Test: Evidences of Organic Evolution


43 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 | Test: Evidences of Organic Evolution


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QUESTION: 1

Kiwi is found in  : 

 [BHU 81]

Solution:

There are two species of Kiwis in New Zealand. Brown Kiwis are found in forested areas in the North Island, Fiordland, South Westland and Stewart Island. Spotted Kiwis are found on offshore islands and forests in the North of the South Island. There are six varieties of the kiwi; the Great Spotted, the Little Spotted, the North Island Brown, the Okarito Brown, the Stewart Island Brown and the The Haast Brown.

QUESTION: 2

Archaeopteryx is connecting link because :  

 [BHU 82]

Solution:

The reptiles and the aves belong to the vertebrates. Archaeopteryx is a connecting link between reptiles and birds as it possesses characteristics of both birds and reptiles. Archaeopteryx possessed a long tail, teeth in jaws, long neck with cervical vertebrae, all are reptilian characters. Like birds, it had wings and beak. It was warm blooded. 

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following organ in man is not  vestigial

[CPMT 801]

Solution:

Vestigial organs are degenerate, non-functional and rudimentary organs correspond to fully developed and functional organs of related organism. Third molar (wisdom teeth), plica semilunaris and pyramidalis muscles are vestigial organs. Epiglottis is not a vestigial organ in man. Epiglottis is the structure that prevents the entry of food into respiratory tract during swallowing in man.

QUESTION: 4

Which is vestigial organ in man :  

 [AFMC 79]

Solution:

 There are about 100 vestigial organs in human being like rudimentry ear muscles (much developed in have elephant and cow) third molar, coccyx (4-5 coccygeal vertebrae) scalp muscle, vermiform appendix, nictitating membrane, ear pinna muscle is vestigial but ear functional bone in man, olecranon process is related to nervous system.

QUESTION: 5

Which of the following set in men include vestigial organs :

[CPMT 81

Solution:

Vestigial organs are those organs which are non-functional in the possessor but were functional in their ancestors and in related animals. Human beings possess many vestigial organs like nictitating membrane in the eye, vermiform appendix at the end if caecum, coccyx and tail muscles, non-functional muscles of the pinna, wisdom teeth, segmental muscle of abdomen and nipples in males.

QUESTION: 6

Galapagos islands are connected with which scientist :

 [BHU 80]

Solution:

The name of Charles Darwin and his famous book The Origin of Species will forever be linked with the Galapagos Islands. Although he was only in the Galapagos for five weeks in 1835, it was the wildlife that he saw there that inspired him to develop his Theory of Evolution.

QUESTION: 7

According to recapitulation theory

 [NCERT 75, CPMT  82]

Solution:

“Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny”  known as “Ontogeny repeats Phylogeny” is a heredity theory given by Ernst Haeckel.

Ontogeny refers to the predecessors or the ancestral genetic characters.

Phylogeny is the genetic combinations of the future generations.

Hence, the theory means that The characteristics or traits shown by the future generations are the repeatations or recapitulations of the traits of the ancestry.

QUESTION: 8

Branch of biology which deals with fossils :

[CPMT 75]

Solution:

Paleontology is the branch of biology that studies the forms of life that existed in former geologic periods, mainly by studying fossils. It is the study of the history of life on earth, as reflected in the fossil record. Fossils are the remains or traces of organisms (plants, animals, fungi, bacteria and other single-celled living things) that lived in the geological past and are preserved in the crust of the earth. 

QUESTION: 9

Which animal has become extinct rather recently : 

[NCERT 73, CPMT  71]

Solution:

The majestic west African black rhino was declared extinct in 2006, after conservationist failed to find any in their last remaining habitates in Cameroon.

QUESTION: 10

Theory of evolution is mainly concerned with :

[CPMT 73]

Solution:

Evolution is the gradual changes occurring over generations after generations, during which different species of plants, animals, birds and insects gradually change some of their physical characteristics. These changes include the different aspects of life like genetic drift, mutation, natural selection, thought and technology.The main factors responsible for the evolutionary changes are certain environmental changes and predation pressures.

QUESTION: 11

Peripatus is connecting link between : 

[BHU 80, NCERT 72]

Solution:

Annelid characters of Peripatus. Have jointed parapodia like legs, nephridia for excretion and simple gut.
Arthropod characters of Peripatus claws on the legs, haemocoel, trachae for respiration and head with a pair of eyes and antennae.

QUESTION: 12

Prototheria have developed from

[BHU 80, CPMT 77]

Solution:

Prototheria are mammals that lay eggs. They have several characters similar to reptiles like they have one opening for excretion and reproduction. They are also similar to reptiles in some aspects of their skeletons. Notably, their legs are on the sides of their bodies rather than underneath them. This results in a reptile-like gait. Hence, option D is correct.

QUESTION: 13

According to Haeckel's biogenetic 

 [CPMT CPMT 77, 79]

Solution:

Ontogeny recapitulates Phylogeny” or otherwise known as “Ontogeny repeats Phylogeny” is a heredity theory given by Ernst Haeckel.

QUESTION: 14

Homologous organs have :

[MP PMT 01]

Solution:

Homologous organs - Homologous organs are organs of different organisms, which are dissimilar externally but similar in origin and in fundamental structural plan. e.g. hand of man and wing of bird. There are other organs called analogous organs which are similar in function and external appearance, but dissimilar in origin and structural plan.

The only explanation for homologous organs is that these animals are the diverging descendants of the common ancestor. Homologous characteristics help to identify an evolutionary relationship between apparently different species.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following has homologous organs :

[NCERT 78]

Solution:

The insects the mouth parts comprise labrum,mandibles and maxilla (representing similar origin and structure) but they have different functions.
Function of mouth in-
Cockroaches - biting and chewing
Honey bee - chewing and lapping
Mosquito - piercing and sucking.
Evidently,the same structure is developed along different divergent evolution and these structures are Homologous.

QUESTION: 16

Which of the following organs in man is vestigial :  

[CPMT 77]

Solution:

The “wisdom teeth,” or last molars, are in man approaching a vestigial condition, since they generally do not appear until relatively late, between the ages of twenty and thirty years, and in many persons are never cut at all. In a large percentage of individuals, they are useless, and they often become impacted and have to be removed surgically.

QUESTION: 17

Who was the first to explain recapitulatin theory :

[CPMT 78, 80]

Solution:

The theory of recapitulation, also called as the biogenetic law or embryological parallelism often expressed in Ernst Haeckel's phrase "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny" is a largely discredited biological hypothesis that in developing from embryo to adult, animals go through stages resembling or representing successive stages in the evolution of their remote ancestors. While examples of embryonic stages show that molecular features of ancestral organisms exist, the theory of recapitulation itself has been viewed within the field of developmental biology as a historical side-note rather than as dogma. 

Therefore, the correct answer is option B.

QUESTION: 18

Analogous organs are :

[CPMT 73]

Solution:

Analogous organs are the organs of different animals which have different basic structure but perform same function. For example, the wing of a bird and the wing of a butterfly have different structures but they perform similar function so they are analogous organs.

QUESTION: 19

Connecting link between protozoa and one  celled plants is :

 [CPMT 71, 72; NCERT 72]

Solution:

Euglena is a connecting link between animals and plants. Nutrition in Euglena is mixotrophic, when the light is available it is photosynthetic, in darkness, it is saprophytic absorbing food from surrounding water.

QUESTION: 20

Which bird can not fly:

[NCERT 77]

Solution:

Penguins are birds that cannot fly, but are excellent swimmers, which is why they spend a lot of time in the water. Out of 18 penguin species, only 3 species live exclusively in Antarctica, while the rest are scattered in many places around the Southern Hemisphere

QUESTION: 21

Connecting link between annelida and  mollusca :  

Solution:



Neopilina is a connecting link between annelids and molluscans. It is the only segmented mollusc. It has a cup shaped shell like that of limpet. Its visceral mass is divided into five segments, each with a pair of shell muscles, gills, auricles,  and nephidia.

QUESTION: 22

Change with desent is the basis of which theory :

Solution:

The evolutionary term descent with modification is most often associated with human evolution, but it is actually a more general term than that would suggest. Simply put, descent with modification means that traits are passed down from generation to generation and sometimes undergo changes or modifications over time. These changes may be caused by natural selection or even a mutation of DNA. It is a theory of organic evolution.

QUESTION: 23

If a particular animal hs shelled eggs, hair  and tears of the body and has cloaca, it may be a connecting link between

Solution:

Lycaenops was a mammal-like reptile. It is considered a missing link between reptiles and mammals. Laying shelled eggs is a characteristic of birds and reptiles. Having hair, teats on body and cloaca are characteristics of animals. So, particular animal has shelled eggs, hair and teats on the body and has cloaca, it may be a connecting link between reptiles and mammals. Thus, option C is correct and other options are wrong.

QUESTION: 24

Which of the following sets do not have homologous organs :  

Solution:

Homologous organs are structures or organs of different animals that evolved from a common ancestor (similar developmental origin) but differ in their functions. On the other hand, analogous organs are structures that evolved independently (different developmental origin) in two different species of organisms to serve a similar function. The wings of a butterfly and a bird have a similar function of flying but they are anatomically different in origin.

QUESTION: 25

If a starfish possess 6 arms instead of 5, it is  an example of :

[CPMT 84]

Solution:

If a starfish possess 6 arms instead of 5, it is an example of variation [variation is any difference between cells, individual organisms, or groups of organisms of any species caused either by genetic differences (genotypic variation) or by the effect of environmental factors on the expression of the genetic potentials (phenotypic variation)]. Variation may be shown in physical appearance, metabolism, fertility, mode of reproduction, behaviour, learning and mental ability and other obvious or measurable characters. Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation. Biogenesis is the production of new living organisms or organelles and evolution is change in heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

QUESTION: 26

Wings of locust, pigeon, and bat are example of :

[CPMT  84]

Solution:

The organs which have different embryonic origin but perform same function are called as analogous organs, e.g., wings of bat and insects. The organs which have same embryonic origin but adapted to perform different functions are known as homologous organs, e.g., wing of bat and forelimb of humans.

QUESTION: 27

Theory of inheritance of acquired characters was given by

Solution:

The first theory of evolution was proposed by Jean Baptiste de Lamarck Lamarckism proposed, Some internal forces are present in all organisms. Due to  the presence of these forces, the organism has the tendency to increase the size of their organs or the entire body.
Environment influences all type of organisms. Changing environment give rise to new needs. New needs or desires produce new structure and change habits of the organism.
If an organ is constantly used, it would be better developed whereas disuse of organ results in its degeneration.
So, the correct option is 'Lamarck'.

QUESTION: 28

Fossilization can occur where

[CPMT 91]

Solution:

Fossilization occurs after an organism dies and only affects hard body parts, such as bones and shells. Soft flesh, scales, and feathers will not become fossils, although, imprints of these parts are sometimes made. In order for fossilization n to occur three things must happen. First, an organism dies.

QUESTION: 29

Fossil X can be considered to have evolved  earlier than fossil Y if :

[CPMT 93]

Solution:

Fossil 'X' can be considered to have evolved earlier than fossil 'Y' if fossil 'X' is found in lower stratum of undisturbed sedimentary rock than 'Y'. Fossils are preserved forms of living organisms that really existed on earth. Presence of 'X' in lower stratum indicates that it existed of 'X' in lower stratum indicates that it existed much before than 'Y'. 

QUESTION: 30

Golden age of Dinosaurs was during: 

[NCERT 761]

Solution:

The Mesozoic era is called the age of reptiles(golden) because this is when dinosaurs dominated the Earth. When a mass extinction occurred, it killed off all of the dinosaurs and was one of the largest in the history of the Earth.

QUESTION: 31

Fossils are dated by :  

   [CPMT 74, AFMC 80]

Solution:
QUESTION: 32

There are no life in which era :

[CPMT 80]

Solution:

Life was not possible in Azoic era because it was the first era on earth and the temperature and climate was not favorable of living creatures.

QUESTION: 33

What is sequence in the evolution of man

  [BHU 80]

Solution:

Evolution leads to changes in the characteristics of a living organism according to the changing environmental conditions with time. This change creates variations which are inherited from one generation to the other. The modification leads to shifting of simpler structures into complex structures due to evolutionary changes and helps to adapt in harsh conditions. For example two-chambered heart of fishes turned to three chambered in amphibians and three to four chamber in reptiles which ends on completely modified four-chambered heart in man.

So, the correct answer is option C.

QUESTION: 34

Life originated in which era :

 [CPMT 76]

Solution:

The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era, after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon.

QUESTION: 35

What is the Age of man :  

Solution:

The period of Earth's history that began 2.5 billion years ago and ended 542.0 million years ago is known as the Proterozoic. Many of the most exciting events in the history of the Earth and of life occurred during the Proterozoic stable continents first appeared and  a long process taking about a billion years. Also coming from this time are the first abundant fossils of living organisms, mostly bacteria and archaea, but by about 1.8 billion years ago eukaryotic cells appear as fossils too. It is not the age of man. The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about 252 to 66 million years ago till around 66 million years ago. It is also called the age of reptiles, a phrase introduced by the 19th century paleontologist Gideon Mantell. The Holocene is a geological epoch which began at the end of the Pleistocene and continues to the present. The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Greek words meaning "entirely recent". Thus, option B is correct.

QUESTION: 36

Golden age of fishes is the name of :

Solution:

The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic Era spanning from the end of the Silurian Period, about 419.2 3.2 Mya, to the beginning of the Carboniferous Period, about 358.9 0.4. It is named after Devon, England, where rocks from this period were first studied. The Devonian period experienced the first significant adaptive radiation of terrestrial life. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents. By the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods also became well-established. Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the "Age of Fish". 

Therefore, the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 37

Rock mountain revolution took place after  

Solution:

The Rocky Mountains took shape during an intense period of plate tectonic activity that resulted in much of the rugged landscape of the western North America. The Laramide orogeny, about 80–55 million years ago, was the last of the three episodes and was responsible for raising the Rocky Mountains.The Mesozoic Era lasted nearly 200 million years, starting and ending with mass extinctions. This era consisted of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. The Mesozoic is thought to have had a warm climate that dinosaurs thrived in for 135 million years.

QUESTION: 38

Dinosaurs are :  

[BHU 83]

Solution:

Dinosaurs are archosaurs, a larger group of reptiles that first appeared about 251 million years ago, near the start of the Triassic Period. Some other non-dinosaur reptiles are also archosaurs, including pterosaurs (the now-extinct flying reptiles) and modern crocodiles and their ancestors.

QUESTION: 39

Evolution of birds and mammals occurred in :

  [CPMT 83]

Solution:

The evolution of birds and mammals occurred in Jurassic period. The earliest birds were derived from a clade of theropod dinosaurs named paraves. Mammals evolved 10 times faster in the middle of the Jurassic period.

QUESTION: 40

The mesozoic era of earth is called the :    [CPMT 84]

Solution:

The Mesozoic era is called the age of reptiles because this is when dinosaurs dominated the Earth. Dinosaurs rose to a dominant species at the end of the end of the Triassic Period and continued until the end of the Cretaceous period when a mass extinction occurred. This mass extinction killed off all of the dinosaurs and was one of the largest in the history of the Earth.

QUESTION: 41

Dinosaurs originated :                   [CPMT 86]

Solution:

Mammals appeared on the earth long before the extinction of the dinosaurs; in fact, dinosaurs and mammals originated within 10 million years of each other, in the late Triassic about 200 million years ago.

QUESTION: 42

An era ''age of birds and mammals'' is : [CPMT 93]

Solution:

The Cenozoic Era is also known as the Age of Mammals because the extinction of many groups of giant mammals, allowing smaller species to thrive and diversify because their predators no longer existed. Due to the large span of time covered by the period, it is beneficial to discuss the animal population by the milestone of the era rather than in generalities.

QUESTION: 43

Earliest fossil form in the phylogeny of  horse is :                         [CBSE 94]

Solution:

Hoofed animals like-horse orginated in Eocene epoch in North America. First horse-like animals from which the modern horse Equus evolved was Hyracotherium (old name Eohippus). The fossil record is most complete in horse.