Antigenic determinant sites bind to which portion of an antibody molecule?
(1) Light chain
(2) Heavy chain
(3) Intermediate chains
(4) Plasma cells
The antibody recognizes a small portion of the antigen called the antigenic determinant or epitope. Each antibody recognizes and binds to a specific antigen in a lock and key type model. The variable regions , which make up the two identical antigen-binding sites, are different in each specific type of antibody, giving these sites specific shapes that fit certain antigenic epitopes. The remainder of the molecule consists of light and heavy chain constant regions where these amino acid sequences vary little from antibody to antibody.
Anti venom against snake poison contains:
Snake antivenom is a medication made up of antibodies used to treat snake bites by venomous snakes. It is a type of antivenom.
It is a biological product that typically consists of venom neutralizing antibodies derived from a host animal, such as a horse or sheep. The host animal is hyperimmunized to one or more snake venoms, a process which creates an immunological response that produces large numbers of neutralizing antibodies against various components (toxins) of the venom. The antibodies are then collected from the host animal, and further processed into snake antivenom for the treatment of envenomation.
Formation of antibodies within our body is called:
The combination of antibodies and complement promotes rapid clearing of pathogens. The production of antibodies by plasma cells in response to an antigen is called active immunity and describes the host's active response of the immune system to an infection or to a vaccination.
Antibodies are produced by:
Antibodies are produced by specialized white blood cells called B lymphocytes (or B cells). When an antigen binds to the B-cell surface, it stimulates the B cell to divide and mature into a group of identical cells called a clone.
Japanese encephalitis is transmitted by
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a disease spread through mosquito bites. Symptoms usually take 5-15 days to develop and include fever, headache, vomiting, confusion, and difficulty in moving. Symptoms that develop later include swelling around the brain and coma. Japanese encephalitis is a serious disease that may cause death.
The sporozoites that cause infection, when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a person are formed in
The sporozoites that cause infection, when a female Anopheles mosquito bites a person being are formed in intestine of mosquito.
The organisms which cause diseases in plants and animals are called:
Microorganisms that cause disease are collectively called pathogens.
Pathogens cause disease either by disrupting the body's normal processes and/or stimulating the immune system to produce a defensive response, resulting in high fever, inflammation and other symptoms.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus causes aids by attacking a type of white blood cell called
HIV progressively destroys certain types of white blood cells called CD4+ lymphocytes. Lymphocytes help defend the body against foreign cells, infectious organisms, and cancer. Thus, when HIV destroys CD4+ lymphocytes, people become susceptible to attack by many other infectious organisms.
Which of the following vaccines are injected at the age of 1&½ , 2&½ , 3& ½ Months?
The baby is given the following vaccines from the first month to the third month:
1& (½) DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis) vaccine
2 &(½)Hib (Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccine
3 &(½)IPV (polio vaccine)
Which of the following is the unit of immune system?
Cells develop from "pluripotential hematopoietic stem cells" starting from a gestational age of about five weeks. They circulate through various organs in the lymphatic system as the foetus develops. T and B lymphocytes are the only units of the immune system that have antigen-specific recognition powers, they are responsible for adaptive immunity. In other words, the T and B cells are important in the immunity that vaccination promotes.
Both sickle cell anaemia and Huntington’s chorea are:
Both sickle cell anaemia and Huntington's chorea are congenital genetic disorders. Sickle cell anaemia was first opened by James Herrick (1904). In this disease the patient's haemoglobin level reduced to half of the normal and the RBCs become sickle shaped. A single mutation in a gene can cause sickle cell anaemia.
Huntington's chorea is caused by autosomal mutation which is dominant. The gene is present on chromosome number 4.
Immuno-deficiency syndrome could develop due to
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS is a set of symptoms caused by the HIV virus. It is in fact, the most advanced stage of infection caused by HIV. This disease modifies and corrupts the immune system, making people susceptible to infections and diseases. The susceptibility worsens as the syndrome progresses.
The function of IgE is
The function of IgE antibody as mediators in allergic reactions of Type I is explained by their ability to interact both with antigen and with receptor molecules on the membrane of blood basophils and tissue mast cells. However, it is not understood how the interaction of an allergen with cell-bound IgE antibody will induce basophil (mast) cells to release a great number of biologically active substances of which some will be further discussed at this meeting, nor is it known what role the IgE-mast cell system plays in the development and control of a normal immune response.
The chemical test that is used for diagnosis of typhoid is:
Widal test is a serological test for typhoid or enteric fever. ESR is done to check out the concentration of Erythrocytes in blood.PCR is done to amplify the amount of DNA molecules.ELISA is done in AIDS.
The disease chikungunya is transmitted by
Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected Mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites. Chikungunya virus is most often spread to people by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. These are the same mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus.