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# Test: Logical Completes

## 15 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Logical Completes

Description
This mock test of Test: Logical Completes for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 15 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Logical Completes (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Logical Completes quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Logical Completes exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Logical Completes extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

### Animals eat a wide variety of food, sometimes taking a relatively large amount of time in handling the prey, an activity that includes capturing, killing, eating and digesting the food, and sometimes a relatively short amount of time. Probably, the reason behind such behavior is that animals make feeding choices based on the goal to maximize their net energy intake per unit time, leaving them with more time and energy for other important activities such as finding a mate or caring for an offspring; for instance, __________________________ Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the above argument?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question stem asks us to logically complete the given passage. Just before the missing portion, the author offers an explanation for the cited behavior observed in animals. It is to expand on this explanation that the author begins to cite an example which has been omitted from the passage. Hence, the missing portion will act as a premise for the cited conclusion. Accordingly, let’s see how we can increase our belief in the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion. The way to strengthen the conclusion will be to provide a piece of evidence that strengthens this linkage.

Strengthener – Any reason that shows foraging behavior in animals that confirms the proposed hypothesis.

• Instance: Animals obtain small amount of energy in short period of time and large amount of energy in comparatively larger period of time.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

some species of insects are ultimate feeding specialists, feeding only on a single plant species, whereas certain animals such as the opossum eat everything from insects and berries to garbage.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option provides instances that highlight the different foraging behavior in different animals. However, this does not explain how the net energy intake is maximized per unit time.

B

using their biological reaction to a certain food item as a guide, some animals sometimes make the decision to avoid a particular prey altogether.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option only talks about the foraging behavior in certain cases but does not help establish how the net energy per unit time is maximized.

C

animals spend more time on handling  food items that provide more kilocalories, and less on food that provides relatively fewer kilocalories.

Correct

This option is written as per the instance given in our pre-thinking. It shows how animals obtain maximize net energy obtained by balancing the time invested in handling the prey.

D

under the risk of predation, animals sometimes select such preys that may not be their first choice but that are safer to consume as these preys lie in relatively predator free regions.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about a different reason behind a different kind of foraging behavior displayed by animals and is, hence, irrelevant to the proposed explanation.

E

the foraging behavior of animals is determined by the phenomenon of natural selection in which certain biological traits become either more or less common as a species goes through the process of evolution.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Like choice D, this choice too talks about a different explanation and is hence not relevant to the argument at hand.

QUESTION: 2

### It is often argued that the traditional newspaper has little relevance in today’s world as people no longer prefer to consume the news in a linear fashion; they prefer to pick and choose which stories they want to read, a choice that they can exercise freely on the online news portals. However, while it may be relatively easier to choose and reject stories in the digital version, news-consumption from the traditional newspaper any day contributes more to enhancing the consumers’ general awareness as__________________________________ Which of the following, if true, logically completes the above passage?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

Compared to ONPs, TN contributes more to enhancing the GA of consumers.

Pre-Thinking Approach

We need to find a statement which can highlight a significant difference between TNs and ONPs and thereby provide support for the conclusion. For this, we’ll look at conditions where linkage 1 makes logical sense.

• Support 1: When people pick stories to read, they only choose the ones they like. In this case, they might read fewer topics than what they would otherwise go through if they were reading a TN.  If this were true, the conclusion that NC from TN enhances GA more will be justified.
• Support 2: Stories on all topics aren’t equally visible on ONPs; there could be some topics which are buried deep on the website and readers might not come across them easily. In this case too, they might read fewer topics than what they would otherwise go through if they were reading a TN.  If this were true, the conclusion that NC from TN enhances GA more will be justified.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

the probability of reading stories on topics that one may not normally take notice of is lower while consuming the news from an online portal than from a traditional newspaper.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Linkage #1, Support 2. The probability is lower means that it is less likely that a consumer would read such stories.

B

various studies have shown that people who prefer reading e-books have a shorter focus span than people who prefer to read books on paper.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The argument is not concerned with comparing all digital media v/s traditional media. Secondly, the contents of books in either form are the same.

C

the traditional newspaper too has sections such as the editorial, sports etc. in which people can easily select the stories they want to read.

Incorrect - Opposite

This option talks of topic selection, whereas we need to provide support for a conclusion that deals with general awareness. Also, the conclusion clearly states that TNs are better than ONPs in a particular context. This choice, however, pitches TNs as comparable to ONPs.

D

various tabloid newspaper now design their papers in a fashion similar to how readers would like to consume news on the online portals.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The conclusion clearly states that TNs supersede ONPs in a particular aspect; however, this choice, like choice D, tries to pitch the TN as comparable to ONP. Furthermore, this comparison only talks about tabloid newspapers, not all TNs. So it is not enough to affect the conclusion.

E

traditional newspapers have more articles on sections such as economics, politics, science etc.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This is not relevant as we don’t know how more articles on certain topics are related to enhancing GA. Also, more articles does not necessarily mean more knowledge. The content of an article is equally important.

QUESTION: 3

### A recently published paper concludes that tenured professors or those on their way to tenure do not enhance student learning as much as lecturers outside the tenure system do.  The researchers found that students taught by instructors outside the tenure system are more likely to take another class in the same subject and to receive better grades in the subsequent class than those who have been taught by tenured or tenure-track professors. However, this information does not demonstrate that non-tenured professors are more successful in keeping the student interest high in the taught subject as _____________Which of the following, if true, best completes the passage?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The conclusion is that the given information doesn’t show that the NTP are more successful than the TP in keeping the student interest high in the taught subject. The reasoning for this conclusion is omitted from the passage.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Our job in this question is to provide the missing reasoning for the conclusion, which will work as a strengthener or premise for the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage1. The way to strengthen the conclusion will be to cast a doubt on the link established by the published paper in terms of the contribution of the NTP to the performance of the students.

Strengthener – There is some other factor, other than the ability of the non-tenured professors, which is primarily responsible for S-NTP’s taking another class in the same subject and getting relatively better grades in the subsequent class.

• Instance1: What if the S-NTP were given higher quality resources such as advanced material and access to exclusive educational videos?
• Instance2: What if the students are taught only the entry level classes by the NTP and it is a must to take an advanced/subsequent class in such subjects?

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

tenured professors usually have far more extensive experience in research than do non-tenured professors.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

As there is no stated or implied link between research and teaching ability, the experience in research does not add anything to the author’s argument.

B

the more the number of hours taught by non-tenured and tenure-track professors, the better are their chances to be offered a tenured position.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The positive correlation between the number of hours taught and chances to be offered a tenured position does not give a reason to believe that non-tenured professors may not be more successful in keeping the student interest high.

C

both tenured and non-tenured professors have equal access to resources such as research papers, field specific books etc.

Incorrect - Opposite

If anything, this choice works in the opposite direction by suggesting that both kinds of professors have a common element. i.e. equal access to resources.

D

non-tenured professors are normally fresh graduates from colleges and are hence able to build a better rapport with their students.

Incorrect - Opposite

At best, if we consider that better rapport may help non-tenured professors to keep the student’s interest high in the taught subject, it may weaken the argument.

E

The introductory level classes in a subject for which students have to take mandatory advanced classes are normally assigned to the non-tenured professors.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking instance 2. This suggests that something else could be responsible for the observed difference in students’ taking subsequent classes in the same subject.

QUESTION: 4

During the last ten years, technological tools for educational purposes have seen considerable development, with many universities now offering an equal number of online courses as well as traditional classroom courses. However, access to online courses is usually limited to students living in urban areas who have access to high-speed internet facilities. Consequently, students living outside urban areas are unlikely to be able to access such courses. Nevertheless, universities are likely to continue to increase the number of online courses they offer, because ___________________

Which of the following best completes the argument above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion clarification:

The conclusion says that the universities are likely to continue to increase the number of online courses they offer. The conclusion is drawn despite the information that access to online courses is usually limited to students living in UA and students living OUA are unlikely to be able to access such courses.

Pre-Thinking Approach:

Our job in this question is to provide the missing reasoning for the conclusion, which will work as a strengthener or premise for the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure of the argument. We see that the author of the argument draws a conclusion that runs counter to the given premise. Hence, we need to find a piece of evidence that supports the conclusion despite the given counter-premise.

• Strengthener1 - Provide additional evidence that supports universities’ decision.
• Instance 1: What if there is an increase in demand for online courses among students living in urban areas? In such a case it’s reasonable that universities are likely to continue to increase the number of online courses they offer.
• Instance 2: What if the rural development ministry has recently announced an initiative to provide high speed internet connection to a large number of areas OUA?

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

the number of students living in rural areas is likely to double in the next five years.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

An increase in the number of students in rural areas—i.e. students who do not have access to the online courses—is irrelevant to the argument.

B

the number of students enrolling for regular classroom courses has been decreasing steadily.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

No information is given to establish any relation between the number of students enrolling in regular programs and the number of those enrolling in online programs.

C

the education ministry is planning to launch a promotional campaign for online courses.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Neither the argument nor the answer choice gives us enough information to establish a link between the ad campaign and an increase in demand for such courses.

D

Demand for online courses is on the increase in urban areas.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking instance 1.

E

Most of the available online courses offer visual interaction with teachers through video-conferencing, a feature appreciated by many students.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Irrespective of the features of the courses, the argument tells us that only urban students are usually able to access them.

QUESTION: 5

A recent study shows that teenagers participating in after school creative activities such as music and painting are more likely to show symptoms of depression than teenagers who do not engage in such activities. It was also observed that teenagers who participated exclusively in sports showed the least signs of depression. Although one cannot conclude from these results that depression is caused merely by participating in creative activities, there is definitely a correlation between depression and engagement in such activities as the study also showed that _____________________________________________________________________________

Which of the following statements most logically completes the above passage?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author concludes that even though concluding that one can get depressed by merely participating in creative activities is not warranted, there is certainly some relation between depression and participating in such activities.

Pre-Thinking Approach

The question stem asks us to logically complete the given passage. Just before the missing portion, the author states the conclusion of the argument. The conclusion is regarding a definite correlation between depression and participation in creative activities. We are to find a premise that will support this conclusion.

Strengthener – A piece of evidence that shows that depression and participation in CA are found together in more than one situation.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

girls participating in after-school creative activities reported higher rates of depression than boys participating in such activities.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The details regarding the difference in the severity of symptoms reported in the two genders does not help us draw an overall correlation between CA and depression.

B

teenagers participating in activities such as music and painting were found to be significantly more introverted than teenagers participating in sports activities.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

There is no established or implied link between introversion and depression. Hence, we cannot establish what significance this information holds w.r.t. the argument.

C

there was no difference between the magnitudes of the depressive symptoms observed in teenagers who participated in both creative and sports activities and those who participated just in creative ones.

Correct

This choice is on the lines of the strengthener discussed in the pre-thinking analysis. Now we are already told in the argument that people who participate exclusively in sports showed the least signs of depression. When we take this information, along with the one given in this choice, we find that the introduction of CA is accompanied by an increase in the DS. This helps support the author’s conclusion about a correlation between CA and depression.

D

some very famous musicians and painters are patients of a psychological disorder called schizophrenia.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

From the passage we do not know the relation between the stated disorder and depression. Hence, no further analysis of this choice is required.

E

the use of mood enhancing drugs was more prevalent among the students of schools winning various arts competitions than in the students of schools winning sports competitions.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This choice talks about all the students of a school performing well in arts and not just the students taking part in such activities. Hence, we cannot determine the impact of this choice on the given argument.

QUESTION: 6

Some believe that watching sporting events is a waste of time, effort and money since sport, at best, provides temporary avenues of relief from the pressures of work and other stress-causing activities. However, an alternative perspective is that the temporary escape that the brain gets from work-related activities actually helps the brain to perform better in work-related situations, since ______________________________________

Which of the following best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author does not give any personal opinion in the passage. However, he/she does present two conclusions, out of which the reasoning for one needs to be provided. As per this conclusion, the temporary escape that the brain gets from work-related activities (through sports) actually helps the brain to perform better in work-related situations.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can make the specific conclusion more believable.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and providing a line of reasoning or evidence that supports the conclusion that watching sports helps the brain to perform better in work-related situations.

• Strengthener 1– A reason that shows that watching sports helps the brain get revitalized and re-energized, helping in better performance in work-related scenarios.
• Instance: Working for hours leads to a dramatic fall in concentration levels. Watching one’s favourite sport leads to peace of mind, re-energizing the brain cells and preparing the mind to re-start work with renewed energy.
• Strengthener2 – Evidence that demonstrates that watching sports helps the brain to perform better in work-related situations.
• Instance: In a recent study conducted over 3000 participants from 110 countries, it was found that people reported improved performance in work when they were allowed to watch sports during breaks.

With this understanding in mind, let's take a look at the answer choices.

A

work-related activities consume more neurological energy than do activities that are not related to work.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This statement presents an irrelevant comparison between work-related activities and other activities.

B

an individual’s level of neurological energy increases when the brain alternates between different types of activities.

Correct

This statement provides an explanation that indicates that when a person switches between work & watching sports, it increases his mental energy. This matches with the first scenario that we identified in the pre-thinking analysis.

C

the higher the amount of time and energy expended on a recreational activity, the greater is the stress relief it provides.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

First of all, we do not know the relative amount of time and energy that is consumed in watching sports. Secondly, the reasoning needs to further how the relief provided from stress betters one’s performance in work, an area that this choice fails to address.

D

this alternative theory does not apply to sporting professionals for whom sport is a source of livelihood.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about an exception where the conclusion will not hold. The correct option should support the conclusion.

E

the physical activity associated with participating in sports actually increases the neurological energy produced by the brain.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about participating in sports while the argument talks about watching sports.

QUESTION: 7

Historiography is a branch of historical research based on the belief that knowledge of the past can never be complete since it is based only on those aspects of events that were documented at the time that they occurred. For this reason, historiography is often seen as the opposite of ‘history,’ a term that indicates that the past can be fully known. While history does not consider fiction a true record of past events, historiography probably regards historical novels as genuine records of documented history, since _______________________

Which of the following, if true, best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The conclusion states that …historiography probably regards historical novels as genuine records of documented history. The reasoning for author’s conclusion has been omitted from the argument.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can increase the belief in the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion.  Note that linkage is based on the reasoning that is omitted from the argument. Thus, the way to complete the argument will be to look for a piece of information that provides a basis to believe in the conclusion.

• Strengthener – An option that forms a link between historical novels and what HG regards as records on which the knowledge of past is based, i.e. history. According to HG, knowledge of past is based only on those aspects of events that were documented at the time that they occurred. Thus an option statement must show a similarity between HG’s view on past and historical novels.
• Instance: historical novels were written by authors at the time when the events mentioned in the novels were taking place.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

history and historiography do not use the same methodology while evaluating works written by individual authors.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The argument is not about subjective criteria used for evaluating works of individual authors. It’s about why HG could consider HN a form of documented history.

B

history does not recognize fictionalized versions of past events as actual records of the events.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The conclusion is based on why HG is likely to regard fiction as genuine records of documented history, an aspect that this choice fails to address. Also, the passage already states History’s take on fiction as a source of obtaining information about the past.

C

those scholars who assess the historical value of fiction are usually historiographers rather than historians.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Information about the kind of experts assessing the historical value of fiction does not provide any basis to conclude why the field itself considers historical value in it.

D

historical novels can be categorized as documented records of events that were contemporary to the author’s time period.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking linkage instance 1.

E

some scholars combine the methodologies of both history and historiography

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The fact that some scholars combine both methodologies has no bearing on the conclusion that HG probably regards historical novels as genuine records of documented history

QUESTION: 8

Customer Care Head: Recently our company’s after-sales service has been criticized on the grounds that our service centers typically do not keep the initially promised turn-around time to address complaints about products under warranty. It is reasoned that since the company does not make extra money out of servicing these products, complaints about them are not attended to on a priority basis. However, such accusations are baseless since ______________________________________

Which of the following, if true, best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The Customer Care Head of a company concludes that certain accusations alleged against the after-sales service provided by the company are baseless. The allegations are that the complaints about the products under warranty are not attended to on a priority basis because the company does not make extra money on such products. The reasoning for author’s conclusion has been omitted from the argument.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Our job in this question is to provide the missing reasoning for the conclusion, which will work as a strengthener or premise for the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure of the argument. We see that the author of the argument cites a reasoning provided by the people for the delays, which accuses the company of deliberately not keeping the promised time. The author disputes these accusations. Thus, the way to strengthen the conclusion will be to cast a doubt on the general cause cited by the people for the delays made by the SC.

• Strengthener - Another factor that is a potential reason for the delays.
• Instance1:  Delays are not deliberately caused by the company but by some other factor that is beyond the control of the company. For example: Customers tend to understate the faults in the products while registering their complaints and thus the company’s executives tend to promise time that is not representative of the actual fault in the product.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

data collected by our analysts show that although products under warranty are originally registered for minor issues, customers tend to point out more issues during the repair sessions.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking linkage. It points out a possible reason for the delay in the turn-around time from the customer’s end and not the company’s.

B

the total number of complaints registered for products under warranty is significantly lower than the number of complaints registered for products not under warranty.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Total number of complaints in either category is immaterial here.

C

some product malfunctions require replacement of parts, costs for which have to be borne by the company when such a product is under warranty.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option does not talk about the complaints registered for PUW and hence is irrelevant.

D

The average time taken to address customer complaints has decreased considerably over the last year.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Even if the average time taken has decreased, we know that the company’s after-sales service has been criticized because it does not keep the originally promised time. Plus this average time includes both: the time taken to service products under warranty and those not under warranty. So this choice does not provide us with any relevant information.

E

It is well-known that such accusations often originate from rumors started by competitors seeking to discredit a company.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Knowing how the accusations originate doesn’t explain why these accusations are baseless.

QUESTION: 9

A major objection raised by critics of the requirement to wear uniforms in schools is that by asking students to conform to a dress-code, the requirement in effect hampers their individuality, thereby significantly limiting their opportunities to express themselves. However, such critics fail to understand that the requirement actually benefits students as it can cultivate mutual respect and discipline in them. As regards individuality, studies have shown that the real outlets for students to express themselves in schools are _____________________________________________________

Which of the following logically completes the above argument?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

We need to find a statement that can present some other avenues in schools that can promote IV of students. For this, we’ll look at conditions where linkage 1 makes logical sense.

• Support: Outlets that are individualistic in nature and found in schools can promote IV of students. Any activity where students need to provide their own opinion and not a standardized response in order to participate would fulfil this criteria. E.g. painting competitions, debates etc.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

platforms such as social-networking sites and autobiographical blogs.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

There is no given information to support that these activities are related to school.

B

various out of school voluntary-work activities that showcase students’ individual interests.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about ‘out-of-school’ activities.

C

activities involving group work such as organizing sporting events, picnics etc.

Incorrect - Insufficient information

It’s not clear how these activities promote individuality as these are group based.

D

standardized school exams that are objective and hence, fair to all students.

Incorrect - Opposite

Since the exams are standardized, they aren’t avenues where students can express their own opinions.

E

mediums such as their schoolwork involving creative writing, debates etc.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking as per Linkage #1.

QUESTION: 10

Journalist: Education systems sincerely need to evaluate the role played by teaching poetry at the elementary school level. Asking students learning the fundamentals of a language to read and understand poetry written in it is akin to asking students who cannot count to solve a highly complex Math equation. Also most of the poems taught at the elementary school level are not appropriate for students of that age as _____________________________________________________

Which of the following, if true, most logically completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The journalist (author) concludes that education systems need to evaluate the role played by teaching poetry at the elementary school level. The author supports the conclusion by citing two opinions; the reasoning for one of these opinions is missing.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can increase the belief in the stated opinion for which the reasoning is missing.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1.  Thus, the way to provide this reasoning will be to come up with a strengthener/premise that increases our belief in this intermediate conclusion.

• Strengthener – A reason that argues against teaching poetry at the elementary school level. It should highlight the inappropriateness of most of the poems taught at the elementary school level for students of that age.
• Instance:  The content of most of the poems is based on topics such as violence that are not considered suitable for young learners at the elementary school level.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

students in general appreciate other forms of engagements with art such as dramatics and story-writing.

Incorrect -  Irrelevant

The fondness of students in general for other activities doesn’t argue against the poems taught to students at the elementary level.

B

these students have not developed skills to access and research on the internet and learn more about the poems they are taught.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Lack of skills to learn more about the poems doesn’t show that most of poems are inappropriate for such students.

C

these poems are written on mature subjects such as loneliness, social-ills etc.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking linkage. The fact that poems are written on mature subjects can make them inappropriate for learners at the elementary school level.

D

most of the teachers in elementary schools do not have a single field of specialization and teach multiple subjects.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The argument makes no link between specialization of teachers and appropriateness of the poems taught by them. Thus this option is not relevant to the argument.

E

such poems have very minimal use of linguistic expressions such as usage of metaphors and analogies.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

We aren’t told whether minimal use of linguistic expression in poems is a positive or negative characteristic. Thus, this option doesn’t argue for or against the conclusion.

QUESTION: 11

Journalist: Even though it may be true that the system of patenting encourages patent holders to share information that they otherwise would not have made open because of the fear of competitors benefitting from the research done solely by the patent holder, patenting does severely retard the growth of innovations in a field as _______________________________________________________

Which of the following, if true, best completes the above passage?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

N/A

Pre-Thinking Approach

We need to find a statement which can indicate that innovation reduces even when information is shared and thereby provide support for the conclusion. For this, we’ll look at conditions where linkage 1 makes logical sense.

• Support 1: Upon getting information from a patent, competitors get biased and leave their independent research in the same area that could have led to good results.  If this were true, the conclusion that patenting retards innovation growth in a field will be justified.
• Support 2: Patents actually discourage further study of the topic to which the patent belongs.  If this were true, the conclusion that patenting retards innovation growth in a field will be justified.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

only the patent holder is able to reap the monetary benefits for the amount of time the patent is valid.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The argument is concerned with research and what impact monetary benefits have on the motivation to do research is stated neither in the argument nor in the answer choice.

B

not only do patent holders have the exclusive right to the patented technology but also to any kind of developmental research on it.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking per Linkage #1, Support 2.

C

the information disclosed by the patent holder could educate the public by making them aware of previously unknown facts about a phenomenon.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The education of public isn’t relevant to explaining how patents reduce innovation by researchers.

D

the usual period for which a company can hold a patent is twenty years during which patent holder can license the patented innovation to others.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The details regarding the period of a patent and licensing don’t explain how patents actually reduce innovation as we don’t know what the terms of this period/license are

E

even though not all innovations that are filed for patents are granted the status, some of them are extremely informative and useful for developmental work.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Whether innovations that fail to get the patent status are useful or not doesn’t explain how patents reduce innovation in a field.

QUESTION: 12

Many countries are deliberating whether they should start taxing the aviation industry for its fuel usage as a possible way to motivate it to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. The problem is rather severe.  With the increasing affordability of airline tickets, it is estimated that by 2050 the aviation industry will be one of the key contributors to the CO2 emissions worldwide. Also, CO2 and the other gases emitted by aircraft could be even more damaging to the environment because __________________________________________________

Which of the following best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author concludes that the problem of the emission of GG by the airline industry is severe.

Pre-Thinking Approach

We need to find a statement which can provide support for the intermediate conclusion that CO2 and other gases emitted by aircraft could be even more damaging to the environment than they would normally be. For this, we’ll look at conditions in which linkage 1 makes logical sense.

• Support 1: What if, there is something special about the emission of gases from an aircraft compared to emission of these gases otherwise? E.g. aircrafts pass over certain inaccessible terrains whose fragile ecosystem gets affected by the gases emitted from an aircraft. Or maybe when gases are emitted from such height, they cover a large area and the impact is manifold compared to a situation in which the emissions are restricted to a smaller region.

With this understanding in mind, let’s take a look at the option statements.

A

several gases emitted by the aircraft are not released by many vehicles on ground.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option doesn’t mention what’s especially damaging about the gases emitted by the aircraft.

B

various airlines are increasingly realizing economies of scale and hence planning to further slash down the ticket prices.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option too doesn’t tell us why the gases emitted by aircrafts are especially damaging to the environment.

C

the effect of a given amount of emission is greater at higher altitudes.

Correct

This choice is written along the lines of our pre-thinking as per Linkage #1

D

technological developments in the automobile industry are likely to significantly reduce the particulate emissions from several land-based vehicles but not from the kind of aircraft used in the aviation industry.

Incorrect – Irrelevant

Even if the information given in this choice is true, it only gives us a reason to think that the land based vehicles may not as significantly contribute to the total emission of such gases, but it doesn’t provide us with any grounds to conclude why the emissions from these aircraft will be particularly damaging.

E

innovations in technology have made aircraft engines more fuel efficient.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Fuel efficiency of an aircraft doesn’t relate to the impact of the gases emitted by it.

QUESTION: 13

In linguistics, the term ‘phatic communication’ refers to words and phrases that have been used so frequently that they no longer contain any inherent meaning. Analysts of emerging industries, which may be defined as products or ideas in early stages of development that are often based around a new technology, expect that current terminologies used in such industries to refer to work processes will eventually fall into the category of phatic expressions, because ___________________________________________________________________

Which of the following best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

There is no conclusion given by the author. However, we are given an expectation of the analysts of EI, for which we need to provide the reasoning. Therefore, we’ll treat this expectation as the conclusion.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Our job in this question is to provide the missing reasoning for the conclusion, which will work as a strengthener or premise for the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion.  Thus, the way to strengthen the conclusion will be to support this linkage based on the missing reasoning.

Linkage#1 Missing reasoning should be based on similarity between (W&P)* and mentioned use of CTEI

• Instance:  CTEI used to refer to work flow processes are even used at such places where their use is superfluous or not required at all.

In the above scenario, it is arguable that the CTEI used to refer to work flow processes are over-used, a similarity between them and PC.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

inherent meaning is determined primarily on the basis of the frequency with which a term is used.

Incorrect -  Irrelevant

How the inherent meaning is determined doesn’t support the conclusion which deals with a specific use of CTEI.

B

the terms are newly-coined and can be expected to be in use for a considerable period of time.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The duration for which newly coined terms are expected to be used is not relevant to the argument. It is the frequency that matters.

C

not only are such terms used excessively, but many of them are so new that users are unsure of their exact definitions.

Correct.

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking linkage. This choice brings out a similarity between these terms and PC. Also, the part about the unsure meanings is in line with the lack of meaning for these terms.

D

terminology used in one field is usually not applicable in other unrelated fields.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about application of terminologies to unrelated fields, whereas the argument talks about the categorization of the terminologies due to their overuse within the same field.

E

emerging industry types can be analyzed in terms of existing terms from linguistics.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This general applicability doesn’t support the specific case of CTEI that they will fall into the category of phatic expressions.

QUESTION: 14

The industrial revolution, which took place during the late eighteenth century and the early nineteenth century, is the historical time period in which new manufacturing processes began to be used on a large scale. While some argue that the individual’s standard of living increased at an unprecedented rate during this time, others believe that it was only the overall growth of the economy that increased, and that standards of living did not rise significantly until the twentieth century; the latter belief is clearly true, since _________________________

Which of the following, if true, best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author concludes that the latter belief is clearly true. Here, “latter belief” refers to the opinion that it wasn’t until the 20th century that standards of living rose significantly. Please note that this belief is contrary to the one expressed by some that standards of living increased at an unprecedented growth during the industrial revolution (late 18th century to early 19th century). . The reasoning for author’s conclusion has been omitted from the argument.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can increase the belief in the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion.  Note that the linkage is based on the reasoning that is omitted from the argument. Thus, the way to complete the argument will be to look for a piece of information that provides a basis to believe in the conclusion.

Strengthener – The conclusion states that the social standards of living did not increase significantly until the 20th century or in other words, implying that there was no significant positive change in the standards of living of people during the industrial revolution.  Hence, an option that provides additional evidence or presents an example to support that SOL did not increase during the IR could increase our belief in the conclusion.

• Instance1:  Some evidence that negates the possibility of an increase in SOL during IR.
• Instance 2:  A document or study that found that SOL remained same or decreased until 20C.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

social writings from this time indicate that workers' living conditions deteriorated during the revolution.

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking instance 1.

B

the revolution affected not just the professional lives but also the everyday lives of people at the time.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about the effect of revolution on people's lives; however, it doesn't tell us whether the effect was positive or negative. Thus it doesn't argue for or against the conclusion.

C

new manufacturing processes led to marked improvements in the efficiency of the production process across various kinds of industries

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Efficiency in production process doesn't give us any information about the SOL during the industrial revolution.

D

classical economics does not even mention the possibility of sustained economic growth during the revolution

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The conclusion is not regarding sustained economic growth but regarding the standards of living of people during the mentioned time period.

E

most economists now believe that socioeconomic changes during the revolution occurred as a rapid rather than gradual process

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This choice does not make it clear whether it's talking about positive or negative socio-economic changes. Hence, we cannot relate it to the information given in the passage.

QUESTION: 15

In the absence of written evidence of female communities that existed before the nineteenth century, communal activities such as quilt-making and storytelling through oral narratives are considered legitimate sources of information about such communities. Most quilts were either spun, sewn or woven for non-commercial use, or created through a process known as colonial quilting by those who engaged in quilt-making as a hobby. Therefore, most women from wealthy families must have engaged in the colonial style of quilting, because _________________

Which of the following, if true, best completes the passage above?

Solution:

Argument Analysis

Pre-Thinking

Conclusion Clarification

The author concludes that most women from wealthy families must have engaged in the colonial style of quilting. The reasoning for author’s conclusion has been omitted from the argument.

Pre-Thinking Approach

Let’s see how we can increase the belief in the conclusion.  To do so, we will look at the logical structure, focusing on linkage 1 and the conclusion.  Note that the linkage is based on the reasoning that is omitted from the argument. Thus, the way to complete the argument will be to look for a piece of information that provides a basis to believe in the conclusion.

• Strengthener – an option that forms a link between the women in wealthy families and CQ as a hobby; a reason that shows why such women must have opted for CQ - maybe CQ was more suitable to most women in wealthy families.
• Instance1:  … it was considered extremely prestigious as a leisure time-activity by the affluent class and most women from such families would have had the time to pursue it.

With this understanding, let us evaluate the option statements.

A

no quilt-maker who made quilts for non-commercial use also engaged in quilt-making as a hobby.

Incorrect - Irrelevant

This option talks about an irrelevant group comprising of people who did not engage in quilt making as a hobby.

B

commercial uses of quilt-making included selling quilts that were made by hobbyists

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The fact that commercial uses of quilt making included selling quilts made by hobbyists doesn’t tell us why most women from wealthy families must have engaged in CQ.

C

most women from wealthy families would have had the leisure time to engage in activities that were not part of their daily schedule

Correct

This option is written along the lines of our pre-thinking linkage instance 1. Having the leisure time makes CQ more feasible for most women from wealthy families.

D

there is documented evidence that women of all classes engaged in some form of creative activity

Incorrect - Irrelevant

Even if quilt making is regarded as a creative activity, a similarity in women of all classes doesn’t tell us why most women from one particular class engaged in a particular type of activity (CQ).

E

colonial quilting did not involve spinning, sewing or weaving

Incorrect - Irrelevant

The lack of the stated characteristics in CQ does not establish any link between CQ and women from affluent families.