Test: History & Culture - 3 (August 15, 2021)

25 Questions MCQ Test UPSC CSE Prelims 2021 Mock Test Series | Test: History & Culture - 3 (August 15, 2021)

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Arab intruders of the Umayyad Caliphate invaded southern Gujarat during the reign of which of the following Chalukyan king? 


During the reign of Vikramaditya II the Arab intruders of the Umayyad Caliphate invaded southern Gujarat, which was under Chalukya rule. However, the Arabs were defeated and driven out by Pulakesi who was a Chalukya governor of Navsari.


Consider the following statements about Carnatic wars:

  1. The first and third Carnatic wars were part of the European struggle for supremacy while the second Carnatic war was caused by the local factors.

  2. The third Carnatic war ended with the treaty of Paris and the establishment of the British as the supreme power in India.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • In the 18th century, three Carnatic Wars were fought between various Indian rulers and British and French East India Company on either side. These wars resulted in the establishment of the political supremacy of British East India Company. The French company was reduced in the areas around Pondicherry only. The commercial and maritime rivalry between France and England was the primary reason behind these wars.

  • First Carnatic War (1746-1748): English navy under Barnett captured some French ships. The French governor of Pondicherry, Dupleix attacked the English in retaliation in 1746 and this led to the beginning of first Carnatic War. Treaty of Aix-La-Chappelle brought an end to the first round of Anglo-French conflicts in India as well.

  • Second Carnatic War (1749-1754): Anglo-French rivalry, continued in India although it had ended in Europe. In 1748, Nizam of Hyderabad Nizam-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah died, which resulted in a war of succession. Muzaffar Jang, who aspired to become the Nizam of Hyderabad and Chanda Sahib, a candidate for the throne of Arcot was supported by French Governor After Victory in Battle of Ambur in 1749, Muzaffar Jung became the Nizam and Chanda Sahib the Nawab of Muhammad Ali, (son of Anwar Uddin) who was supported by British escaped to Tiruchirappalli. In 1751 the British commander Robert Clive captured Arcot, i.e. the capital of the Carnatic. Chanda Sahib was treacherously murdered by the Raja of Tanjore. Later, Duplex was recalled. The war concluded by the Treaty of Pondicherry in 1755. According to this treaty each party was left in possession of the territories that it occupied at the time of the treaty. Hence, unlike other 2 wars, it was not influenced by outside factors.

  • Third Carnatic War (1758-1763): The outbreak of the Seven Years War (1756-1763) in Europe was the cause of the Third Carnatic War (1758-1763). The British General Sir Eyre Coote defeated, Count de Fally (the commander of the French troops) at Wandiwash in 1760. Battle of Wandiwash ended almost a century of conflict over supremacy in India and availed the British East India company a far superior position in India compared to the other European traders. The Seven Years War concluded by the Treaty of Paris in 1763 and this also led to the ending of Third Carnatic War. The French got Pondicherry, Karaikkal, Mahe and Yenam but condition applied was these were to be never fortified.

  • Hence, both statements are correct.


The Bardoli Resolution of the Congress Working Committee of the Indian National Congress in 1922:

1. led to the launching of the NonCooperation movement.

2. contained provisions related to not paying of the taxes by the peasants.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • The Working Committee of the Congress met at Bardoli on the 11th and 12th February, 1922 and passed the following resolutions.

  • Withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement after Chauri-Chaura incident. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • The local Congress Committees forthwith to advise the cultivators to pay the land revenue and other taxes due to the Government and whose payment might have been suspended in anticipation of mass civil disobedience, and instructs them to suspend every other preparatory activity of an offensive nature. Hence statement 2 is not correct,

  • In order to promote a peaceful atmosphere, the Working Committee advised, till further instructions, all Congress organizations to stop activities specially designed to court arrest and imprisonment, save normal Congress activities including voluntary hartals wherever an absolutely peaceful atmosphere can be assured and for that end all picketing shall be stopped save for the bona-fide and peaceful purpose of warning the visitors to liquor shops against the evils of drinking, such picketing to be controlled by persons of known good character and specially selected by the Congress Committees concerned.

  • The Working Committee advised, till further instructions, the stoppage of all volunteer processions and public meetings merely for the purpose of defiance of the notifications regarding such meetings. This, however, shall not interfere with the private meetings of the Congress and other Committees or public meetings which are required for the conduct of the normal activities of the Congress. o The Working Committee assured the zemindars that the Congress movement is in no way intended to attack their legal rights, and that even where the ryots have grievances, the Committee’s desire is that redress should be sought by mutual consultations and by the usual recourse to arbitrations.


Which of the following was the reason for the Indigo revolt of 1859-60?

  • The indigo planters, nearly all Europeans, compelled the tenants to grow indigo which they processed in factories set up in rural (mofussil) areas. From the beginning, indigo was grown under an extremely oppressive system which involved great loss to the cultivators. The planters forced the peasants to take a meager amount as advance and enter into fraudulent contracts. The price paid for the indigo plants was far below the market price. The peasant was forced to grow indigo on the best land he had whether or not he wanted to devote his land and labour to more paying crops like rice. Thus, the root cause of the Indigo revolt was to make the raiyats grow indigo plant, without paying them the price of it.

  • Hence, option (b) is the correct answer.


Consider the following statements:
Which of the following sectors is not included in the NITI Aayog’s focus regarding “National AI Strategy”:

1.  Agriculture 

2. MSME 

3. Education 

4. Infrastructure 

5. Oil and Natural Gas 

Select the correct code: 


NITI Aayog has decided to focus on five sectors that are envisioned to benefit the most from AI (in solving societal needs): 

Healthcare: Increased access and affordability of quality healthcare. 

Agriculture: Enhanced farmers’ income, increased farm productivity and reduction of wastage. 

Education: Improved access and quality of education. 

Smart Cities and Infrastructure: Efficient connectivity for the burgeoning urban population. 

Smart Mobility and Transportation: Smarter and safer modes of transportation and better traffic and congestion management.


Which of the following is correct regarding 'Revolt of 1857'?

  • In many places, the rebellion against the British widened into an attack on all those who were seen as allies of the British or local oppressors. Often the rebels deliberately sought to humiliate the elites of a city. Hence option (a) is not correct.

  • In the villages, rebels burnt account books and ransacked money lenders’ houses. During reconquest, in the Gangetic plain, the progress of the British was slow. The forces had to reconquer the area village by village. The countryside and the people around were entirely hostile. As soon as they began their counter-insurgency operations, the British realised that they were not dealing with a mere mutiny but an uprising that had huge popular support. Hence option (b) is not correct.

  • The proclamation that was issued by rebels under the name of Bahadur Shah appealed to the people to join the fight under the standards of both Muhammad and Mahavir. It was remarkable that during the uprising religious divisions between Hindus and Muslim were hardly noticeable despite British attempts to create such divisions.Hence option (c) is correct.

  • Once British rule had collapsed, the rebels in places like Delhi, Lucknow and Kanpur tried to establish some kind of structure of authority and administration. This was, of course, short-lived but the attempts show that the rebel leadership wanted to restore the pre-British world of the eighteenth century. Hence option (d) is not correct.


Consider the following statements regarding

All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC):

Lala Lajpat Rai was its first President.

The union appealed to the workers to refrain from nationalist politics.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • Statement 1 is correct: All India Trade Union Congress was formed in 1920. Lokmanya Tilak was one of the moving spirits in its formation. Lala Lajpat Rai, the famous extremist leader from Punjab became its first President and Dewan Chaman Lal, who was to become a major name in Indian labour movement became its General Secretary.

  • Statement 2 is not correct: The manifesto issued by AITUC to the workers urged them not only to orgnise themselves but also to intervene in nationalist politics. Lala Lajpat Rai was among the first in india to link capitalism with imperialism and emphasize the crucial role of working class in fighting this combination. Similarly, at the second session of AITUC, Dewan Chaman Lal while moving a resolution in favour of Swaraj pointed out that it was to be a Swaraj, not for the capitalists but for the workers.


With reference to the 1931 Karachi session of the Indian National Congress, consider the following statements:

  1. The congress adopted the resolution on National Economic Policy.

  2. Elections on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage was envisioned.

  3. The congress rejected the Gandhi-Irwin pact at this session because of the recent execution of Bhagat Singh and his comrades.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  • Statement 3 is not correct: The Karachi Congress Session 1931 was presided over by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel. It was a special session of Indian National Congress held at Karachi from March 26 to 31 in 1931 to endorse the Gandhi Irwin Pact. Mahatma Gandhi was nominated to represent the Indian National Congress in the Second Round Table Conference. Just 6 days before the Karachi session of congress 1931, the British had executed Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru. So there was widespread anger among the masses for the failure of Gandhi to secure commutation of the death sentence for Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru. When Mahatma Gandhi was on his way to attend the Karachi session of Congress 1931, he was greeted with black flags demonstrations as a protest over the fact that why Gandhi did not refuse to sign the pact over the issue of commutation of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru. The protest was led by Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha. At the Indian National Congress Karachi session in 1931, Congress passed resolution dissociating itself and disapproving the policy of political violence in any form.

  • Statements 1 and 2 are correct: A major point of departure was also the resolution on Fundamental Rights and Economic Policy passed by the Karachi session of the Congress on the urging of Jawaharlal Nehru. The resolution guaranteed the basic civil rights of the people, equality before law irrespective of the caste, creed or sex, elections on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise, and free and compulsory primary education.


The primary objective behind British intervention in Afghanistan was to

  • The British Indian government fought two wars with Afghanistan before its relations with the government of Afghanistan were stabilized. Afghanistan was placed in a crucial position geographically from the British point of view. It could serve as an advanced post outside India’s frontiers for checking Russia’s potential military threat as well as for promoting British commercial interests in Central Asia.

  • If nothing else it could become a convenient buffer between the two hostile powers. The British wanted to weaken and end Russian influence in Afghanistan but they did not want a strong Afghanistan. They wanted to keep her a weak and divided country which they could easily control. Hence option (c) is correct.


Consider the following statements, with reference to the Khilafat Movement:

  1. The movement was led by Muslims in India in 1919-20.

  2. The movement was not supported by the Indian National Congress.

The supporters wanted hegemony of Khalifa over Muslim sacred places in the Ottoman Empire.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

  • Statement 1 is correct: The Khilafat Movement, (1919-1920) was a movement of Indian Muslims, led by Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali.

  • The Khilafat movement in India arose out of the sentiments of the Indian Muslims to protect the institution of the Khalifa in Turkey.

  • The Khalifa in Islamic tradition was considered as the successor to the Prophet Muhammad, religious leader and the custodian and protector of the Muslim holy places.

  • As Turkey was defeated in the First World War, the Allies imposed strict terms on it. Turkey was dismembered and the Khalifa removed from power.

  • Statement 2 is not correct: The Congress supported the movement and Mahatma Gandhi sought to conjoin it to the Non-cooperation Movement.

  • The Muslims in India launched the Khilafat movement to pressurise the British to be lenient and preserve the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire and the institution of Khalifa.

  • In early 1919, a Khilafat Committee was formed under the leadership of the Ali brothers (Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan and HasratMohani.

  • Statement 3 is correct:The demand of supporters was that Turkish Sultan or Khalifa must retain control over the Muslim sacred places in the erstwhile Ottoman empire; the jazirat-ul-Arab (Arabia, Syria, Iraq, Palestine) must remain under Muslim sovereignty; and the Khalifa must be left with sufficient territory to enable him to defend the Islamic faith.

  • The Khilafat may be seen as the attempt on the part of the Indian Muslim leadership to bring their pan- Islamic and Indian nationalist sentiments together.


Which of the following principles were advocated by the Theosophical Society?

  1. Transmigration of soul

  2. Upanishadic teachings

  3. Communicating with God through prayers

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • A group of westerners led by Madame H.P. Blavatsky and Colonel M.S. Olcott, who were inspired by Indian thought and culture, founded the Theosophical Society in New York City, United States in 1875. In 1882, they shifted their headquarters to Adyar, on the outskirts of Madras in India.

  • The society believed that a special relationship could be established between a person’s soul and God by contemplation, prayer, revelation, etc. It accepted the Hindu beliefs in reincarnation, transmigration of soul and karma, and drew inspiration from the philosophy of the Upanishads and samkhya, yoga and Vedanta schools of thought. It aimed to work for universal brotherhood of humanity without distinction of race, creed, sex, caste or colour.

  • The society also sought to investigate the unexplained laws of nature and the powers latent in man. The Theosophical Movement came to be allied with the Hindu renaissance. It opposed child marriage and advocated the abolition of caste discrimination, uplift of outcastes, improvement in the condition of widows.

  • Hence option (d) is the correct answer.


Which of the following provisions was/were part of the Government of India Act, 1935?

  1. Establishment of an All India Federation with autonomy to the provinces.

  2. Right to vote for all persons residing in British India.

  3. Introduction of dyarchy at the central level.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • The provisions of the Government of India Act of 1935 were:

    • The Act provided for the establishment of an All India Federation. A new system of government for the provinces on the basis of provincial autonomy. Hence statement 1 is correct,

    • The federation was to be based on a union of the provinces of British India and the Princely States,

    • The Federal Legislature and six out of eleven Provincial legislature became bicameral,

    • The representatives of the States were not to be elected by the people, but appointed directly by the rulers.

    • Only 14 per cent of the total population in British India was given the right to vote. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

  • Abolition of provincial dyarchy and introduction of dyarchy at centre. Hence statement 3 is correct.

  • Abolition of Indian Council and introduction of an advisory body in its place,

  • Elaborate safeguards and protective instruments for minorities,

  • The supremacy of the British Parliament.

  • Increase in size of legislatures, division of subjects into three lists and retention of the communal electorate.


Consider the following statements about the subsidiary alliance system:

  1. It was invented and first used by Lord William Bentinck.

  2. Subsidiary Alliance policy of Lord Wellesly was influenced by the possibility of Napolean's invasion in South Asia.

  3. 3. Awadh was the first state to enter into a subsidiary alliance with the Britishers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • The Subsidiary Alliance System was “Non-Intervention Policy” used by Lord Wellesley who was the Governor-General (1798-1805) to establish the British Empire in India. According to this system, every ruler in India had to accept to pay a subsidy to the British for the maintenance of the British army. In return, the British would protect them from their enemies which gave British enormous expansion.

  • It was actually used for the first time by the French Governor-General Marquis Dupleix. Hence, statement 1 is not correct.

  • French Threat before Wellesley:

    • When Wellesley took Indian command, the first coalition of European powers against France was shattered & Napoleon Bonaparte had conquered Egypt & Syria and was seriously meditating an invasion of India. In 1798, Napoleon hoped to mass about 1,00,000 (1 Lakh) men on the Euphrates & invade India . Later he signed an alliance with Czar Paul of Russia & drew the plan for the invasion of India. Hence, England was fighting for her existence because the loss of India would mean the ruin of commerce that will follow to the metropole.

    • Tipu Sultan who was enemy of the EIC was in correspondence with the French & the day Wellesley reached India, envoy of Tipu reached back Mangalore from Mauritius bringing with them frigate & some French soldiers & promise of further help. He had planted the flag of Liberty at Seringapatnam & entered into offensive & defensive alliance with French. Tipu was making elaborate preparations for a war with the EIC.

    • Nizam of Hyderabad was deserted by English in 1795 & as a result, he employed French Commandant who raised Corps of 14,000 men with his help. Similarly, Mahadji Scindia employed French to train the Maratha army.

    • Wellesley came to the conclusion that the best way to safeguard India against the hostile designs of Napoleon was to make EIC arbiter of Indian political world & place Indian states beyond the influence of French. He devised Subsidiary Alliance for this and forced Indian states to join it. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

  • Order in which the Indian States entered into Subsidiary Alliances

    • Hyderabad (1798)

  • Mysore (1799 - After Tipu Sultan was defeated in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War)

    • Tanjore (1799)

  • Awadh (1801)

    • Peshwa (Marathas) (1802)

  • Scindia (Marathas) (1803)

  • Hence, statement 3 is not correct.


Consider the following statements regarding ’Downward filtration theory ’ :

  1. It aimed directly to educate the masses and spreading modern ideas among


  1. Wood’s Dispatch favoured the implementation of downward filtration.

Which of the statement given above is/are correct?

  • To make up for the paucity of expenditure on education, the officials had recourse to the so- called "downward filtration theory”. Since the allocated funds could educate only a handful of Indians, it was decided to spend them in educating a few persons from the upper and middle classes who were expected to assume the task of educating the masses and spreading modern ideas among them. Education and modem ideas were thus supposed to filter or radiate downwards from the upper classes. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • The Wood’s Dispatch (the document dispatched from the Court of Directors and popularly named after Sir Charles Wood, President of the Board of Control) of 1854 was another important step in the development of education in India. The Dispatch asked the Government of India to assume responsibility for the education of the masses. It thus repudiated the "downward filtration" theory, at least on paper. In practice, the Government did little to spread education and spent very little on it. Hence statement 2 is not correct.


Consider the following statements regarding Gandhi-Irwin Pact:

It included the immediate release of all political prisoners.

As per the pact, the government recognized the right to peaceful and non- aggressive picketing.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • Statement 1 is not correct: On 25 January 1931, the Viceroy announced the unconditional release of Gandhiji and all the other members of the Congress Working Committee. The fortnight-long discussions culminated on 5 March 1931 in the Gandhilrwin Pact, which was variously described as a Truce’ and a ‘provisional settlement.’ The Pact was signed by Gandhiji on behalf of the Congress and by Lord Irwin on behalf of the Government.

  • The terms of the agreement included the immediate release of only the political prisoners who are not convicted for violence, the remission of all fines not yet collected, the return of confiscated lands not yet sold to third parties, and lenient treatment for those government employees who had resigned.

  • Statement 2 is correct: The Government also conceded the right to make salt for consumption to villages along the coast and also the right to peaceful and non-aggressive picketing. The Congress demand for a public inquiry into police excesses was not accepted, but Gandhiji’s insistent request for an inquiry was recorded in the agreement. The Congress, on its part, agreed to discontinue the Civil Disobedience Movement.


Consider the following statements about freedom of the press in India during the colonial period:

  1. Vernacular Press Act, 1878 was enacted during the period of Lord Ripon.

  2. Charles Metcalfe revoked Licensing Regulation of 1823 and restored the liberties of the Indian press.

  3. The Indian Press Act, 1910 empowered the local government to demand a security deposit from newspapers.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • Vernacular Press Act of 1878: It was proposed by Lytton the then Viceroy of India (1876-80)was also known as Gagging Act and it was meant only for vernacular/ native language newspaper not for English ones. Hence, Statement 1 is not correct.

  • Provisions of the Vernacular Press Act, 1878: District Magistrate was entrusted with the power to call upon the printer and publisher of any Vernacular newspaper to enter into an undertaking with the govt to ensure that they don't publish anything which may incite the public feeling or create disaffection towards the government or that may create enmity based on caste, religion or race.

  • The publisher had to deposit the security and in case of infringement of the provision of the act the security could be forfeited.

  • The decision of the Magistrate in such cases was considered final and no appeal could be made against such action in the court of law.

  • To escape from the provisions of Vernacular Press Act the Amrit Bazar Patrika turned itself into an English Language newspaper from the original Bengali.

  • The entire Vernacular Press Act of 1878 was repealed by Lord Ripon in 1882.

  • Licensing Regulations, 1823: It was enacted by the John Adams. According to this regulation, press without licence was a penal offence. The restriction was directed mainly to Indian language newspapers or those edited by the Indians.

  • Lord Metcalfe repealed the Licensing Regulation of 1823 by John Adams, and therefore, he was called the ’Liberator of India Press’. Hence Statement 2 is correct:

  • The Indian Press Act,1910: This act empowered the local government to demand a security deposit of not less than Rs 500 and not more than Rs 2000 which could be forfeited and it’s registration cancelled owing to the printing of any objectionable material. Hence, statement 3 is correct.

  • However, the aggrieved newspaper could appeal before a special tribunal of the High Court against the forfeiture orders within two months. The Acts of 1908 and 1910 were repealed on the recommendation of the Sapru committee.


Consider the following statements regarding the Tebhaga movement:

  1. It was led by share-croppers of Bengal demanding a reduction in the share of crop proceeds.

  2. The movement merged with the NonCooperation Movement of the 1920s.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • Tebhaga Movement was the sharecroppers’ movement demanding two-thirds of the produce from the land for themselves and one third for the landlords. Tebhaga literally means ’three shares’ of harvests.

  • Traditionally, sharecroppers used to hold their tenancy on a fifty-fifty basis of the share of the produce. In late 1946, the share-croppers of Bengal began to assert that they would no longer pay a half share of their crop to the jotedars but only one-third and that before division the crop would be stored in their khamar (godowns) and not that of the jotedars. Hence statement 1 is correct and statement 2 is not correct.

  • The tebhaga movement, led by the Bengal Provincial Kisan Sabha, soon developed into a clash between jotedars and bargadars with the bargadars insisting on storing the crop in their own khamars.

  • The movement received a great boost in late January 1947 when the Muslim League Ministry led by Suhrawardy published the Bengal Bargadars Temporary Regulation Bill in the Calcutta Gazette on 22 January 1947. Encouraged by the fact that the demand for tebhaga could no longer be called illegal, peasants in hitherto untouched villages and areas joined the struggle.

  • The Muslim League Ministry failed to pursue the bill in the Assembly and it was only in 1950 that the Congress Ministry passed a Bargadars Bill which incorporated, in substance, the demands of the movement.


Which of the following events occurred during the viceroyalty of Lytton?

  1. Introduction of Ilbert bill

  2. Imperial Durbar was held in Delhi for the first time

  3. Introduction of Arms Act

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • Lytton served as Viceroy of India between 1876 and 1880. His tenure was controversial for its ruthlessness in both domestic and foreign affairs.

  • Ilbert bill: The Ilbert Bill was a bill introduced in 1883 during the Viceroyship of the Marquess of Ripon. Lord Ripon’s Government had sought to abolish “judicial disqualification based on race distinctions” and to give the Indian members of the covenanted civil service the same powers and rights as those enjoyed by their European colleagues. Ripon had to modify the bill, thus almost defeating the original purpose, because of the stiff opposition from the European community.

  • Imperial Durbar: The Delhi Durbar was an Indian imperial style mass assembly organised by the British in Delhi to mark the succession of an Emperor or Empress of India. Also known as the Imperial Durbar, it was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911. The first Delhi Durbar of 1877 was held during viceroyalty of Lytton when the country was in the severe grip of famine.

  • The Arms Act of 1878: It was enacted in 1878 during the time of Lord Lytton. This act preveneted Indians to keep arms without license and doing so was a criminal offence. However the Europeans and Anglo Indians were exempted from the restrictions.

  • Hence option c is the correct answer.

  • Other events:

    • Famine of 1876-78 affecting Madras, Bombay, Mysore, Hyderabad, parts of central India and Punjab; appointment of Famine Commission under the presidency of Richard Strachey (1878).

    • Queen Victoria assuming the title of ‘Kaiser-i-Hind’ or Queen Empress oflndia. o The Vernacular Press Act (1878).

    • The Second Afghan War (1878-80).

    • In 1878, the Government announced new regulations reducing the maximum age limit for sitting in the Indian Civil Service examination from 21 years to 19.


Which of the following was/were included in the demands of Moderates during 1885 - 1905?

  1. Reduction in military expenditure

  2. Separation of Judiciary from Executive

  3. Promotion of social reforms for the welfare of particular sections

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • Major objective of the early Congress was to create a common political platform or programme around which political workers in different parts of the country could gather and Conduct their political activities, educating and mobilizing people on an all-India basis. For the same reason the Congress was not to take up questions of social reform. At its second session, the President of the Congress, Dadabhai Naoroji, laid down this rule and said that ‘A National Congress must confine itself to questions in which the entire nation has a direct participation.

  • Contributions of Moderate Nationalists:

    • Economic critique of British imperialism: The early nationalists, led by Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha and others, carefully analysed the political economy of British rule in India, and put forward the “drain theory” to explain British exploitation of India. The early nationalists demanded reduction in land revenue, abolition of salt tax, improvement in working conditions of plantation labour, reduction in military expenditure, and encouragement to modern industry through tariff protection and direct government aid.

    • Constitutional reforms and propaganda in legislature: From 1885 to 1892, the nationalist demands for constitutional reforms were centred around expansion and reform of councils.

    • Campaign for general administrative reforms: It includes Indianisation of government service, call for separation of judicial from executive functions, criticism of an aggressive foreign policy which resulted in annexation of Burma, attack on Afghanistan etc.

    • Defence of civil rights: Through an incessant campaign, the nationalists were able to spread modern democratic ideas, and soon the defence of civil rights became an integral part of the freedom struggle.

  • Hence option a is the correct answer.


Consider the following statements regarding the Lahore Session of Indian National Congress in 1929:

  1. The session was presided by Motilal Nehru.

  2. Resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj as the objective of the Congress was passed.

  3. A new tri-colour flag of freedom was adopted.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

  • Statement 1 is not correct: Gandhi came back to active politics and attended the Calcutta session of Congress in December 1928. He now began to consolidate the nationalist ranks. The first step was to reconcile the left-wing of the Congress. Jawaharlal Nehru was made the President at the historic session of Lahore in 1929.

  • Statement 2 is correct: The Lahore session of the Congress gave voice to the new, revolutionary spirit. It passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence) to be the Congress objective.

  • On December 1929 was hoisted the newly adopted tri-colour flag of freedom. 26 January 1930 was fixed as the first independence Day, which was to be celebrated every year with the people taking the pledge that it was “a crime against man and God to submit any longer” to the British rule. The Congress session also announced the launching of Civil Disobedience Movement. Hence Statement 3 is correct.


Which of the following were features of the Indian Councils Act of 1909?

  1. It increased the number of elected members in the provincial legislative councils.

  2. It introduced the concept of the separate electorate in the Indian political system.

  3. It permitted voting on separate budget items as well as on budget as a whole.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.


The viceroy, Lord Minto, and the Secretary of State for India, John Morley, agreed that some reforms were due so as to placate the Moderates as well as the Muslims. They worked out a set of measures that came to be known as the Morley-Minto (or Minto-Morley) Reforms that translated into the Indian Councils Act of 1909.


Consider the following statements regarding 'Ryotwari Settlement':

  1. It was majorly confined to the southern and south-western part of India.

  2. It brought a stable system of peasant ownership into existence.

  3. Revenue demand was revised periodically after 20 to 30 years in this system.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • The establishment of British rule in South and South-Western India brought new problems of land settlement. The officials believed that in these regions there were no zamindars with large estates with whom settlement of land revenue could be made and that the introduction of the zamindari system would upset the existing state of affairs. Many Madras officials led by Reid and Munro recommended that settlement should, therefore, be made directly with the actual cultivators. Hence statement 1 is correct.

  • They also pointed out that under the Permanent Settlement the Company was a financial loser as it had to share the revenues with the zamindars and could not claim a share of the growth in income from land. Moreover, the cultivator was left at the mercy of the zamindar who could oppress him at will.

  • The Ryotwari Settlement was at the end introduced in parts of the Madras and Bombay Presidencies at the beginning of the 19th century. The settlement under the Ryotwari system was not made permanent. It was revised -periodically after 20 to 30 years when the revenue demand was usually raised. Hence statement 3 is correct.

  • The Ryotwari Settlement did not bring into existence a system of peasant ownership. The peasant soon discovered that a large number of zamindars had been replaced by one giant zamindar the state and that they were mere government tenants whose land was sold if they failed to punctually pay land revenue. In fact, the Government later openly claimed that land revenue was rent and not a tax. The ryot's rights or ownership of his land were also negated by three other factors:

    • In most areas the land revenue fixed was exorbitant; the ryot was hardly left with bare maintenance even in the best of seasons. For instance, in Madras, the Government claim was fixed as high as 45 to 55 per cent of gross production in the settlement. The situation was nearly as bad in Bombay. o The Government retained the right to enhance land revenue at will.

    • The ryot had to pay revenue even when his produce was partially or wholly destroyed by drought or floods. Hence statement 2 is not correct.


Which of the following were introduced in the Indian political system by the

Government of India Act, 1919, popularly known as the Montagu-Chelmsford reforms?

  1. Dyarchy at the level of the provincial government.

  2. Bicameral legislature at the level of Central government.

  3. Ordinance issuing powers to the Viceroy.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • In 1918, Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State, and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, produced their scheme of constitutional reforms which led to the enactment of the Government of India Act of 1919. The features of the act re:

    • The Provincial Legislative Assemblies were enlarged and the majority of their members were to be elected.

  • The provincial governments were given more powers under the system of Dyarchy. Under this system some subjects, such as finance and law and order, were called 'reserved' subjects and remained under the direct control of the Governor; others such as education, public health, and local selfgovernment, were called 'transferred' subjects and were to be controlled by ministers responsible to the legislatures. This also meant that while some of the spending departments were transferred, the Governor retained complete control over the finances. The Governor could, moreover, overrule the ministers on any grounds that he considered special. Hence option 1 is correct,

  • At the center, the bicameral legislature was introduced. There were two houses of the legislature, the lower house, the Legislative Assembly, was to have 41 nominated members in a total strength of 144. The upper house, the Council of State, was to have 26 nominated and 34 elected members. Hence option 2 is correct.

  • The legislature had virtually no control over the Governor-General and his Executive Council. On the other hand, the Central Government had unrestricted control over the provincial governments.

  • The ordinance issuing powers was introduced in the Indian Councils Act of 1861 which empowered the Viceroy (head of state as called then) to issue ordinances, without the concurrence of the legislative council, during an emergency. Hence option 3 is not correct.


Consider the following leaders of the Indian National Movement:

  1. M.N.Roy

  2. Achary a N arendra Dev

  3. Jayprakash Narayan

  4. Minoo Masani

Who among the leaders mentioned above were the founders of the Congress Socialist Party (CSP)?

  • Option (b) is correct: The move towards the formation of a socialist party was made in the jails during 1930-31 and 1932-34 by a group of young Congressmen who were disenchanted with Gandhian strategy and leadership and attracted by socialist ideology. Many of them were active in the youth movement of the late 1920s. In the jails they studied and discussed Marxian and other socialist ideas.

  • Attracted by Marxism, communism and Soviet Union, they did not find themselves in agreement with the prevalent political line of the CPI. Many of them were groping towards an alternative. Ultimately they came together and formed the Congress Socialist Party (CSP) at Bombay in October 1934 under the leadership of Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Minoo Masani.

  • From the beginning, all the Congress socialists were agreed upon following basic propositions: that the primary struggle in India was the national struggle for freedom and that nationalism was a necessary stage on the way to socialism; that socialists must work inside the National Congress because it was the primary body leading the national struggle.


Consider the following pairs:

Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?


All the pairs are correctly matched: A powerful left-wing group developed in India in the late 1920s and 1930s contributing to the radicalization of the national movement. Socialist ideas acquired roots in the Indian soil, and socialism became the accepted creed of Indian youth whose urges came to be symbolized by Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose.