Test: Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions


15 Questions MCQ Test Sociology Class 12 | Test: Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions


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Attempt Test: Pattern of Social Inequality and Exclusion- Assertion-Reason & Case Base Type Questions | 15 questions in 30 minutes | Mock test for Humanities/Arts preparation | Free important questions MCQ to study Sociology Class 12 for Humanities/Arts Exam | Download free PDF with solutions
QUESTION: 1

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:
Assertion (A): Social exclusion is voluntary.
Reason (R): Exclusion is practiced regardless of the wishes of those who are excluded.

Solution:

Since it is practiced regardless of the wishes of those who are excluded, social exclusion is involuntary.

QUESTION: 2

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:
Assertion (A): In modern times, and particularly since the nineteenth century, the link between caste and occupation has become much less rigid.
Reason (R): The caste-class correlation is still remarkably stable at the macro level.

Solution:

The reason for the assertion is that ritual-religious prohibitions on occupational change are not easily imposed today, and it is easier than before to change one’s occupation.

QUESTION: 3

Directions : In the following questions, a statement of Assertion (A) is followed by a statement of Reason (R). Mark the correct choice as:

Assertion (A): Gender identities can be chosen willingly.

Reason (R): By using surgical procedures male body can be converted into female body or female body into male body.

Solution: In general, ‘male body’ and ‘female body’ as social units are unchanging identities but due to so much research in the field of physiology, the notion of the body is now linked with ‘choice structure’. Transgender as concept, thus, refers to conversions of gender status of body into opposite gender by using choice or certain compulsions.
QUESTION: 4

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The Kalinganagar incident, like many horrors before it and after, briefly made the headlines and then disappeared from public view. The lives and deaths of poor adivasis slid back into obscurity. Yet their struggle still continues and by revisiting it, we not only remind ourselves of the need to address ongoing injustice, but also appreciate how this conflict encapsulates many of the key issues in the sphere of environment and development in India today. Like many adivasi-dominated parts of the country, Kalinganagar in Jaipur district of central Orissa is a paradox. Its wealth of natural resources contrasts sharply with the poverty of its inhabitants, mainly small farmers and labourers. The rich iron ore deposits in the area are state property and their ‘development’ means that Adivasi lands are compulsorily acquired by the state for a pittance. While a handful of local residents may get secure jobs on the lower rungs of the industrial sector, most are impoverished even further and survive on the edge of starvation as wage-labourers. It is estimated that 30 million people, more than the entire population of Canada, have been displaced by this land acquisition policy since India became independent in 1947 (Fernandes 1991). Of these, almost 75 per cent are, by the government’s own admission, ‘still awaiting rehabilitation’. This process of land acquisition is justified as being in the public interest since the state is committed to promoting economic growth by expanding industrial production and infrastructure.

Q. Which of the following is not true about the tribal population in India?

Solution: Tribal population in India does not live under absolute isolation. It co-exists with the non-tribal, caste-peasant community.
QUESTION: 5

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The Kalinganagar incident, like many horrors before it and after, briefly made the headlines and then disappeared from public view. The lives and deaths of poor adivasis slid back into obscurity. Yet their struggle still continues and by revisiting it, we not only remind ourselves of the need to address ongoing injustice, but also appreciate how this conflict encapsulates many of the key issues in the sphere of environment and development in India today. Like many adivasi-dominated parts of the country, Kalinganagar in Jaipur district of central Orissa is a paradox. Its wealth of natural resources contrasts sharply with the poverty of its inhabitants, mainly small farmers and labourers. The rich iron ore deposits in the area are state property and their ‘development’ means that Adivasi lands are compulsorily acquired by the state for a pittance. While a handful of local residents may get secure jobs on the lower rungs of the industrial sector, most are impoverished even further and survive on the edge of starvation as wage-labourers. It is estimated that 30 million people, more than the entire population of Canada, have been displaced by this land acquisition policy since India became independent in 1947 (Fernandes 1991). Of these, almost 75 per cent are, by the government’s own admission, ‘still awaiting rehabilitation’. This process of land acquisition is justified as being in the public interest since the state is committed to promoting economic growth by expanding industrial production and infrastructure.

Q. Adivasis and their struggles are different from the Dalit struggle because:

Solution: Dalits unlike Adivasis are not concentrated in particular regions across India.
QUESTION: 6

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The Kalinganagar incident, like many horrors before it and after, briefly made the headlines and then disappeared from public view. The lives and deaths of poor adivasis slid back into obscurity. Yet their struggle still continues and by revisiting it, we not only remind ourselves of the need to address ongoing injustice, but also appreciate how this conflict encapsulates many of the key issues in the sphere of environment and development in India today. Like many adivasi-dominated parts of the country, Kalinganagar in Jaipur district of central Orissa is a paradox. Its wealth of natural resources contrasts sharply with the poverty of its inhabitants, mainly small farmers and labourers. The rich iron ore deposits in the area are state property and their ‘development’ means that Adivasi lands are compulsorily acquired by the state for a pittance. While a handful of local residents may get secure jobs on the lower rungs of the industrial sector, most are impoverished even further and survive on the edge of starvation as wage-labourers. It is estimated that 30 million people, more than the entire population of Canada, have been displaced by this land acquisition policy since India became independent in 1947 (Fernandes 1991). Of these, almost 75 per cent are, by the government’s own admission, ‘still awaiting rehabilitation’. This process of land acquisition is justified as being in the public interest since the state is committed to promoting economic growth by expanding industrial production and infrastructure.

Q. The outsiders against whom the tribals have been waging struggles are called______

Solution: The word ‘dikus’ means outsiders. Dikus were the people who made the tribal people dependent upon them, thereby causing them a lot of misery and suffering.
QUESTION: 7

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The Kalinganagar incident, like many horrors before it and after, briefly made the headlines and then disappeared from public view. The lives and deaths of poor adivasis slid back into obscurity. Yet their struggle still continues and by revisiting it, we not only remind ourselves of the need to address ongoing injustice, but also appreciate how this conflict encapsulates many of the key issues in the sphere of environment and development in India today. Like many adivasi-dominated parts of the country, Kalinganagar in Jaipur district of central Orissa is a paradox. Its wealth of natural resources contrasts sharply with the poverty of its inhabitants, mainly small farmers and labourers. The rich iron ore deposits in the area are state property and their ‘development’ means that Adivasi lands are compulsorily acquired by the state for a pittance. While a handful of local residents may get secure jobs on the lower rungs of the industrial sector, most are impoverished even further and survive on the edge of starvation as wage-labourers. It is estimated that 30 million people, more than the entire population of Canada, have been displaced by this land acquisition policy since India became independent in 1947 (Fernandes 1991). Of these, almost 75 per cent are, by the government’s own admission, ‘still awaiting rehabilitation’. This process of land acquisition is justified as being in the public interest since the state is committed to promoting economic growth by expanding industrial production and infrastructure.

Q. The term ‘jana’ means:

Solution: The term ‘jana’ refers to ‘people of the forest’.
QUESTION: 8

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The very term ‘disabled’ challenges each of these assumptions. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically impaired’ came to replace the triter negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or ‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. We are disabled by buildings that are not designed to admit us, and this in turn leads to a range of further disabilities regarding our education, our chances of gaining employment, our social lives and so on. The disablement lies in the construction of society, not in the physical condition of the individual (Brissenden 1986:176).

Q. Labels such as bechara (poor thing) accentuate the ____________ for the disabled person.

Solution: The roots of such attitudes lie in the cultural conception that views an impaired body as a result of fate. Destiny is seen as the culprit, and disabled people are the victims.
QUESTION: 9

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The very term ‘disabled’ challenges each of these assumptions. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically impaired’ came to replace the triter negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or ‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. We are disabled by buildings that are not designed to admit us, and this in turn leads to a range of further disabilities regarding our education, our chances of gaining employment, our social lives and so on. The disablement lies in the construction of society, not in the physical condition of the individual (Brissenden 1986:176).

Q. Who argued that the invisibility of the disabled can be compared to the protagonist of the book ‘Invisible Man’?

Solution: Anita Ghai is one of the leading activists and scholars of disability in the Indian context who made the above argument. Ralph Ellison is the name of the author of the book.
QUESTION: 10

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The very term ‘disabled’ challenges each of these assumptions. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically impaired’ came to replace the triter negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or ‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. We are disabled by buildings that are not designed to admit us, and this in turn leads to a range of further disabilities regarding our education, our chances of gaining employment, our social lives and so on. The disablement lies in the construction of society, not in the physical condition of the individual (Brissenden 1986:176).

Q. The dominant cultural construction in India therefore looks at disability as essentially a characteristic of the¬_____________.

Solution: Whenever a disabled person is confronted with problems, it is taken for granted that the problems originate from her/ his impairment. Disability is supposed to be linked with the disabled individual’s self perception.
QUESTION: 11

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

The very term ‘disabled’ challenges each of these assumptions. Terms such as ‘mentally challenged’, ‘visually impaired’ and ‘physically impaired’ came to replace the triter negative terms such as ‘retarded’, ‘crippled’ or ‘lame’. The disabled are rendered disabled not because they are biologically disabled but because society renders them so. We are disabled by buildings that are not designed to admit us, and this in turn leads to a range of further disabilities regarding our education, our chances of gaining employment, our social lives and so on. The disablement lies in the construction of society, not in the physical condition of the individual (Brissenden 1986:176).

Q. Which of the following is NOT a feature central to the public perception of ‘disability’?

Solution: All the other options are central features to the public perception of disability.
QUESTION: 12

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Untouchability was the most visible and comprehensive form of social discrimination. However, there were a large group of castes that were of low status and were also subjected to varying levels of discrimination short of untouchability. These were the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower rungs of the caste hierarchy. The Constitution of India recognises the possibility that there may be groups other than the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes who suffer from social disadvantages.

Q. What is/are reason(s) for the OBCs being a much more diverse group than the Dalits or Adivasis?

Solution: Both (A) and (B) statements are true and contribute to the diversity in the OBC category.
QUESTION: 13

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Untouchability was the most visible and comprehensive form of social discrimination. However, there were a large group of castes that were of low status and were also subjected to varying levels of discrimination short of untouchability. These were the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower rungs of the caste hierarchy. The Constitution of India recognises the possibility that there may be groups other than the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes who suffer from social disadvantages.

Q. What is the constitutional basis of the popular term ‘Other Backward Classes’ (OBCs), which is in common use today?

Solution: Other Backward Classes need not be based on caste alone, but generally are identified by caste, described as the ‘socially and educationally backward classes.’
QUESTION: 14

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Untouchability was the most visible and comprehensive form of social discrimination. However, there were a large group of castes that were of low status and were also subjected to varying levels of discrimination short of untouchability. These were the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower rungs of the caste hierarchy. The Constitution of India recognises the possibility that there may be groups other than the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes who suffer from social disadvantages.

Q. The First Backward Classes Commission headed by ____________submitted its report in______.

Solution: The first government of independent India under Jawaharlal Nehru appointed a commission to look into measures for the welfare of the OBCs. It was headed by Kaka Kalelkar and submitted its report in 1953.
QUESTION: 15

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same: Untouchability was the most visible and comprehensive form of social discrimination. However, there were a large group of castes that were of low status and were also subjected to varying levels of discrimination short of untouchability. These were the service and artisanal castes who occupied the lower rungs of the caste hierarchy. The Constitution of India recognises the possibility that there may be groups other than the Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes who suffer from social disadvantages.

Q. Like the category of the ‘tribe’, the OBCs are defined ____________, by what __________.

Solution: OBCs are neither part of the ‘forward’ castes at the upper end of the status spectrum, nor of the Dalits at the lower end.
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