Test: Mitosis

10 Questions MCQ Test Biology Class 11 | Test: Mitosis

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What is the proper sequence in mitosis?


Mitosis consists of four basic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.  These phases occur in this strict sequential order, and cytokinesis - the process of dividing the cell contents to make two new cells - starts in anaphase or telophase.

1. Prophase - During prophase, chromosomes get visible (chromatids), the centrioles migrate to the poles, nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear and spindle formation is seen. Prophase in mitosis is longer than any other phases of mitosis because the cell has to prepare for the actual division that takes place from early through late prophase.

2. Metaphase - During this, chromosomes lineup around the centre (Cells in metaphase have the chromosomes, which appear as long thin strands under the microscope). 

3. Anaphase - here, chromatids separate and move to opposite poles by spindle fibers. This allows each daughter cell to have an identical copy of each of the original cell’s chromosomes. 

4.Telophase - During this phase, chromosomes disappear (become chromatin), nuclear membrane reforms, nucleoli reappears, spindle disappears and centrioles duplicate. 

The correct answer is option D.


Which of the phases of mitosis is the longest?


Prophase is the longest phase of mitosis. This phase separates the duplicated genetic material carried in the nucleus of a parent cell into two identical daughter cells.


In a cell cycle, during which phase chromosomes are arranged on the equatorial plate?

  • Metaphase proceeds prophase and is marked by the movement of chromosomes towards the equator of cell mediated by kinetochore microtubules of spindle fibres. Alignment of chromosomes on the equatorial plane of the spindle, the metaphase plate, marks the end of metaphase.
  • Prophase is the stage of mitosis, which is characterized by spindle formation, shortening and thickening of chromosomes, the disintegration of the nuclear envelope and disappearance of the nucleolus.
  • Anaphase is the stage of mitosis which is characterized by separation of sister chromatids followed by their movement towards the opposite pole of the spindle.
  • Completion of separation of sister chromatids, which are now present at the opposite poles of cell marks telophase. The cell resumes the interphase state during telophase.

Hence, the correct answer is option A: Metaphase


How many mitotic divisions are needed for a single cell to make 128 cells?


Mitosis is a process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells that occurs when a parent cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells. 
Hence the process of the division will be:
► 1 cell gives 2 daughter cells (1st mitosis)
► 2 cells give 4 daughter cells (2nd mitosis)
► 4 cells give 8 daughter cells (3rd mitosis)
► 8 cells give 16 daughter cells (4th mitosis)
► 16 cells give 32 daughter cells (5th mitosis)
► 32 cells give 64 daughter cells (6th mitosis)
► 64 cells give 128 daughter cells (7th mitosis)

Hence 7 mitotic divisions cell needed for a single cell to make 128 cells.


Centromere is required for

  • The centromere is the part of the chromosomes where the two sister chromatids are attached. It is required for movement of chromosomes towards poles.
  • During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore. Their physical role is to act as the site of assembly of the kinetochore - a highly complex multiprotein structure that is responsible for the actual events of chromosome segregation i.e., binding microtubules and signalling to the cell cycle  machinery when all chromosomes have adopted correct attachments to the spindle, so that it is safe for cell division to proceed to completion and for cells to enter anaphase.

So, the correct answer is option C.


At which stage of mitosis, do chromatids separate and pass to different poles?


The paired chromosomes (sister chromatids) separate and begin moving to opposite ends (poles) of the cell. Spindle fibers not connected to chromatids lengthen and elongate the cell. At the end of anaphase, each pole contains a complete compilation of chromosomes.


Cell division is initiated in plants by:

  • Abscisic acid is a plant growth hormone involved in seed dormancy and responses of plants to stress. This makes option B incorrect.
  • Auxins promote the formation of lateral and adventitious roots, regulate the flower bud development and induce vascular differentiation. This makes option D incorrect.
  • Gibberellins are responsible for stem elongation, breaking seed dormancy, mobilization of endosperm reserves as well as regulate sex determination, flower initiation and fruit set. This makes option C incorrect.
  • Cytokinins are the plant growth hormones that regulate the cell division in root and shoot of the plant both in vivo and in vitro. They do so by regulating the controls that govern the transition of the cell from one stage of the cell cycle to the next one.
  • Mitosis is the mechanism by which the chromosome content of a somatic cell (haploid or diploid) is kept constant through successive cell divisions. The division of the cell is initiated by division of the nucleus i.e. Karyokinesis followed by division of cytoplasm i.e. Cytokinesis. This makes option A correct. 

A cell plate is laid during:

  • Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.
  • Cytoplasmic division begins during or after the late stages of nuclear division in mitosis and meiosis.
  • During cytokinesis the spindle apparatus partitions and transports duplicated chromatids into the cytoplasm of the separating daughter cells. It thereby ensures that chromosome number and complement are maintained from one generation to the next and that, except in special cases, the daughter cells will be functional copies of the parent cell. After the completion of the telophase and cytokinesis, each daughter cell enters the interphase of the cell cycle.

In mitosis, the number of chromosome sets in daughter cells will be:

  • The mitosis division is the equitorial division which takes place in the cells which are not taking part in the reproduction.
  • The cells after the division form 2 daughter cells which are identical to the mother cell in every aspect. 
  • This type of division takes place in each and every organ of the body except for the formation of gametes. For example, mature cells of organs, wear and tear of the cells of epithelium, etc. 
  • The genetic material of the cells is doubled during the S phase of the cell cycle where the genetic material is replicated. So that the genetic material can be equally divided between the 2 daughter cells. 

Therefore the answer that the 2 daughter cells contain equal genetic as the mother cell is correct.


Which stages of cell division do the figures A and B represent?


In Fig.A cromatid are moving to opposite pole i.e Late anaphase.
In Fig.B all organelles are present i.e prophase.

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