One litre of water occupies a volume of
1000 litre=1 m3=1,000,000 cm3,
So 1 litre=1,000,000/1,000=1000cm3.
The value of bulk modulus of a fluid is required to determine
Alternatively, the Mach Number can be expressed with the density and the bulk modulus for elasticity as,
M = v (ρ/ E)1/2
The bulk modulus elasticity has the dimension pressure and is commonly used to characterize the fluid compressibility.
In a depressed nappe
This air is carried away by the flowing water, which results in creating a negative pressure beneath the nappe. The negative pressure drags the lower side of the nappe towards the surface of the weir wall. This results in more discharge than the normal discharge. In order the keep the atmospheric pressure in the space below the nappe holes are made through the channel walls which are connected through the pipes to the atmosphere as shown in figure. Such holes are called 'Ventilation' of a weir.
In one dimensional flow, the flow
For one dimensional flow, the velocity is the function of single coordinate (i.e) u= f(x).
Let u be the velocity.
The function u = f(x) is the straight line.
Therefore one dimensional flow is the straight line flow.
The kinematic viscosity is the
The diameter of the nozzle (d) for maximum transmission of power is given by (where D = Diameter of pipe, f = Darcy 's coefficient of friction for pipe, and l = Length of pipe )
The discharge over a right angled notch is (where H = Height of liquid above the apex of notch)
A weir is said to be broad crested weir, if the width of the crest of the weir is __________ half the height of water above the weir crest.
An error of 1% in measuring head over the apex of the notch (H) will produce an error of __________ in discharge over a triangular notch.
The length AB of a pipe ABC in which the liquid is flowing has diameter (d1) and velocity v1 THe pipe is suddenly enlarged to diameter (d2) at B and velocity reduced to v2 which is constant for the length BC. The loss of head due to sudden enlargement is
Coefficient of contraction is the ratio of
In a free nappe,
The Reynold's number of a ship is __________ to its velocity and length.
When a tube of smaller diameter is dipped in water, the water rises in the tube due to viscosity of water.
It is due to the capillary action in which the water rises in the tube due more adhesive force betwwen the tube surface and water tham the water-water cohesive force
The discharge over a rectangular notch is (where b = Width of notch, and H = Height of liquid, above the sill of the notch)
The discharge through a siphon spillway is
The maximum discharge over a broad crested weir is
Actual Formula for Discharge for broad crested weir is Q = Cd (g)0.5 b2/3 H3/2
For MaximumDischarge = (9.81)1/2 (2/3)3/2 = 1.7048~1.71(approx).
In a venturimeter, the velocity of liquid at throat is __________ than at inlet.
Discharge stands for Q=A*V.
As water enters through inlet, it has larger area in comparison to "throat" of venturimeter. Water entered is assumed to have zero losses in pipe and venturimeter so, discharge at inlet should be equal to discharge outlet. As discharge is same throughout pipe and venturimeter and area of throat is lesser than inlet & outlet both, its velocity will be higher at throat than at inlet & outlet both( Q= const. so Velocity is inversely proportional to Area).
The loss of head due to friction in a pipe of uniform diameter in which a viscous laminar flow is taking place, then coefficient of friction is (where RN = Reynold number)
Coefficient of friction= Friction Factor/4
Darcy Weisbach friction factor for laminar flow = 64/Rn
Coefficient of friction= 16/Rn
Which of the following is an example of laminar flow?
The pressure less than atmospheric pressure is known as
The total energy line lies over the hydraulic gradient line by an amount equal to the
A structure whose width is __________ the width of the channel, is called a flumed structure.
The maximum efficiency of transmission through a pipe is
The hydraulic power can be transmitted by a pipeline. For a maximum power transmission, the head due to friction in the flow equals to one third of the head at source to be transmitted. The maximum power transmitted efficiency is 67%.
The coefficient of viscosity may be determined by