Test: Excretory System (Human Physiology)- 3


30 Questions MCQ Test Zoology for Class 11 - Notes and Tests | Test: Excretory System (Human Physiology)- 3


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Attempt Test: Excretory System (Human Physiology)- 3 | 30 questions in 30 minutes | Mock test for NEET preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Zoology for Class 11 - Notes and Tests for NEET Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

Loop of Henle is associated with :-

[Uttaranchal PMT 2004]

Solution:

The nephrons are the functional unit of excretory organs, i.e., kidneys. Each nephron has two parts the glomerulus and the renal tubule. The renal tubule begins with a double walled cup-like structure, called as Bowman's capsule, which encloses the glomerulus. 
Glomerulus along with Bowman's capsule is called as the Malpighian body or renal corpuscle. The tubule continues further to form a highly coiled network proximal convoluted tubule (PCT). 
A hairpin-shaped Henle's loop is the next part of the tubule, which has a descending and an ascending limb. The ascending limb continues as another highly coiled tubular region, called as distal convoluted tubule (DCT). 
The DCTs of many nephrons open into a straight tube called as collecting duct, many of which converge and open into the renal pelvis through medullary pyramids in the calyces.

QUESTION: 2

Aquatic reptiles are :-

[Jharkhand 2003]

Solution:

An ammonotelic organism excretes soluble ammonia as a result of deamination. Ammonia is highly toxic to tissues and extremely soluble in water. Ammonotelic animals include protozoans, crustaceans, platyhelminths, cnidarians, poriferans, echinoderms, and other aquatic invertebrates, among others. Ammonotelism is one of the three major forms of excretion of nitrogenous waste in organisms, the others being ureotelism and uricotelism.

QUESTION: 3

If ADH level of blood is less :-

[Bihar 2005]

Solution:

ADH is an antidiuretic hormone. A low level of ADH will cause the kidneys to excrete too much water. Urine volume increases lead to dehydration and blood pressure falls. A low level of ADH indicates damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland.

QUESTION: 4

Human urine as compared to human blood is normaly :-

[Bihar 2004]

Solution:

Hypertonic is the solution which contains more solute as compared to the solvent. Humans can survive with limited fluid intake because the kidneys can produce highly concentrated urine more than 4 times as concentrated as blood. The osmolarity of human blood is about 300 milliosmols per liter (mOsm /L). The kidneys can produce urine with an osmolarity of about 1200 mOsm / L. As the initial filtrate passes through various regions of the renal tubule, salt (NaCl) is reabsorbed into the interstitial fluid, and a salt concentration gradient is established. The gradient is used to produce a concentrated urine and makes it more hypertonic. Thus, the correct answer is option B.

QUESTION: 5

Main function of glomerulus is :-

[Bihar 2004]

Solution:

The main function of the glomerulus is to filter plasma to produce glomerular filtrate, which passes down the length of the nephron tubule to form urine.

QUESTION: 6

Loop of Henle is associated with :-

[Bihar 2002]

Solution:

The nephrons along with collecting ducts are called as uriniferous tubule. The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. The body of the nephron is divided into  Renal corpuscle, PCT, a loop of Henle and DCT. Hence Loop of Henle is part of 'Uriniferous tubule'.
So, the correct answer is 'Uriniferous tubule'.

QUESTION: 7

Uric acid is the main excretory product in :-

[Bihar 2002]

Solution:

Reptiles, birds, land snails and insects excrete nitrogenous wastes as uric acid in the form of pellet or paste with a minimum loss of water and are called as uricotelic animals.

QUESTION: 8

Kidney of frog is :-

[Bihar 2001]

Solution:

The function of a frog's kidney is to excrete excess water. While on land, frogs also use their kidneys to replace water lost through evaporation in the skin. There are three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. These are pronephros, mesonephros, and metanephros. 

Pronephros are the basic type of excretory organs which corresponds to the first stage of kidney development. The functional kidney of a frog tadpole is pronephros developed from nephrotomes in the anterior regions. 

Pronephros is succeeded by the mesonephros. It is the main excretory organ of aquatic vertebrates such as fish and amphibians and as a temporary kidney in reptiles, birds, and mammals. The mesonephros acts as a structure similar to the kidney. The functional kidney of frog is mesonephros. 

Metanephros is the third type of embryonic excretory organs found in higher vertebrates. These are a permanent and functional kidney.

QUESTION: 9

Duct of Bellini opens on :-

[Bihar 2006]

Solution: Papillary (collecting) ducts are anatomical structures of the kidneys, previously known as the ducts of Bellini. Papillary ducts represent the most distal portion of the collecting duct . They receive renal filtrate (precursor to urine) from several medullary collecting ducts and empty into a minor calyx.
QUESTION: 10

Which of the following is concerned with the formation of urea in rabbit :-

[UP CPMT 2001]

Solution:

Mammals like humans and rabbit, many terrestrial amphibians and marine fishes mainly excrete urea and are called ureotelic animals. Ammonia produced by metabolism is converted into urea in the liver of these animals and released into the blood, which is filtered and excreted out by the kidneys. Some amount of urea may be retained in the kidney matrix of some of these animals to maintain a desired osmolarity.

QUESTION: 11

Loop of Henle is found in :-

[UP CPMT 2001]

Solution:

The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. The body of the nephron is divided into Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule (PCT), Henle's loop and Distal convoluted tubule( DCT). Hence Henle's loop is found in the Kidney.
So, the correct answer is 'Nephron' of the kidney.

QUESTION: 12

Absorption of H2O in DCT is controlled by :-

[UP CPMT 2002]

Solution:

The water reabsorption in the distal part of the nephron is in accordance with the body's state of hydration, under the influence of ADH and is termed as 'facultative reabsorption of water'. ADH is secreted in the hypothalamus of brain and released into blood stream from the pituitary gland. The collecting ducts become more permeable to water due to the effect of ADH, so more water is reabsorbed by osmosis and no expenditure of ATP energy is required. The release of ADH is triggered when osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus detect an increase in osmolarity of the blood above a set point of 300mosmL−1. In this situation the osmoreceptors cells also promotes thirst. Drinking reduces the osmolarity of the blood, which inhibits the secretion of ADH.

QUESTION: 13

The basic functional unit of human kidney is

Solution: Nephron or uriniferous tubules r basic and functional unit of kidney.
QUESTION: 14

A condition in which body's internal environment remains relatively constant within limits is called

[UP CPMT 2004]

Solution:

Homeostasis is the tendency to resist change in order to maintain a stable, and constant internal environment. The internal environment should be contains the optimum concentration of gases, nutrients, ions, and water, has an optimal temperature, and has an optimal pressure for the health of the cells. For example, the concentration of various ions in the blood must be kept steady, along with pH and the concentration of glucose. Maintenance of homeostasis usually involves negative feedback loops. These loops act to oppose the stimulus. Its works on first, high temperature will be detected by sensors—primarily nerve cells with endings in the skin and brain—and relayed to a temperature-regulatory control center in brain. The control center will process the information and activate effectors—such as the sweat glands—whose job is to oppose the stimulus by bringing body temperature down.

QUESTION: 15

The presence of arginase confirms that:

[UP CPMT 2004]

Solution:

In mammals, urea is produced from ammonia in five enzymatic steps. The urea cycle begins inside liver mitochondria but three of the subsequent steps takes place in the cytosol; the cycle thus spans two cellular compartments. In the last reaction of the urea cycle, the cytosolic enzyme arginase cleaves arginine to yield urea and ornithine. Ornithine is transported into the mitochondria to initiate another round of the urea cycle.

QUESTION: 16

The most abundant, harmful and universal waste product of metabolism is:

[UP CPMT 2004]

Solution:

Metabolic wastes are substances left over from the excretory processes and cannot be used by the organism. While the metabolic wastes from the body include nitrogen compounds, water, sulfates, carbon dioxide and phosphates. While most of this is excreted as water solutes carbon dioxide which is excreted by the lungs is the most abundant and harmful waste product.
So, the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 17

Glomerular filtrate contains :-

[UP CPMT 2005]

Solution:

The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood, which is carried out by the glomerulus and is called glomerular filtration. The glomerular capillary blood pressure causes filtration of blood through 3 layers, i.e., the endothelium of glomerular blood vessels, the epithelium of Bowman's capsule and a basement membrane between these two layers. The epithelial cells of Bowman's capsule called podocytes are arranged in an intricate manner so as to leave some minute spaces called filtration slits or slit pores. Blood is filtered so finely through these membranes, that almost all the constituents of the plasma except the proteins and blood cells pass onto the lumen of the Bowmans capsule. Therefore, it is considered as a process of ultrafiltration.
So, the correct answer is option A.

QUESTION: 18

Urea is directly produced in mammals from :-

[UP CPMT 2005]

Solution:

In the fourth or in the final step of urea cycle, arginine is cleaved by arginase to form urea and ornithine. The ornithine is then transported back to the mitochondria to begin the urea cycle again.

So, the correct option is 'Breakdown of arginine'.

QUESTION: 19

Glomerular hydrostatic pressure is present in :-

[UP CPMT 2005]

Solution:

One of these forces is called hydrostatic pressure. In our case, this is the pressure exerted by fluid on the capillary walls of the glomerulus or the walls of the Bowman's capsule. The hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries is essentially the blood pressure in the glomerulus.

So, the correct option is 'Glomerulus of urinary tubule'.

QUESTION: 20

ADH acts on the :-

[UP CPMT 2007]

Solution:

ADH acts in the kidney to regulate the volume and osmolarity of the urine. Specifically, it acts in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collecting ducts (CT) cells. 

QUESTION: 21

Absorption Na+ and K+ ions does not occur in :-

[MP PMT 2004]

Solution:

In Bowman’s capsule filtration of blood to form urine takes place that is the reason no absorption of potassium and sodium ions takes place.

QUESTION: 22

Liquid which collects in the cavity of Bowman's Capsule is :-

[MP PMT 2004]

Solution:

The first step in urine formation is the filtration of blood, which is carried out by the glomerulus and is called as glomerular filtration. On an average,1100-1200 ml of blood is filtered by the kidneys per minute which constitute roughly 1/5th of the blood pumped out by each ventricle of the heart in a minute. The glomerular capillary blood pressure causes filtration of blood through 3 layers, i.e., the endothelium of glomerular blood vessels, the epithelium of Bowmans capsule and a basement membrane between these two layers. The epithelial cells of Bowmans capsule called as podocytes are arranged in an intricate manner so as to leave some minute spaces called filtration slits or slit pores. Blood is filtered so finely through these membranes, that almost all the constituents of the plasma except the proteins pass onto the lumen of the Bowmans capsule. Therefore, it is considered as a process of ultrafiltration.

QUESTION: 23

Urea synthesis takes place in :-

[MP PMT 2005]

Solution:
QUESTION: 24

Mammalian kidney resemble contractile vacuole of Amoeba in excretion of :-

[MP PMT 2006]

Solution:

Contractile vacuoles are responsible for maintaining homeostasis by osmoregulation. It is a membrane enveloped cellular organelle, found in many microorganisms, that periodically
expands, filling with water, and then contracts, expelling its contents to the cell exterior.
It's function is analogous to human kidneys.
Thus, the correct answer is option (B).

QUESTION: 25

The hormone secreted by kidney is :-

[MP PMT 2001]

Solution:

Erythropoietin is a peptide hormone that is released in response to low oxygen levels in kidney tissues. EPO stimulates the bone marrow to produce red blood cells.

QUESTION: 26

Diuresis is a condition, which is characterized by

[MP PMT 2001]

Solution:

Diuresis is when the body has too many of certain substances in the fluid that the kidneys filter. Eventually this fluid becomes urine and increases the amount of water expelled by the body, leading to increased or excessive urination.

QUESTION: 27

Enzyme 'Renin' is secreted by :-

[MP PMT 2001]

Solution:

The kidneys secrete 3 different types of hormones; erythropoietin, renin, and calcitriol (1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol). Erythropoietin and renin are peptide hormones secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney. Calcitriol is a steroid hormone synthesized by the cells of the proximal tubules of the nephrons. The renin secreted has enzymatic activity and is an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). The RAAS plays an important role in regulating the cardiac output and arterial pressure. Thus the correct answer is option D.

QUESTION: 28

Renin is released from :-

[MP PMT 2002]

Solution:

Renin is produced by juxtaglomerular cells. These cells are similar to epithelium and are located in the tunica media of the afferent arterioles as they enter the glomeruli. The juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin in response to decrease in renal perfusion pressure (detected directly by the granular cells)

QUESTION: 29

Loop of Henle is primarily meant for absorption of :-

[MP PMT 2002]

Solution:

Urine formation involves three steps filtration, reabsorption and secretion. Reabsorption in Henle's loop segment is minimum. However, this region plays a significant role in the maintenance of high osmolarity of medullary interstitial fluid. The descending limb of loop of Henle is permeable to water but almost impermeable to electrolytes. Thus water is absorbed in the descending limb of loop of Henle. This concentrates the filtrate as it moves down. The ascending limb is impermeable to water but allows transport of electrolytes actively or passively. Therefore, as the concentrated filtrate pass upward, it gets diluted due to the passage of electrolytes to the medullary fluid.

QUESTION: 30

Which of the following is metabolic waste of protein metabolism :-

[MP PMT 2002]

Solution:

The nitrogen compounds through which excess nitrogen is eliminated from organisms are called nitrogenous wastes or nitrogen wastes. They are ammonia, urea, uric acid, and creatinine. All of these substances are produced from protein metabolism.

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