised to specially consume more meat, lentils, milk and eggs in diet only when he suffers from
The deficiency of proteins within the body is responsible for a disease, known as kwashiorkor. So, a kwashiorkor diseased patient is generally advised to specially, consume more meat, lentils, milk and eggs because these are rich sources of protein.
What should be filled in to replace question mark in the following sequence :
? → Trypsinogen → Trypsin
Trypsinogen is activated by an enzyme, enterokinase, secreted by the intestinal mucosa into active trypsin.
The process by which small electrolytes are absorbed
Small amounts of monosaccharides like glucose, amino acids and some of electrolytes like chloride ions are generally absorbed by simple diffusion.
Bacteria responsible for chronic gastritis is :
Chronic gastritis involves swelling or inflammation of the stomach lining. This is caused by bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
Brunner’s gland is
Name the following parts:
The figure shows the muscular sac called the gall bladder. The duct of gall bladder (cystic duct) along with the hepatic duct from the liver forms the common bile duct.
That part of alimentary canal which is responsible for absorption of water, simple sugars and alcohol is :
Absorption of water, simple sugars, and alcohol etc.,takes place in stomach.
Regurgitation is more common in infants than in adults. The reason will be:
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx or esophagus. Regurgitation is more common in infants than adults because cardiac sphincter is much less effective in infants.
Match the cells and their secretions:
The correct option is Option A.
(a) - (ii) : Goblet cells secrete mucus which helps to neutralise the stomach acidity.
(b) - (iii) : Oxyntic cells secrete HCl and Castle's intrinsic factor so they are acidic.
(c) - (iv) : Chief cells also called peptic cells secretes proenzymes like pepsinogen.
(d) - (i) : Intestinal gland cells also called Brunner's gland secretes intestinal juice or succus entericus.
The secretions released into small intestine are
Select which one is a correctly matched pair :
Correct Answer :- d
Explanation : The monosaccharide fructose (which is in fruit) is absorbed and transported by facilitated diffusion alone.This process is called passive transport or facilitated diffusion, and does not require energy. The solute can move "uphill," from regions of lower to higher concentration.
_____ from pharynx is conveyed into oesophagus by _____ .
Bolus from pharynx is conveyed into oesophagus by deglutition. Bolus is the semisolid chewed food mixed with saliva in mouth. The food from pharynx passed to oesophagus by swallowing.
The part which is common passage for both digestive and respiratory tracts :
The oesophagus and the trachea (wind pipe) open into the pharynx.
Which layer of alimentary canal forms crypts in between the base of villi?
Mucosa forms gastric glands in the stomach and crypts in between the bases of villi in the intestine (crypts of Lieberkuhn).
Absorption of fats takes place through :
Lymph are the extracellular fluids that constitute the lymphatic system in the human body. Absorption of fats takes place through lymphatic ducts. As fats cannot be carried through narrow capillaries.
Read the following statements about CCK :
i. This hormone stimulates gastrointestinal motility and pancreatic endocrine function.
ii. This hormone stimulates release of bile from gall bladder.
Cholecystokinin, previously called pancreozymin, is synthesized and secreted by enteroendocrine cells in the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine. Its presence causes the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gallbladder, respectively, and also acts as a hunger suppressant.
All are digestive glands except :
The accessory digestive glands include the salivary glands, the liver (with gall bladder) and the pancreas.