Most acceptable concept of species is -
Typological species is defined as a group of organisms that are morphologically similar irrespective of their breeding compatibility. It determines species as a static entity which can interbreed within their limit of variations and hence, is also termed as static concept. It is not accepted due to its consideration of species as a fixed entity. The biological species concept groups the members of the same species organisms that can potentially interbreed to produce fertile offspring. It is the most accepted concept due to its scientific criteria of classification that groups the individuals on the basis of their reproductive isolation which in turn maintain the morphological differences among the reproductively isolated individuals of the same habitat. Genetic species refers to the grouping of individuals of the basis of similarity and dissimilarity of their genetic material i.e. DNA; however, it needs sophisticated techniques of matching the DNA, DNA-DNA hybridization and DNA fingerprinting which are not always feasible to be performed. Thus, the correct answer is option c.
Artificial system of classification classifies plants on the basis of -
The major advantage of the artificial system of the classification is considering one or few characters of the plants, so the option (A) is the correct answer.
The phylogenetic trends consideration are all comes under the natural classification, so the option (B) is not the correct answer.
The option (C) refers, many naturally existing characters, which is suitable for the natural classification, not for artificial classification, so the option (C) is also not the correct answer.
The term new systematics was introduced by -
New systematics coined by Sir Julian Huxley in 1940 takes into consideration plant identification and grouping collected through multiple branches of science. He also invented the term cline in 1938 to refer to species, whose members fall into a series of sub-species with continuous change in characters over a geographical area.
Thus, the correct answer is option D.
Group of organisms that closely resemble each other and freely interbreed in nature, constitute a -
The group of organisms that closely resemble each other and freely interbreed in nature "to produce fertile offsprings" are termed as SPEICES.
ICBN was first revised in -
ICBN, "International Code of Botanical Nomenclature”, is the collection of rules of scientific nomenclature of plants and was first proposed by Sprague, Hitchcock, Green (1930) but was accepted in 1961. During 12th International congress, Leningrade 1975, ICBN was revised. The revised form was republished in 1978. Thus, ICBN was first revised in 1975.
Therefore, the correct answer is option A.
The term taxon refers to -
Taxon represents taxonomic group of any rank. Each plant belongs to a hierarchy of taxa which are assigned taxonomic ranks. For example, different taxa for onion are Allium cepa (species rank), Allium (genus rank), liliaceae (family rank), thus Allium cepa, Allium, liliaceae are different taxa to which onion belongs.
Name of a species refers to group of potentially interbreeding, morphologically similar individuals. A genus is a taxonomic rank that constitutes single species of monophyletic group of species that share a sum total of characters, though they cannot interbreed. A group of closely related genera, that share some common morphological features but are reproductively incompatible, constitutes a family. Thus, names of species, genus and family represent taxa of a particular hierarchy which makes them wrong answer as a taxon can belong to any of taxonomic ranks.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D.
The herbarium specimen on whose basis a new species is described for the first time is called as
The herbarium specimen on whose basis is a new species is described for the first time is called as holotype.
Which book most impressed the opinion of taxonomists -
Darwin proposed the theory of 'natural selection' in his book "the origin of species". Natural selection refers to the unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce based on suitability of their inherited characters to prevailing environmental conditions. He explained the process of evolution through his book which makes it more impressive. Thus, the correct answer is option D.
The basic unit of classification is -
Species is the basic unit of classification. Organisms that share many features in common and can breed with each other and produce fertile offspring are members of the same species.
Morphologically similar but reproductively isolated species are called -
Any two or more closely related species That are very similar or one can say morphologically similar. They are identical but are not capable of producing fertile offspring. They can be identified by genetic, behavioral, biochemical or ecological factors means. They are thought to be very recently divergent.
Plant nomenclature means -
Nomenclature is application of correct name to plants and taxonomic rank under the rule as drawn by ICBN (International Code for Botanical Nomenclature); option A is incorrect and B is correct. Scientific names formulated in Latin language are preferred over those in vernacular languages due to restricted use and application of these names in one or two languages and non-availability of vernacular names for all known plant species; this makes option C incorrect. Scientific names are not formulated in English but in Latin because latter one is a dead language and the meanings of words are not prone to changes as is the case with English; this makes option D incorrect. Thus, the correct answer is option B.
Taxonomy refers to -
Taxonomy is the branch of science that deals with principles, rules and procedure of classification of organisms based on their similarities and dissimilarities.
Since, identification and nomenclature is the prerequisite for classification; the first step in taxonomy is identification followed by nomenclature and then classification.
Nomenclature refers to assign a universal scientific name to taxon based on the international rules agreed upon by ICBN/ICZN/ ICVN/ICNCP to maintain uniformity in the system.
Classification is arrangement of organisms into groups on the basis of their similarities and is preceded by identification and nomenclature. So, option A is the correct answer.
Which of the following is a correct name -
According to binomial nomenclature, as first implemented by C. Linnaeus, each species is assigned two names, the first generic names and second species epithet. Since, generic name is mostly a proper noun, it is written with first letter capitalized while the species epithet is objective and is written in small letters only. It is customary to mention the name of the person who described the species with year after species epithet. Since, the scientific names are formulated in Latin language, they are always written in italics and are underlined when handwritten.
The correct option will be option C.
The scientific system of naming consists of two parts generic and specific name. The generic name denotes the genus and specific name denotes the species.
The name of the scientist who found the name is written after the scientific name in short form. This denotes the person responsible for finding the name.
Scientific name of Mango plant is Mangifera indica (Linn.) Santapau in the above name Santapau refers to -
The binomial nomenclature was first implemented by Carl Linnaeus, every organism is described by the scientific name comprised of the two name, genus and species name. The genus name is capitalised and the rest of the letters are small and italicised. The name Santapau after the name of the species describes that the system proposed by Linnaeus was modified by Santapau and so the name is mentioned after the particular variety of mango.
Thus, the correct answer is option D.
Type specimen selected from the original material in case the holotype is missing is called -
A lectotype is a specimen that is selected from the original material to serve as the type when either no holotype was designated at the time of publication, or if the holotype is missing, or if the original type consisted of more than one specimens or taxa.
Phylogeny refers to -
Option ( C ) Evolutionary history is the correct answer.
Phylogeny refers to the Evolutionary history of development of species or of a taxonomic group of organisms. The phylogenetic relationship are depicted in form of phylogenetic tree
Static concept of species is given by -
In taxonomy the first step is -
Taxonomy is the practice of identifying different organisms, classifying them into categories and naming them. So, the first step in taxonomy would be identification.
Species living in different geographical areas are called -
Species that belong to same period are termed as synchronic species and those from different geological time period are termed as allochronic species; option A is incorrect as this grouping is done on the basis of time scale irrespective of their geographical distribution. Reproductive isolation brought about by geographical isolation creates allopatric species which are now present in different geographical regions this makes option B correct. Individuals of a population present in same geographical area are reproductively isolated by polyploidy and forms new species termed as sympatric species. This makes option C incorrect. Two morphologically identical species that do not interbreed are referred to as sibling species; for example Drosophila pseudobscula and D. persimilis are sibling species that do not interbreed. Option D is incorrect. Thus, the correct answer is option B.
A large number of unknown species of plants and animals are believed to be present in -
Tropical forest receives maximum sunlight which is a key factor in energy production by plants, thereby supporting a large number of plant species. Due to the availability of ample energy/food sources in the form of plants, animal, lives are supported. Thus, tropical forests are considered to carrying highest biodiversity and are expected to carry a large number of unknown species.
Temperate and taiga regions are characterised by chill winters with the temperature falling below freezing point. This poses necessity of the presence of special adaptations in living organisms to survive the harsh winters when sunlight is not available, thus these regions experience lesser biodiversity as compared to the tropical forest.
Antarctica region is characterised by the coldest climate with permanent snow covered surface and no direct sunlight thereby not supporting the growth of living organisms.
Therefore, the correct answer is option D.
Biological concept of species proposed by -
Linnaeus is considered father of taxonomy and was first to use the binomial nomenclature for organisms. He proposed natural system of classification for living organism and divide them into plant and animal kingdom; option A is incorrect. The biological species concept, as first proposed by Mayr, groups the members of the same species organisms that can potentially interbreed to produce fertile offspring. It is the most accepted concept due to its scientific criteria of classification that groups the individuals on the basis of their reproductive isolation which in turn maintain the morphological differences among the reproductively isolated individuals of the same habitat; option B is correct. John Ray proposed the typological species which is defined as a group of organisms that are morphologically similar irrespective of their breeding compatibility. It determines species as a static entity which can interbreed within their limit of variations and hence, is also termed as static concept; option C is incorrect. Candolle pioneered to develop uniform botanical nomenclature and proposed Paris Code/de Candolle rules which were accepted after deliberation of First International Botanical Congress, Paris; option D is incorrect. Thus, the correct answer is option B.
For higher plants, flowers are chiefly used as a basis of classification, because-
Flower colour is a vegetative character that exhibit great phenotypic plasticity, i.e,. it is extremely variable within a genus and even within a species and thus does not form a suitable criteria for classification which makes option A is incorrect. As compared to flowers, leaves and stem can be preserved for long due to presence of dead sclerenchymatous tissues which makes option B incorrect. Since, sexual phase of plant life is restricted to a very brief period as compared to vegetative characters which are exhibited throughout the life span. This results in lesser exposure of sexual characters to the evolutionary pressure which in turn makes them more conservative and constant than vegetative characters; option c is correct. Thus, the correct answer is option C.
The smallest unit of classification is-
Species: It is the smallest and basic unit of classification. Taxonomic studies consider a group of individual organisms with fundamental similarities as a species.
The binomial system of nomenclature was initiallly proposed by -
Casper Bauhin (1623) introduced the binomial nomenclature according to which each species is assigned two names, the first generic names and second species epithet. Since the generic name is mostly a proper noun, it is written with the first letter capitalised while the species epithet is objective and is written in small letters only.
Albert Magnus was first to notice the difference between monocots and dicots and between stem structure.
Andrea Caesalpino was a herbalist and gave more importance to organs of fructification in plant classification rather than the plant habits.
Pedanius Dioscorides was a botanist, he wrote the book De Materia Medica which is a 5-volume encyclopaedia about herbal medicine and related medicinal substances.
Thus, the correct answer is option B.
Concept of phylogeny was proposed by -
Darwin proposed the theory of natural selection to explain the process of evolution. Natural selection refers to unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce based on suitability of their inherited characters to prevailing environmental conditions; option D is incorrect. According to inheritance of acquired characters, a theory given by Lamarck, individual acquire characters under influence of needs as posed as changing environmental conditions; these characters are inherited. He explained evolution the long-necked giraffes from short-necked giraffes on the basis of his theory; option B is incorrect. John Ray proposed the typological species which is defined as a group of organisms that are morphologically similar irrespective of their breeding compatibility. It determines species as a static entity which can interbreed within their limit of variations and hence, is also termed as static concept; option A is incorrect. Haeckel coined the term phylogeny to refer study of ancestral relationship, lineages and that of evolutionary history of a taxonomic group; he built the first genealogical tree of life and proposed the biogenetic law which states that ontogeny repeats phylogeny. Here, ontogeny refers to life history of an individual and phylogeny is the history of evolution of the individual; option C is correct. Thus, the correct answer is option C.
A division is formed by combining several -
The standared size of herbarium sheets is -
Mounting is the process by which a specimen is attached to a herbarium sheet and a label affixed at the lower right corner. Specimens are mounted on sheets of standard size herbarium paper (29 X 43 cm). North American standard size sheets are 29 x 41.5 cm or 11.5 x 16.5 in.
Which statement is true -
A tautonym is a scientific name of a species in which both parts of the name have the same spelling, for example Rattus rattus. But in case of botanical nomenclature, tautonyms are explicitly prohibited because these do not represent formal naming.
Trinomial nomenclature of classification was proposed by -
Linnaeus is considered father of taxonomy and was first to use the binomial nomenclature for organisms. The scientific name of an organism having three words is referred to as trinomial. It usually mentions intraspecific/subspecific epithets after generic name and specific epithet. The names of intraspecific epithets are guided by same rules, as that of specific epithets. For example trinomial name of Brassica oleracea capitata. Here Brassica is generic name, which is followed by specific epithet (oleracea) and name of the variety (capitata). The trinomial nomenclature was proposed by Huxley and Strickland.
Most of the botanical names are drawn from the following language -
Scientific names are derived from Latin language. This is because it is a dead language and the meanings of words are not prone to changes.
Evolutionary classification is called -
Evolutionary taxonomy, evolutionary systematics or Darwinian classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms using a combination of phylogenetic relationship (shared descent), progenitor-descendant relationship (serial descent), and degree of evolutionary change.
Which of the following statements regarding nomenclature is correct -
According to binomial nomenclature, as first implemented by C. Linnaeus, each species is assigned two names; the first generic names and second species epithet. As the generic name is mostly a proper noun, it is written with the first letter capitalised while the species epithet is objective and is written in small letters only, option A is correct. The scientific names are formulated in the Latin language, they are always printed in italics and are underlined separately when handwritten.
So, the correct answer is option D.
The systematic arrangement of taxa is called-
Hierarchy is the ordered arrangement of taxa used to classify organism. Taxa are arranged in a hierarchy from kingdom to subspecies.
The purpose of key are to identify unknown organism. This is done by providing the user a series of choices regarding the characteristics of the unknown organism, and making proper choices at each step of the key, the user can finally find the identity of the unknown organism.
Taxanomy is the process of classification of organisms into systems, as per their similarities or differences.
Genealogy is the study of ancestry and family history.
Which is the most important but generally not use, criteria for the identification of the species -
Interbreeding is the property of the organisms to breed and mate with the organisms of the same species. When two organisms of different species are kept together, there will be no interaction and mating of the animals of different species and no increase in the number of the organisms. Similarly, when there are organisms of the same species, theyw ill interbreed. This help in the identification of the species.
Thus, the correct answer is option A.
Number of obligatory categories in taxonomy are-
There are seven main taxonomic ranks: kingdom, phylum or division, class, order, family, genus, species.
Herbarium is -
Herbarium is a repository of preserved and labelled plant specimens that serve easy access and archival storage. It has specimen in form of herbarium sheets. The collected specimens are pressed and dried plants and then pasted or sewn to a sheet of heavy paper together with a data label. The useful information including the plant's Latin name, the origin of the collection, the date of collection, and the name of the collector is mentioned on label. Herbarium sheets are all of standard size, i.e., 29 cm x 41.5 cm (11.41” x 16.34”). This makes option C correct since, a herbarium has dried reserved plant specimen. It does not refer to a garden where plants are grown; options A and B are incorrect. Chemicals which are used to kill plants are termed as weedicides; option D is incorrect. Thus, the correct answer is option C.
The year of publication of ‘’Species plantarum’’-
Linnaeus is considered as 'father of taxonomy' and was first to use the binomial nomenclature for organisms. He proposed natural system of classification for living organism and divide then into plant and animal kingdom. He described all plant species known to him in his book “Species Plantarum, published in the year 1753” in which he gave a generic name to each species.
So, the correct answer is option C.
The biological concept of species is mainly based on -
The biological species concept is the most widely accepted species concept. It defines species in terms of interbreeding. For instance, Ernst Mayr defined a species as follows: "species are groups of interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups."
A duplicate of holotype is called -
It is either the single such physical example (or illustration) or one of several such, but explicitly designated as the holotype. An isotype is a duplicate of the holotype and is often made for plants, where holotype and isotypes are often pieces from the same individual plant or samples from the same gathering.
Term taxon given by -
The term taxon was first used in 1926 by Adolf Meyer-Abich for animal groups, as a backformation from the word Taxonomy; the word Taxonomy had been coined a century before from the Greek components (taxis, meaning arrangement) and (-nomia meaning method).For plants, it was proposed by Herman Johannes Lam in 1948, and it was adopted at the VII International Botanical Congress, held in 1950.
Tautonmys are valid names according to-
Tautonyms are the species names in which specific epithet is the exact repeat of the generic name with/without transcribed symbol, e.g., Malus malus. The tautonyms are never accepted by botanical nomenclature, although they are allowed in zoological nomenclature. "International Code of Zoological Nomenclature”, is the collection of rules of scientific nomenclature of animals and tautonyms are accepted in zoological nomenclature.
Four kingdom system of classification proposed by -
In 1938, Herbert F. Copeland proposed a four-kingdom classification, elevating the protist classes of bacteria (Monera) and blue-green algae (Phycochromacea) to phyla in the novel Kingdom Monera.
The classification of Linnaeus was mainly based on -
Linnaeus is considered as the father of taxonomy. He identified 24 classes of flowering plants, based on the number of stamens and their adnate or connate state. He divided these classes into orders on the basis of carpel characteristics. His classification employed sexual characters, it is termed as sexual classification. As he used observable characters (stamen and carpel) to generate artificial groups of unrelated taxa and also caused separation of related ones, his system is artificial system.
So, correct answer is option D.
Kingdom monera comprises the -
The Kingdom Monera includes organisms that are single-celled known as bacteria.The kingdom is divided into two groups Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. All the organisms of this kingdom are prokaryotes.
System of classification proposed by Linnaeus was -
Linnaeus is considered as the father of taxonomy. He classified the flowering plants based on the floral characters. The classification was based on the number of stamens and the basis of carpel characteristics. Since, his classification employed sexual characters, it is termed as sexual classification. The artificial system of classification is based on the observable characters such as habit, number, forms, the number of stamen which makes the classification system proposed by Linnaeus as an artificial system.
Thus, the correct answer is option D.