The teeth that occur in human beings are
Each tooth is embedded in a socket of jaw bone called thecodont. Human being forms two sets of teeth during their life temporary milk or deciduous teeth replaced by a set of permanent or adult teeth called diphyodont. An adult human has 32 permanent teeth which are of four different types called heterodont.
The enzyme which hydrolyze the starch is
Starch is hydrolyzed by amylase in saliva.
In the Enteric nervous system :
i. neurons of Myentric plexus regulates glandular secretions in GI tract.
ii. neurons of Meissner’s plexus regulates peristaltic waves.
The enteric nervous system or ENS or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main nervous system of neuron that governs the functioning of gastrointestinal system.
Complete the following reaction :
Maltose — Maltase → Glucose + i - Lactose — Lactase → Glucose + ii - Sucrose — Sucrase → Glucose + iii
Maltose in presence of maltase produce two molecules of glucose. Lactose in presence of lactase produces glucose and galactose. Sucrose in presence of sucrase produces glucose and fructose.
Which layer of alimentary canal is formed of loose connective tissues?
Serosa is the outermost layer and is made up of a thin mesothelium (epithelium of visceral organs) with some connective tissues. Muscularis is formed by smooth muscles usually arranged into an inner circular and an outer longitudinal layer. An oblique muscle layer may be present in some regions. The submucosal layer is formed of loose connective tissues containing nerves, blood and lymph vessels.
Match the following:
The causes of indigestion are inadequate enzyme secretion, anxiety, food poisoning, over eating, and spicy food. In constipation, the bowel movements occur irregularly. In jaundice, deposition of bile pigments result in gall stones. A reflex action is controlled by the vomit centre in the medulla.
Every cell contains DNA and when we consume plant /animal material , the DNA which reaches our digestive tract is digested by :
Food material consists of plant or animal cells. Each cell contain DNA in their nucleus. Digestion of DNA takes place in small intestine by the action of enzyme succus entricus.
Malnutrition covers :
Malnutrition is the condition of having less than required amount of food or more than required amount of food. Both condition is harmful to health. So, malnutrition covers both undernutrition and overnutrition.
A patient is generally advised to specially consume more meat, lentils, milk and eggs in diet only when he suffers from
The deficiency of proteins within the body is responsible for a disease, known as kwashiorkor. So, a kwashiorkor diseased patient is generally advised to specially, consume more meat, lentils, milk and eggs because these are rich sources of protein.
What should be filled in to replace question mark in the following sequence :
? → Trypsinogen → Trypsin
Trypsinogen is activated by an enzyme, enterokinase, secreted by the intestinal mucosa into active trypsin.
The process by which small electrolytes are absorbed
Small amounts of monosacharides like glucose, amino acids and some of electrolytes likechloride ions are generally absorbed by simple diffusion.
Bacteria responsible for chronic gastritis is :
Chronic gastritis involves swelling or inflammation of the stomach lining. This is caused by bacteria Helicobacter pylori.
Brunner’s gland is
Sub-mucosal glands (Brunner’s glands) provide alkaline medium.
The arrows represent : [upward to downward]
The figure shows the muscular sac called the gall bladder. The duct of gall bladder (cystic duct) along with the hepatic duct from the liver forms the common bile duct.
That part of alimentary canal which is responsible for absorption of water, simple sugars and alcohol is :
Absorption of water, simple sugars, and alcohol etc.,takes place in stomach.
Regurgitation is more common in infants than in adults. The reason will be:
Regurgitation is the expulsion of material from the pharynx or esophagus. Regurgitation is more common in infants than adults because cardiac sphincter is much less effective in infants.
Match the cells and their secretions:
The intestinal mucosal epithelium has goblet cells which secrete mucus. The secretions of the brush border cells of the mucosa along with the secretions of the goblet cells constitute the intestinal juice or succusentericus. The peptic or chief cells which secrete the proenzyme pepsinogen. The parietal or oxyntic cells secrete HCl acid.
The secretions released into small intestine are
The bile, pancreatic juice and the intestinal juice are the secretions released into the small intestine from different parts of the body.
Select which one is a correctly matched pair :
Some of the substances like fructose and some amino acids are absorbed with the help of the carrier ions like sodium ions. This mechanism is called the facilitated transport.
_____ from pharynx is conveyed into oesophagus by _____ .
Bolus from pharynx is conveyed into oesophagus by deglutition. Bolus is the semisolid chewed food mixed with saliva in mouth. The food from pharynx passed to oesophagus by swallowing.
The part which is common passage for both digestive and respiratory tracts :
The oesophagus and the trachea (wind pipe) open into the pharynx.
Which layer of alimentary canal forms crypts in between the base of villi?
Mucosa forms gastric glands in the stomach and crypts in between the bases of villi in the intestine (crypts of Lieberkuhn).
Absorption of fats takes place through :
Lymph are the extracellular fluid that constitute the lymphatic system in the human body. Absorption of fats takes place through lymphatic ducts as fats cannot be carried through narrow capillaries.
Read the following statements about CCK :
i. this hormone stimulates gastrointestinal motility and pancreatic endocrine function.
ii. this hormone stimulates release of bile from gall bladder.
Cholecystokinin is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein by pancreatic endocrine function.
All are digestive glands except :
The accessory digestive glands include the salivary glands, the liver (with gall bladder) and the pancreas.