Smog which doesn’t contain any secondary pollutants is:
Photochemical smog is made up of various secondary pollutants like ozone, peroxyacyl nitrates (PANs), and nitric acid (seen in Figure 2). Different types of secondary pollutants include: Ozone (O3) Sulfuric acid and nitric acid (component of acid rain).
The primary pollutants in classical smog include nitrogen oxides, particularly nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and volatile organic compounds. The relevant secondary pollutants include peroxylacyl nitrates (PAN), tropospheric ozone, and aldehydes.
Hence, the correct answer is Option D
Read the following statements:
i. carbondioxide is a qualitative pollutant.
ii. carbondioxide is already present in environment and is termed as pollutant when it’s concentration increases in the environment:
Carbon dioxide is a quantitative pollutant. This gas is already present in environment in small quantity. When its concentration increases in the environmentit is termed as pollutant. It may cause greenhouse effect also.
The dust collection efficiency of Electrostatic precipitator is affected by the particle size of the aerosol to be collected, so :
Electrostatic precipitator is used to remove particulate matters from chimneys of factories. The dust collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitator is affected by the particle siz of the aerosol to be collected so, the collection efficiency is high for large particles and low for the small particles.
Planting trees on both the sides of roads and highways is called providing green muffler. It is to reduce :
Planting trees on both the side of roads and highways is called providing green muffler. It is done to reduce noise pollution to nearby residential areas.
Irreparable computers and other electronic goods are known as
Irreparable computers and other electronic goods are known as e-wastes or electronic wastes. E-wastes are buried in landfills or incinerated.
Various methods applied for removing particulate pollutants from air employs:
For removing particulate pollutants from air various methods are applied such as use of activated charcoal and calcium hydroxide that absorbs the particulate matters form polluted air.
Deoxygenation of water causes :
i. conversion of eutrophic water body back into oligotrophic.
ii. growth of anaerobic microbes producing secondary pollutants like H2S.
Deoxygenation of water bodies means reducing the oxygen from the water. Deoxygenation do not convert eutrophic water body back into oligotrophic. In such waters growth of anaerobic microbes producing secondary pollutants like H2S.so, the statement i is wrong and ii is correct.
Huge quantity of sewage is dumped in a river, the BOD will
Huge quantity of sewage is dumped in a river, the BOD will increase as sewage contain large amount of organic matter that support large number of aquatic microbes that consume oxygen present in water.
Acid rain is due to
Acid rain is due to air pollution. Burning of fossils fuels release sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides that combine with water to form sulphuric acid and nitric acid during rain.
Eutrophication of water body occurs due to addition of
Eutrophication of water body occurs due to addition of detergents, fertilizers and untreated sewage.
Terrestrial life would become impossible with
Terrestrial life would become impossible with change in atmosphere permitting all solar radiations to reach lithosphere. Solar radiations are essential for food preparation that supports the aquatic life.
Aerosols decrease primary productivity by
Aerosols decrease primary productivity by reducing rate of photosynthesis of autotrophic organisms, which are primary producer of ecosystem of any kind of habitat.
Highest DDT deposition shall occur in
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is chemically an organochlorine that was used an insecticide. It is a stable compound that shows high solubility in the fatty tissues. When it is released in the water via the agricultural field surface run-off, it is ingested by the aquatic organisms like phytoplankton that are main producers in an aquatic food chain. From these, DDT continues rising up the food chain. Because successive consumers at the successive trophic level consume more food, it accumulates at the higher trophic level in greater amounts. This is called biomagnification. Sea/gulls and birds are the top consumers in an aquatic food chain, they will show the highest accumulation.
Hence, the correct answer is 'Sea Gull/Birds'.
Fertilizers added to fresh water will cause
Fertilizers added to fresh water increase the nutrients that cause growth of large number of microbes in water that leads to eutrophication.
Correct order of concentration of DDT in following organisms are
i. Small fish
ii. Large fish
iv. Human beings
The concentration of DDT increase with increase in trophic levels. Phytoplankton being producer have minimum concentration of DDT. Human being consume large number of fish so, concentration will be maximum due to biomagnifications.
Assertion: Agricultural output increased several times after introduction of DDT.
Reason: DDT was the first insecticide used on a wide scale.
DDT or dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane was the first important synthetic pesticide (organo chlorine) discovered in 1939 by a Swiss chemist Paul Muller. It was toxic to wide range of insect pests ("broad spectrum") yet appeared to have low toxicity to mammals. It was persistent and didn’t break down rapidly in the environment, so that it didn’t have to be reapplied often. DDT was so effective at killing pests and thus boosting crop yields and was so inexpensive to make that its use quickly spread over the globe. Farmers used more and more DDT throughout the 1950s and 1960s to get an increased yield of crop,
Bioremediation of Phenol, one of the most common environmental pollutants is reported to be assisted by :
Bioremediation is a waste management technique that involves the use of organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants. Bioremediation of phenol is carried out using earthworms and bacteria.
The metal which is inert and when swallowed remains non-toxic but becomes severely toxic when inhaled in volatile form:
Mercury is inert and when swallowed remain non-toxic but becomes severely toxic when inhaled in volatile form. It enters the respiratory system and riches to lungs to cause lung cancer.
The possible drawback of bioremediation method for oil spill containment is :
Bioremediation method is used to remove oil spill containments in water bodies. In this method large number of bacteria outcompete other organisms for oxygen creating a dead zone.
Which of the two countries are most affected by global warming?
Global warming due to green house effect melts the glaciers and ice caps that increase the water level of oceans. The countries like Maldives and Bangladesh are in danger of submersion due to increasing ocean water level.
Global warming will cause
Global warming is caused by green house effect in which temperature of inner atmosphere increases that result into melting of ice caps and glaciers. The melting results into rise in levels of oceans.
Ozone layer in upper atmosphere is being destroyed by
Ozone layer in upper atmosphere is being destroyed by chlorofluorocarbon. CFC’s breaks the molecular O3 into O2 and O. thus layer of ozone get thinner and not able to prevent UV radiations.
The two main reason for increase in CO2 gas is
The two main reasons for increase in CO2 gas are destruction of forest and excessive combustion of fossil fuels. Forests help in decreasing CO2 gas by photosynthesis process.
Concentration of green house is increasing due to
II. Increased use of refrigerators
III. Increased combustion of coal and petroleum
IV. Increasing human population
Concentration of green house is increasing due to deforestation, increased use of refrigerators and increased combustions of coal and petroleum. Deforestation causes increased level of CO2 gas, refrigerators releases CFC’s gas and burning of fossil fuels also increases carbon dioxide level in atmosphere.
Deforestation generally decreases
Deforestation generally decreases rainfall. Plants release water vapour in form of water vapour in the process of transpiration. The water vapour contribute in cloud formation to bring rains.