Test: Microbes: Household Products, Industrial Products And Sewage Treatment


10 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 12 | Test: Microbes: Household Products, Industrial Products And Sewage Treatment


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QUESTION: 1

The term antibiotic was first used by

Solution:

The term antibiotic was first used in 1942 by Selman Waksman and his collaborators in journal articles to describe any substance produced by a microorganism that is antagonistic to the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution.

QUESTION: 2

Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow in milk and convert it to curd and also improve its nutritional quality by increasing

Solution:

Microorganisms such as Lactobacillus and others commonly called Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) grow it milk and convert into curd. During growth, the LAB produce acids that coagulate and partially digest the milk proteins. A small amount of curd added to the fresh milk as inoculums or starter contain millions of LAB, which at suitable temperature multiply, thus, converting milk to curd, which also improves its nutritional quality by increasing vitamin-B12 Note In our stomach, the LAB play other options are not related with LAB bacteria beneficial role in checking disease causing microbes. 

QUESTION: 3

Methanogens growing anaerobically on cellulosic material produce

Solution:

Methanogens are bacteria which grow on cellulosic material and produce a large amount of methane along with CO2 and H2.For example: Methanobacterium
Methanogens are the bacteria found in cattle dung (gobar) and in anaerobic sludge during sewage treatment. They grow anaerobically on cellulosic material and produce a large amount of methane (the main constituent of biogas) along with COand H2. These methanogens are grown on slurry which comprises of cattle dung where they act upon the dung and lead to its breakdown and release of gases like methane and carbon-dioxide. Thus, methanogens are used in biogas production.

QUESTION: 4

Maximum number of antibiotics are got from any group except for

Solution:

Answer

  • Many of the species of the domain Eubacteria are used for the production of antibiotics such as streptomycin, etc.
  • Where as Actinomycetes are anaerobic bacteria which can be or cannot be pathogenic with resistance against various antibiotics.
  • Fungi are used to produce antibiotics  but compared to the number of bacterial species that secret antibiotics the number of fungi secreting antibiotic is less.
  • Viruses never secret antibiotic.
  • So, the answer is 'Viruses'
QUESTION: 5

Identify the fungus with medicinal importance.

Solution:

Penicillin is a secondary metabolite of certain species of Penicillium and is produced when the growth of the fungus is inhibited by stress. It is not produced during active growth. Production is also limited by feedback in the synthesis pathway of penicillin.

So, the correct option is 'Penicillium'.

QUESTION: 6

Which one of the following microbes is used in the commercial production of ethanol?

Solution:

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Compared to other types of microoganisms, yeasts especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the common microbes employed in ethanol production due to its high ethanol productivity, high ethanol tolerance and ability of fermenting wide range of sugars.

QUESTION: 7

A sewage treatment process in which a part of the decomposer bacteria present in the wastes are recycled into the starting of the process is called

Solution:

The word activated sludge system is derived from the practice of adding aerobic heterotrophic bacteria to the incoming sewage, from a previous batch. This sludge inoculum contains large numbers of metabolising bacteria, together with yeasts, molds, and Protozoa. An especially important ingredient of the sludge are species of. Zoogloea bacteria, which form flocculant masses (floc) in the aeration tanks.

The activity of these aerobic micro-organisms oxidises much of the effluent's organic matter into carbon dioxide and water. When the aeration phase is completed, the floc (secondary sludge) is allowed to settle to the bottom, just as the primary sludge settles in primary treatment.

QUESTION: 8

Probiotics are

Solution:

Probiotics are live microbial food supplements that provide several health benefits, as they help in maintaining excellent stability and composition of the intestinal microbiota and boost the resistance against infection by pathogens. 

QUESTION: 9

Lactic acid is formed by the process of

Solution:

Fermentation is a metabolic process which leads to chemical changes in organic substrates through the action of the enzymes. Most organisms carry out fermentation through a chemical reaction that converts the pyruvate from glycolysis into lactic acid or lactate. Lactic acid fermentation also converts NADH into NAD+ so that glycolysis can continue.

QUESTION: 10

Rennin used in the cheese industry is

Solution:

Rennin, also known as chymosin, is an enzyme that can be easily found in the rennet. It is usually produced by the 4thstomach chamber of the cows, called abomasum. Rennin is also used in the dairy industry for the making of cheese.

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