Tracheal tube divides into right and left bronchi at the level of :
Trachea divides at the level of 5th thoracic vertebra into a right and left primary bronchi.
After a forceful expiration :
After a forceful expiration gaseous exchange continues uninterrupted because there is always a residual volume of air that continues the diffusion of gasese.
Which of the following is not correctly matched :
Respiration is a physiological process. Total lung capacity (TLC) includes vital capacity (VC) and residual volume. Cutaneous respiration is the breathing via skin.
Vital capacity of our lungs include all of the following except :
Vital capacity includes ERV, TV and IRV or the maximum volume of air a person can breathe out after a forced inspiration.
When there is low tension of oxygen, oxyhaemoglobin rapidly
What is the difference between the two given diagrams :
Figure 1 represents the alveoli of healthy person and figure 2 is the alveoli of emphysema patient. The wall of alveoli is get damaged in figure 2 to reduce the surface area for exchange of gases.
First step in the process of inspiration is :
Inspiration is the process of intake of oxygen from the surrounding. This is achieved by increasing the volume of thoracic cavity. Contraction of diaphragm relax the sternum that increae the thoracic cavity.
Read the following statements :
i. Every 100 ml of deoxygenated blood delivers about 4 ml of CO2 to the alveoli.
ii. 30% - 40% of CO2 is transported to the alveoli as carbamino-haemoglobin.
iii. At respiratory surface CO2 diffuses from venous blood into alveolar spaces.
20 – 25% of CO2 is transported to the alveoli as carbamino-haemoglobin.
The condition favourable for dissociation of oxygen from oxyhaemoglobin in the tissues is
In tissues, low pO2, high pCO2, high H+ concentration and higher temperature exist,the conditions are favourable for dissociation of oxygen from the oxyhaemoglobin.
Pharynx is the common passage for food and air but still food do not enter into the windpipe due to the presence of
Epiglottis to prevent the entry of food into the larynx.
The value of TV is about 500 ml for an average adult human male but only some part of it enters lung alveoli and rest of it fills respiratory passage. What should be the distribution ratio for alveolar volume /respiratory passage volume:
Tidal volume (TV) = volume moved in one breath.
Normal = 500 ml
So ratio = 350:150= 7:3
The gaseous exchange portion of the human respiratory tract include/s :
Alveoli are the primary sites of exchange of gases.
Air breathing animals lose a large amount of precious water from their respiratory surface through :
Water is released in atmosphere along with expired air during respiratory cycle. Air breathing animals lose a large amount of precious water from their respiratory surface through evaporation.
The solubility of carbon dioxide is
The solubility of carbon dioxide is 20-25 times higher than that of oxygen, the amount of carbon dioxide that can diffuse through the diffusion membrane per unit difference in partial pressure is much higher compared to that of oxygen.
The major factor which affect binding related to the partial pressure of carbon dioxide is
The partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen, as well as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, influence how readily hemoglobin binds carbon dioxide. The less saturated hemoglobin is and the lower the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood is, the more readily hemoglobin binds to carbon dioxide.
Exhaust motor vehicle is main source of
Carbon monoxide (CO) a poisonous gas that is emitted from the exhaust system of a combustible engine of an automobile that uses petrol or diesel as a fuel is odourless, colourless, tasteless and nonirritating. Environmental carbon monoxide is produced by incomplete combustion process from any carbon containing fuel.
Ram suffers punctures in his chest cavity without any damage to the lungs in an accident. It results in
Since his chest cavity is punctured, the breathing gets stopped
Which of the following pair of factors are considered favourable for the formation of oxyhaemoglobin?
As we know haemoglobin has more tendency to bind with oxygen but it depends on the concentration of oxygen and CO2.
So, in point one which gets affected is concentration. It means when there is high O2, then binding possibility increases.
Second one is low CO2, low H+ concentration so that pH will be high. And last, temperature affects binding process.
In humans' ciliated epithelium, mucus membrane filter foreign particles to enter in
Hairlike structures called cilia line the mucous membrane and move the particles trapped in the mucus out of the nose. Inhaled air is moistened, warmed, and cleansed by the tissue that lines the nasal cavity.
70% of carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate by the enzyme
Nearly 70 percent of carbon dioxide is transported as bicarbonate with the help of the enzymecarbonic anhydrase.