Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017)


30 Questions MCQ Test Science & Technology for UPSC CSE | Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017)


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This mock test of Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017) for UPSC helps you for every UPSC entrance exam. This contains 30 Multiple Choice Questions for UPSC Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017) (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017) quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. UPSC students definitely take this Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017) exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Issues On Environment/ Ecology, Biodiversity & Climate Change - 1 (2019 - 2017) extra questions, long questions & short questions for UPSC on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements: 
1. Agricultural soils release nitrogen oxides into environment.
2. Cattle release ammonia into environment.
3. Poultry industry release reactive nitrogen compounds into environment.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2019]

Solution:

2018-June, TheHindu

  • Agricultural soils contributed to over 70% of N2O emissions from India in 2010
  • Cattle account for 80% of the ammonia production

Poultry industry recorded an excretion of reactive nitrogen compounds of 0.415 tonnes in 2016. So D: all 3 statements are correct.

*Multiple options can be correct
QUESTION: 2

Consider the following:
1. Carbon monoxide
2. Methane
3. Ozone
4. Sulphur dioxide
Which of the above are released into the atmosphere due to the burning of crop/biomass residue?

[2019]

Solution:

As per google scholar research papers, Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, non-methane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide.
These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone.  So, answer should be D: 1, 2,3 and 4.

QUESTION: 3

Why is there a great concern about the microbeads that are released into environment?

[2019]

Solution:

Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has classified microbeads as “unsafe” for use in cosmetic products. NGT had earlier directed the Centre to test cosmetic products containing microbeads after a plea sought ban on their use on the ground they are extremely dangerous for aquatic life and environment. So, A is the closest answer.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following pairs: 

Which one of the pair given above are correctly matched?

[2019]

Solution:
  • Gangetic river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is found in Chambal river, says TimesofIndia.
  • Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) is a different species. It’s found in Chilika lagoon and salt-water estuaries of Odisha, says IndiaToday. So, #2 is wrong, by elimination we are left with Answer C.
QUESTION: 5

Which one of the following are Agasthyamala biosphere reserve?

[2019]

Solution:

Agasthyamalai biosphere consists of Neyyar, Peppara and  Shendurney Wildlife sanctuaries and their adjoining areas. So, A is the closest match.

QUESTION: 6

In the context of which of the following do some scientists suggest the use of cirrus cloud thinning technique and the injection of sulphate aerosol into stratosphere?

[2019]

Solution:

Sulphate aerosol particles are very good reflectors of sunlight, and it has been shown, through various climate models, that even if 1% of current incident solar radiation is reflected back in space, a very significant amount of temperature rise on earth can be offset. So, D is the closest match.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements:
1. Asiatic lion naturally found in India only
2. Double-humped camel is naturally found in India only
3. One-horned rhinoceros is naturally found in India only
Which one of the statement given above is/are correct?

[2019]

Solution:

Two humped camel are called Bactrian camel, found in Central Asia’s cold deserts. So, B and D removed.
Javan rhinoceros is called lesser one-horned rhinoceros and found only on the island of Java in Indonesia. Indian rhinoceros is called greater one-horned rhinoceros. So that means second statement is false, we are left with Answer A: 1 only.

QUESTION: 8

Which one of the following national parks lies completely in the Temperate alpine zone?

[2019]

Solution:

From the given options, Valley of flowers is completely in the temperate zone.

QUESTION: 9

"Momentum for Change : Climate Neutral Now" is an initiative launched by

[2018]

Solution:

UNFCCC secretariat launched its Climate Neutral Now initiative in 2015. The following year, the secretariat launched a new pillar under its Momentum for Change initiative focused on Climate Neutral Now, as part of larger efforts to showcase successful climate action around the world

QUESTION: 10

The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), a UN mechanism to assist countries transition towards greener and more inclusive economies, emerged at

[2018]

Solution:

In 2012, Rio+20 (the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development) was held in Brazil….Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE) was launched in 2013 as a response to the call at Rio+20 to support those countries wishing to embark on greener and more inclusive growth trajectories.

QUESTION: 11

In which one of the following States is Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary located?

[2018]

Solution:

"Pakhui / Pakke Tiger reserve" is in Arunachal Pradesh, so if there is a wildlife sanctuary in Pakhui, it should be in "A" for Arunachal Pradesh.

QUESTION: 12

Consider the following statements:
1. The definition of "Critical Wildlife Habitat" is incorporated in the Forest Rights Act, 2006.
2. For the first time in India, Baigas have been given Habitat Rights.
3. Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change officially decides and declares Habitat Rights for Primitive and Vulnerable Tribal Groups in any part of India
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2018]

Solution:
  • Baigas are considered as a particularly vulnerable tribal group (PVTG) in the Indian Constitution and rely mostly on shifting cultivation, forest produce and fishing for sustenance, spread over forested areas of Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. In 2016, they became India's first community to get habitat rights. So, #2 is right.
  • Under FRA Act, district level Committees have to adjudicate the rights, whereas Tribal ministry only issues guidelines. That makes #3 wrong / irrelevant. By elimination, we are left with answer A: only 1 and 2.
QUESTION: 13

How is the National Green Tribunal (NGT) different from the Central Pollution Control Board
1. The NGT has been established by an Act whereas the CPCB has been created by an executive order of the Government.
2. The NGT provides environmental justice and helps reduce the burden of litigation in the higher courts whereas the CPCB promotes cleanliness of streams and wells, and aims to improve the quality of air in the country.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct:

[2018]

Solution:
  • Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), is statutory organization, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974. So #1 is wrong.
  • Principal functions of the CPCB, as spelt out in the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, (i) to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas. So last part of sentence #2 is right.
  • Environment: National Green Tribunal (NGT) was set up in 2010 under the NGT Act, 2010, for the purpose of effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection. The Tribunal shall not be bound by the procedure laid down under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, but shall be guided by principles of natural justice. The Tribunal is mandated to make an endeavor for disposal of applications or appeals finally within 6 months of filing. So first part of sentence #2 is right.
QUESTION: 14

The term "sixth mass extinction/sixth extinction" is often mentioned in the news in the context of the discussion of

[2018]

Solution:

Scientists are suggesting that the sixth mass extinction is underway as there is a species loss of 100-1000 every year. The normal background extinction rate is about 10-25 species per year. Habitat loss, overpopulation of humans, pollution, over-harvesting and invasive species invasion are cited as the main reasons.

QUESTION: 15

Which of the following statements best describes "carbon fertilization"?

[2018]

Solution:

Studies have shown that increased concentrations of carbon dioxide increase photosynthesis, spurring plant growth…Results showed that carbon dioxide fertilization explains 70 percent of the greening effect. [NASA 2016]

QUESTION: 16

Why is a plant called Prosopis juliflora often mentioned in news?

[2018]

Solution:

This plant is a native of Mexico, and spread throughout India It's an aggressive colonizer, common weed of wastelands, scrublands and degraded forests. Since it's mention under the head of invasive alien species so it'd reduce biodiversity in the area, Hence Option (B)

QUESTION: 17

Consider the following statements: 
1. Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) to reduce Short Lived Climate Pollutants is a unique initiative of G20 group of countries.
2. The CCAC focuses on methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

[2017]

Solution:

As per the timeline given on their official "About us" page: CCAC was formed in 2012 by UNEP and Ghana, Bangladesh etc. countries. So first statement is wrong.Second statement is right- they focus on Short Lived Climate Pollutants such as methane, black carbon and hydrofluorocarbons.

QUESTION: 18

With reference to 'Global Climate Change Alliance', which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It is an initiative of the European Union.
2. It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.
3. It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

As per their organizations' "About us" page: EuropeAid (DG for International Cooperation and Development) drives and oversees the overall implementation of the GCCA. So third statement is wrong. By elimination we are left with "A".

QUESTION: 19

It is possible to produce algae based biofuels, but what is/are the likely limitations of developing countries in promoting this industry?
1. Production of algae based biofuels is possible in seas only and not on continents.
2. Setting up and engineering the algae based biofuel production requires high level of expertise/ technology until the construction is completed.
3. Economically viable production necessitates the setting up of large scale facilities which may raise ecological and social concerns.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

US National Research Council report on Algal Biofuel (2012) observed that
1. Algae and cyanobacteria biomass production in the U.S. desert Southwest could be perceived as a good use of low-value land by some, but as an intrusion into pristine land by others. Similarly, the use of genetically modified organisms in production systems could affect social acceptability. So this is social concern. [and it also proves statement #1 wrong.]
2. Open Algal ponds will attract insect larvae invasion and affect predator-prey balance. This is ecological concern. Hence Statement 3 is right.
3. And the report discussed challenges production and technology. Hence answer 2 and 3.

QUESTION: 20

In the context of mitigating the impending global warming due to anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, which of the following can be the potential sites for carbon sequestration?
1. Abandoned and uneconomic coal seams
2. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs
3. Subterranean deep saline formations
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

Carbon sequestration may be carried out by pumping carbon into carbon sinks of two types:
A. Natural sinks- ocean, forest, soil etc.
B. Artificial sink- depleted oil reserve, unminable mines.
So statement 1 and 2 are correct.
And deep Saline Formations in fact have highest capacity for this. So accordingly, answer is "D".

QUESTION: 21

In the context of solving pollution problems, what is/are the advantage/advantages of bioremediation technique?
1. It is a technique for cleaning up pollution by enhancing the same biodegradation process that occurs in nature.
2. Any contaminant with heavy metals such as cadmium and lead can be readily and completely treated by bioremediation using micro-organisms.
3. Genetic engineering can be used to create microorganisms specifically designed for bioremediation.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

Biosparging is an in-Situ Bioremediation techniques in which we inject the air under pressure below the water table to enhance the rate of biological degradation of contaminants by naturally occurring bacteria. Hence statement 1 is right. In Google Scholar search engine is filled with academic papers on genetic engineering approaches to bioremediation. Hence 3 is also right. But not all compounds are susceptible to rapid and complete biodegradation, and bioremediation often takes longer time than other treatment processes. So, second statement unlikely to be correct. Hence, answer "C" 1 and 3 only.

QUESTION: 22

Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a standard criterion for

[2017]

Solution:

The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to break down the organic matter present in a certain volume of a sample of water, is called Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). The amount of BOD in the water is a measure of the amount of organic material in the water, in terms of how much oxygen will be required to break it down biologically. Clean water would have BOD value of less than 5 ppm whereas highly polluted water could have a BOD value of 17 ppm or more.

QUESTION: 23

Due to some reasons, if there is a huge fall in the population of species of butterflies, what could be its likely consequence/consequences?
1. Pollination of some plants could be adversely affected.
2. There could be a drastic increase in the fungal infections of some cultivated plants.
3. It could lead to a fall in the population of some species of wasps, spiders and birds.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

Statement 1 is right (by common knowledge) but for the sake of reference- NCERT Class 12 biology page 30!
This eliminates "B". Second statement should be wrong because of the extreme word "drastic". This eliminates "D". Besides I'm unable to find any specific reference that mentions linkage between butterfly population vs fungus infection. Birds and spiders tend to prey on butterflies (by common knowledge) so statement 3 is a possible outcome.
Hence answer "C": 1 and 3 only.

QUESTION: 24

Consider the following statements in respect of Trade Related Analysis of Fauna and Flora in Commerce (TRAFFIC): 
1. TRAFFIC is a bureau under United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).
2. The mission of TRAFFIC is to ensure that trade in wild plants and animals is not a threat to the conservation of nature.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?

[2017]

Solution:

First statement is wrong because TRAFFIC is joint program of WWF and IUCN and Second statement is correct because verbatim given in the organization's official page.

QUESTION: 25

From the ecological point of view, which one of the following assumes importance in being a good link between the Eastern Ghats and the Western Ghats?

[2017]

Solution:

NCERT Class 11: India- Physical Geography.
A. Page 17: The Eastern and Western Ghats Meet at Nilgiri hills.
B. Page 16: Nilgiri hills are in Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
Now, If there is a place serving as Ecological link between Eastern and Western Ghats, then most likely it ought to be in Tamil Nadu, than in Karnataka, because of the location. "A" is the most fitting answer because it's located in Tamil Nadu.

QUESTION: 26

If you want to see gharials in their natural habitat, which one of the following is the best place to visit?

[2017]

Solution:

Gharials are river dwelling fish-eaters and their only viable population is in the Chambal Sanctuary. So "B" should be the answer.

QUESTION: 27

According to the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which of the following animals cannot be hunted by any person except under some provisions provided by law?
1. Gharial
2. Indian wild ass
3. Wild buffalo
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

[2017]

Solution:

The schedule 5 vermin- crow, fruitbat, mice and rat can be killed. Since the animals given in above MCQ are outside that list hence answer is "D".

QUESTION: 28

In India, if a species of tortoise is declared protected under Schedule I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, what does it imply?

[2017]

Solution:

Tiger is given as Schedule I animal. So "A" is correct.

QUESTION: 29

Recently there was a proposal to translocate some of the lions from their natural habitat in Gujarat to which one of the following sites?

[2017]

Solution:

Even if you eliminate Corbett (Uttrakhand) and Mudumalai (Tamil Nadu) for climatic reasons for Lion relocation, still you're left with Sariska (Rajasthan). Sariska being a tiger reserve, would sound unfit for lion immigration. So by elimination answer would be "B". and Indianexpress report confirm it.

QUESTION: 30

The term M-STRIPES' is sometimes seen in the news in the context of

[2017]

Solution:

National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) is planning to implement a new computerized tiger monitoring protocol in all tiger reserves of the country known as Monitoring System for Tiger, Intensive Patrolling and Ecological Status (MSTrIPES).