Hiranyagarbha rituals were performed with the help of
In the beginning the Rashtrakutas were subordinate to the Chalukyas of Karnataka. In the mid-eighth century, Dantidurga, a Rashtrakuta chief, overthrew his Chalukya overlord and performed a ritual called hiranya-garbha, which literary meant the golden womb. When this ritual was performed with the help of Brahmanas, it was thought to lead to the "rebirth" of the sacrificers as a Kshatriya, even if he was not one by birth. In other cases, men from enterprising families used their military skills to came out kingdoms.
The Chola king who brought half of Ceylon under his control
Raja Raja Chola I conquered the northern half of Sri Lanka during his reign. Rajendra invaded Ceylon in 1017 CE and annexed the entire island. As a result of the campaign, Rajendra captured the regal jewels of the Pandyas, which Parantaka I tried to capture and the crown of the Sinhala king.
Many of the new kings used titles which made them feel very powerful and influential. Some such titles were:
1. Maharaja-adhiraja meaning great king, overlord of kings
2. Tribhuvana-chakravartin meaning lord of the three worlds
3. They often shared their power, in spite of such high-sounding titles. They shared their power with samantas and with associations of peasants, Brahmanas and traders.
Vetti is a
Vetti' an innovative Tax method introduced by Chola kings of Tamil Nadu.
Think of a building a road for a village. Government identifies need for roads, taxes people extra or building infrastructure. The money is collected. Then government invites bids, then pays contractors to build roads. Leakages in the systems results in roads not good enough for tax payers. Tax payers are fed up that they are taxed higher for roads and roads are bad.
The functionaries for ______ were generally recruited from influential families
The functionaries for collecting revenue were generally recruited from influential families, and positions were often hereditary. This was true about the army as well. In many cases, close relatives of the king held these positions.
The functionaries for collecting revenue were generally recruited from
Influential families, and positions were often hereditary. This was true about the army as well. In many cases, close relatives of the king held these positions.
Gwalior is in
Gwalior is in Madhya pradesh.
Kings often rewarded Brahmanas by grants of
Kings often rewarded the Brahmanas by giving them grants of land. These grants were recorded on copper plates which were given to those who received the land.
The specialists who worked at the temple and lived near it were
The architectural and sculptural marvels of the period include the big temples of Thanjavur and Gangaikondacholapuram, built by Rajaraja and Rajendra. Settlements grew around the temples of the Chola period and hence these became the nuclei of settlements. The temples were endowed with land by rulers as well as by others. The specialists who worked at the temple and often lived near it included priests, garland makers, cooks, sweepers, musicians, dancers, etc. The produce of the land went for their sustenance. Besides being places of worship; temples were the hub of social, cultural and economic life as well.
Rajatarangini, a book that generally recorded the heritage of Kashmir in the 12th Century, was written by _:
Kalhana penned the book named Rajatarangini in 12th century CE. It is a metrical historical chronicle of north-western Indian subcontinent, particularly the kings of Kashmir, written in Sanskrit. Rajatarangini describe the misrule prevailing in Kashmir during the reign of King Kalash, son of King Ananta Deva of Kashmir.