Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


23 Questions MCQ Test Verbal for GMAT | Test: Reading Comprehension- 2


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This mock test of Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 for GMAT helps you for every GMAT entrance exam. This contains 23 Multiple Choice Questions for GMAT Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 (mcq) to study with solutions a complete question bank. The solved questions answers in this Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 quiz give you a good mix of easy questions and tough questions. GMAT students definitely take this Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 exercise for a better result in the exam. You can find other Test: Reading Comprehension- 2 extra questions, long questions & short questions for GMAT on EduRev as well by searching above.
QUESTION: 1

The two construction periods at Aztec, New Mexico, as indicated by the modern tree-ring dating, are corroborated nicely by other evidence found by archaeologist Earl H. Morris in the 1920’s that Aztec actually was built by one group of people, abandoned, and then reoccupied at a later date by a slightly different group of people. Throughout all the rooms he dug during his early 20th century excavations, he found sterile layers of windblown sand and ruined debris from falling walls and ceilings. In this debris and under the sand, he found Chaco-like pottery and artifacts. In addition, there were surprisingly few burial sites. Even today, archeologists have located few Chaco-type burials in Chaco Canyon itself. Whatever the burial customs of the Chaco people may have been, they have eluded archeologists for many decades. The absence of burials of this period at Aztec is a clue that probably a group of Chaco-like people, bearing the distinctive Chaco culture, may actually have moved into the Aztec area.

Granting that the local sandstone was not quite as easily worked as that at Chaco, the large-size rooms, the high ceilings, the banded-veneer masonry walls, the large doorways, and other techniques used were very similar to the architectural techniques of the Chaco area. Overlying the Chaco debris and sterile sand layers, Morris found pottery, household utensils, and burials characteristic of the classic Mesa Verde Period—a period which occurred later than the great Chaco Period. In addition, there were obvious architectural signs of rebuilding and remodeling within the pueblo. Large Chaco-type rooms had been made smaller by wattle-and-daub partition walls, while doorways had been shortened and narrowed more like the ones at Mesa Verde. Thus there were two definite periods of occupation at Aztec, one by a Chaco-like people and one by a Mesa Verde-type people.

The author of the passage likely mentions both Morris and the tree-ring dates in order to

Solution:

 Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Let’s review the relevant part of the passage. The two construction periods at Aztec, New Mexico, as indicated by the modern tree-ring dates, are corroborated nicely by other evidence found by archaeologist Earl H. Morris in the 1920’s that Aztec actually was built by one group of people, abandoned, and then reoccupied at a later date by a slightly different group of people.

So the author mentions the “modern” tree-ring dates and the older evidence to support his statement that Aztec was inhabited by two different groups of people.

Answer Choices

A

Explain how both natural and man-made evidence contributes to debunking a myth about a particular site.

Incorrect: Irrelevant

This is out of scope. The author is not concerned with the different types of evidence, and there is no mention of any kind of any myth related to the Aztec, New Mexico, site.

B

Describe how the later remodeling of Aztec was in the Mesa Verde-style.

Incorrect: Inconsistent

This is a misused detail from the passage. In fact, there is no mention of this style in the first paragraph.

C

Challenge the idea that the Mesa Verde people preceded the Chaco people at Aztec.

Incorrect: Out of Context

The passage does not suggest anyone is making such a claim.

D

Bolster his/her own argument through both recently discovered and historical evidence.

Correct

Ask yourself: why would the author mention both “modern” tree-rings and Morris’ work from the 1920’s? Likely to give a broad range of evidence, both historical and contemporary, to support his/her theory.

E

Prove that only the Chaco and Mesa Verde people lived at Aztec.

Incorrect: Out of Context

We do not know if the Chaco and the Mesa Verde were the “only” groups to live at Aztec. There could have been more. This is outside the scope of the passage.

QUESTION: 2

The two construction periods at Aztec, New Mexico, as indicated by the modern tree-ring dating, are corroborated nicely by other evidence found by archaeologist Earl H. Morris in the 1920’s that Aztec actually was built by one group of people, abandoned, and then reoccupied at a later date by a slightly different group of people. Throughout all the rooms he dug during his early 20th century excavations, he found sterile layers of windblown sand and ruined debris from falling walls and ceilings. In this debris and under the sand, he found Chaco-like pottery and artifacts. In addition, there were surprisingly few burial sites. Even today, archeologists have located few Chaco-type burials in Chaco Canyon itself. Whatever the burial customs of the Chaco people may have been, they have eluded archeologists for many decades. The absence of burials of this period at Aztec is a clue that probably a group of Chaco-like people, bearing the distinctive Chaco culture, may actually have moved into the Aztec area.

Granting that the local sandstone was not quite as easily worked as that at Chaco, the large-size rooms, the high ceilings, the banded-veneer masonry walls, the large doorways, and other techniques used were very similar to the architectural techniques of the Chaco area. Overlying the Chaco debris and sterile sand layers, Morris found pottery, household utensils, and burials characteristic of the classic Mesa Verde Period—a period which occurred later than the great Chaco Period. In addition, there were obvious architectural signs of rebuilding and remodeling within the pueblo. Large Chaco-type rooms had been made smaller by wattle-and-daub partition walls, while doorways had been shortened and narrowed more like the ones at Mesa Verde. Thus there were two definite periods of occupation at Aztec, one by a Chaco-like people and one by a Mesa Verde-type people.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass both of the paragraphs of the passage without veering outside the scope.

Let’s review the individual paragraph summary to get to the correct answer. The first paragraph presents ample details to show that Aztec was inhabited by Chaco people. In the last paragraph, the author reiterates that Chaco people live in Aztec which was later occupied by Mesa Verde people. So the author is primarily concerned with presenting evidence that two groups of people lived in Aztec in two different times.

Answer Choices

A

Refuting a misconception with specific support

Incorrect: Out of Context

No misconception is presented here. The author does not state that some people believe Aztec was inhabited by only one culture.

B

Describing the findings of an archaeologist with whom the author partially agrees

Incorrect: Inconsistent

Firstly, the author does more than just describe the findings of Morris. The author proposes his/her own argument about the Chaco and Mesa Verde style, using evidence cited by Morris. Secondly, there is no reason for us to believe that the author only “partially” agrees with Morris or his findings.

C

Stating a theory and providing support for it

Correct

In the first sentence of the passage, the author states a thesis: Aztec actually was built by one group of people, abandoned, and then reoccupied at a later date by a slightly different group of people.” He then goes on to support this thesis with specific evidence proving the existence of both the Chaco and Mesa Verde people at Aztec.

D

Reframing the timeline for the habitation of a historical site

Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author is merely providing the evidence that suggests two cultures inhabited Aztec. He does not appear overly concerned with emphasizing that Mesa Verde came first and Chaco second.

E

Arguing for the existence of different cultures

Incorrect: Out of Context

The author is not concerned with proving that the Chaco and the Mesa Verde “existed.” This seems like a foregone conclusion. Rather, his/her aim is to show they both inhabited the same site (Aztec, New Mexico) at different periods of time.

QUESTION: 3

Although we still celebrate the late twentieth-century as ‘victory of democracy’, our understanding of what democracy entails in both theory and practice is increasingly subject to a variety of qualifying definitions, many of which now seem to devalue the role of elections and electoral accountability. This is so obviously seen in the politics of the European Union (EU), where the efforts to resolve conflicting issues in arenas where democratic authority is incapable as well as the efforts to depoliticize issues that relate to European integration have led to the development of a distinct political system in which the exercise of popular control and electoral accountability proves very difficult.

European Union’s democratic deficit within the context of the more widespread drift towards forms of decision-making eschews electoral accountability and popular democratic control. However, EU should not be seen as an exception or sui generis but best be regarded as a political system that has been constructed by national political leaders as a safeguarded sphere in which policy making can evade the constraints imposed by representative democracy. The rationale that lies behind it conforms closely to current thinking about the role of non-majoritarian institutions, on the one hand, and about the putative drawbacks of popular democracy, on the other.

Overall, EU can better be conceived as an outcome, or as the consequence of a longer developmental trajectory, in which the democratic process grows and mutates, and in which the mechanisms that allow democracy to function change and adapt. As the experience of the EU suggests, the combination of popular democracy and legitimacy is proving increasingly problematic in making key decisions - not only in Europe, but also further afield.  To put it another way, the fact that conventional forms of democracy and representative government are difficult to apply at the level of the EU is not so much exceptional as symptomatic, and if we could democratize the European Union along conventional lines, then we probably wouldn’t need it in the first place.

From the passage, which of the following about the decision making process in EU can be inferred as true?

Solution:

Answer Choices

A

It is an outgrowth of democracy, making up for the inability of a democratic process to make good decisions at various levels of an organization

OUT OF SCOPE: Decision- making process cannot be outgrowth of democracy, no mention of decision-making at various levels.

B

Members who are not elected as decision makers by the general population of EU make key decisions.

OUT OF SCOPE: There is no mention of who makes decisions in EU.

C

The decisions made through the decision making process are not popular with the electorate.

OUT OF SCOPE: Nothing has been mentioned in this regard.

D

It does not adhere to the generally accepted norms of decision making in a strictly democratic manner.

CORRECT: Both para. 1 &2 explicitly mention that it's very difficult to exercise popular democracy in the EU.

E

It is the poster-child of a new form of decision making that is likely to become the de-facto standards for governments.

OUT OF SCOPE: Decision-making at EU level is discussed, not on government (country) level.

QUESTION: 4

Although we still celebrate the late twentieth-century as ‘victory of democracy’, our understanding of what democracy entails in both theory and practice is increasingly subject to a variety of qualifying definitions, many of which now seem to devalue the role of elections and electoral accountability. This is so obviously seen in the politics of the European Union (EU), where the efforts to resolve conflicting issues in arenas where democratic authority is incapable as well as the efforts to depoliticize issues that relate to European integration have led to the development of a distinct political system in which the exercise of popular control and electoral accountability proves very difficult.

European Union’s democratic deficit within the context of the more widespread drift towards forms of decision-making eschews electoral accountability and popular democratic control. However, EU should not be seen as an exception or sui generis but best be regarded as a political system that has been constructed by national political leaders as a safeguarded sphere in which policy making can evade the constraints imposed by representative democracy. The rationale that lies behind it conforms closely to current thinking about the role of non-majoritarian institutions, on the one hand, and about the putative drawbacks of popular democracy, on the other.

Overall, EU can better be conceived as an outcome, or as the consequence of a longer developmental trajectory, in which the democratic process grows and mutates, and in which the mechanisms that allow democracy to function change and adapt. As the experience of the EU suggests, the combination of popular democracy and legitimacy is proving increasingly problematic in making key decisions - not only in Europe, but also further afield.  To put it another way, the fact that conventional forms of democracy and representative government are difficult to apply at the level of the EU is not so much exceptional as symptomatic, and if we could democratize the European Union along conventional lines, then we probably wouldn’t need it in the first place.

According to the passage the decision making process in EU is:

Solution:

Answer Choices

A

an evolution of current democratic process to suit decision making a level much higher than the democratic processes were designed for.

CORRECT: EU had to be formed as popular democracy was hampering key decision making.

B

a disruption to the classical process of decision making that will likely spread to other continents.

INCONSISTENT: EU system is not a disruption but a deviation from popular democracy.

C

an improvement that allows better decisions to be made.

OUT OF SCOPE: The passage does not say whether decisions made by the EU are better.

D

a symptom of great changes to come that will transform democracy.

OUT OF SCOPE: This cannot be inferred from the passage.

E

representation of a new form of thinking related to decision making in the free world.

OUT OF SCOPE: There is no mention of the free world anywhere in the passage.

QUESTION: 5

Although we still celebrate the late twentieth-century as ‘victory of democracy’, our understanding of what democracy entails in both theory and practice is increasingly subject to a variety of qualifying definitions, many of which now seem to devalue the role of elections and electoral accountability. This is so obviously seen in the politics of the European Union (EU), where the efforts to resolve conflicting issues in arenas where democratic authority is incapable as well as the efforts to depoliticize issues that relate to European integration have led to the development of a distinct political system in which the exercise of popular control and electoral accountability proves very difficult.

European Union’s democratic deficit within the context of the more widespread drift towards forms of decision-making eschews electoral accountability and popular democratic control. However, EU should not be seen as an exception or sui generis but best be regarded as a political system that has been constructed by national political leaders as a safeguarded sphere in which policy making can evade the constraints imposed by representative democracy. The rationale that lies behind it conforms closely to current thinking about the role of non-majoritarian institutions, on the one hand, and about the putative drawbacks of popular democracy, on the other.

Overall, EU can better be conceived as an outcome, or as the consequence of a longer developmental trajectory, in which the democratic process grows and mutates, and in which the mechanisms that allow democracy to function change and adapt. As the experience of the EU suggests, the combination of popular democracy and legitimacy is proving increasingly problematic in making key decisions - not only in Europe, but also further afield.  To put it another way, the fact that conventional forms of democracy and representative government are difficult to apply at the level of the EU is not so much exceptional as symptomatic, and if we could democratize the European Union along conventional lines, then we probably wouldn’t need it in the first place.

The primary purpose of the passage is to:

Solution:

Answer Choices

A

describe the decline of electoral accountability in a world where countries combine to form unions.

OUT OF SCOPE: The purpose is not to talk about decline of electoral accountability. Also, EU is just one example of changing “democracy”. 

B

provide anecdotal examples in which traditional democratic processes are unsuitable in the context of EU.

OUT OF SCOPE: The author has not presented any anecdotal examples.

C

present an evolution of democratic decision making using an example.

CORRECT: Citing EU as example, the author elaborates on the idea of changing “democracy”. 

D

describe the reasons for decline of democracy in Europe.

OUT OF SCOPE: There are no reasons mentioned for decline of democracy in Europe.

E

outline the causes that may lead to the rise of new political system in Europe.

OUT OF SCOPE: There is no mention of any such cause in the passage.

QUESTION: 6

Eating fish and other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids could help people maintain healthy brains as they age as well as protect their hearts, new research suggests. Per this research, participants with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had slightly smaller brains and scored lower on memory and cognitive tests than people with higher blood levels of omega-3s.

The researchers then looked at and ranked the level of omega-3 fatty acids in the participants' blood. People who scored in the bottom 25% in omega-3 fatty acid levels were compared with the rest of the study participants. Researchers found that those who had the lowest level of omega-3 fatty acid levels in their blood had lower brain gray matter volume compared with those with higher levels.

Gray matter volume is crucial to brain health. When it remains higher, brain health is being maintained. Decrease in gray matter volume indicates that brain cells are shrinking. The findings showed that consumption of baked or broiled fish on a weekly basis was positively associated with retention of gray matter volume in several areas of the brain. In fact the greater hippocampal, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex volumes obtained by optimal fish consumption led to reduced risk of contracting MCI or Alzheimer’s by almost five-fold.

The most recent U.S. dietary guidelines—released last year—recommend at least two servings of seafood a week. Some doctors and diet experts recommend that patients consume fish three times a week or take fish-oil supplements so they get enough omega-3 fatty acids to obtain health benefits.

According to the passage, people who eat foods rich in Omega 3 acids experience which of the following benefits

Solution:
QUESTION: 7

Eating fish and other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids could help people maintain healthy brains as they age as well as protect their hearts, new research suggests. Per this research, participants with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had slightly smaller brains and scored lower on memory and cognitive tests than people with higher blood levels of omega-3s.

The researchers then looked at and ranked the level of omega-3 fatty acids in the participants' blood. People who scored in the bottom 25% in omega-3 fatty acid levels were compared with the rest of the study participants. Researchers found that those who had the lowest level of omega-3 fatty acid levels in their blood had lower brain gray matter volume compared with those with higher levels.

Gray matter volume is crucial to brain health. When it remains higher, brain health is being maintained. Decrease in gray matter volume indicates that brain cells are shrinking. The findings showed that consumption of baked or broiled fish on a weekly basis was positively associated with retention of gray matter volume in several areas of the brain. In fact the greater hippocampal, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex volumes obtained by optimal fish consumption led to reduced risk of contracting MCI or Alzheimer’s by almost five-fold.

The most recent U.S. dietary guidelines—released last year—recommend at least two servings of seafood a week. Some doctors and diet experts recommend that patients consume fish three times a week or take fish-oil supplements so they get enough omega-3 fatty acids to obtain health benefits.

The experiment discussed in paragraph 2 suggests

Solution:
QUESTION: 8

Eating fish and other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids could help people maintain healthy brains as they age as well as protect their hearts, new research suggests. Per this research, participants with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had slightly smaller brains and scored lower on memory and cognitive tests than people with higher blood levels of omega-3s.

The researchers then looked at and ranked the level of omega-3 fatty acids in the participants' blood. People who scored in the bottom 25% in omega-3 fatty acid levels were compared with the rest of the study participants. Researchers found that those who had the lowest level of omega-3 fatty acid levels in their blood had lower brain gray matter volume compared with those with higher levels.

Gray matter volume is crucial to brain health. When it remains higher, brain health is being maintained. Decrease in gray matter volume indicates that brain cells are shrinking. The findings showed that consumption of baked or broiled fish on a weekly basis was positively associated with retention of gray matter volume in several areas of the brain. In fact the greater hippocampal, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex volumes obtained by optimal fish consumption led to reduced risk of contracting MCI or Alzheimer’s by almost five-fold.

The most recent U.S. dietary guidelines—released last year—recommend at least two servings of seafood a week. Some doctors and diet experts recommend that patients consume fish three times a week or take fish-oil supplements so they get enough omega-3 fatty acids to obtain health benefits.

The author’s main purpose in writing the passage is

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Eating fish and other foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids could help people maintain healthy brains as they age as well as protect their hearts, new research suggests. Per this research, participants with low levels of omega-3 fatty acids in their blood had slightly smaller brains and scored lower on memory and cognitive tests than people with higher blood levels of omega-3s.

The researchers then looked at and ranked the level of omega-3 fatty acids in the participants' blood. People who scored in the bottom 25% in omega-3 fatty acid levels were compared with the rest of the study participants. Researchers found that those who had the lowest level of omega-3 fatty acid levels in their blood had lower brain gray matter volume compared with those with higher levels.

Gray matter volume is crucial to brain health. When it remains higher, brain health is being maintained. Decrease in gray matter volume indicates that brain cells are shrinking. The findings showed that consumption of baked or broiled fish on a weekly basis was positively associated with retention of gray matter volume in several areas of the brain. In fact the greater hippocampal, posterior cingulate, and orbital frontal cortex volumes obtained by optimal fish consumption led to reduced risk of contracting MCI or Alzheimer’s by almost five-fold.

The most recent U.S. dietary guidelines—released last year—recommend at least two servings of seafood a week. Some doctors and diet experts recommend that patients consume fish three times a week or take fish-oil supplements so they get enough omega-3 fatty acids to obtain health benefits.

The passage suggests the following about diet and gray matter volume

Solution:
QUESTION: 10

While there is no guarantee that increased investment in achieving energy independence will solve all of America’s unemployment problems, the results so far have demonstrated that it will definitely help the cause.   Under President Obama's watch, such increased investment has so far created 1.5 million jobs and has demonstrated the potential to create many more.

After a four-decade decline in oil production, the U.S. is now producing enough oil to serve more than half of our oil needs. This has the potential to free us from our addiction to foreign-sourced barrels, particularly if we utilize our dramatically larger and cheaper reserves of natural gas, which now costs the equivalent of less than $15 per barrel, versus the $100-plus per barrel of oil we import from the Middle East. The money saved by increased use of natural gas has helped in greater investments and has created more than 75,000 jobs domestically.

 

Moreover, the president’s policies have motivated companies to invest more in clean energy to the extent that American companies make over 75% of all venture investments in clean technologies. Overall, because of U.S. public and private investments in clean energy—including renewables, efficiency, transportation, and infrastructure—the clean economy grew by 8.3% from 2008 to 2009, even during the depths of the recession. Even though several technologies, such as solar power, are still not as cost-competitive as imported oil, expanding these clean-energy investments is good economics as they will help preserve and expand America's middle class, because energy investments are a particularly effective method of "insourcing" manufacturing jobs, which in turn spur jobs in invention, installation, and maintenance.

Q. From the passage which of the following can be inferred about imported oil?

Solution:
QUESTION: 11

While there is no guarantee that increased investment in achieving energy independence will solve all of America’s unemployment problems, the results so far have demonstrated that it will definitely help the cause.   Under President Obama's watch, such increased investment has so far created 1.5 million jobs and has demonstrated the potential to create many more.

After a four-decade decline in oil production, the U.S. is now producing enough oil to serve more than half of our oil needs. This has the potential to free us from our addiction to foreign-sourced barrels, particularly if we utilize our dramatically larger and cheaper reserves of natural gas, which now costs the equivalent of less than $15 per barrel, versus the $100-plus per barrel of oil we import from the Middle East. The money saved by increased use of natural gas has helped in greater investments and has created more than 75,000 jobs domestically.

 

Moreover, the president’s policies have motivated companies to invest more in clean energy to the extent that American companies make over 75% of all venture investments in clean technologies. Overall, because of U.S. public and private investments in clean energy—including renewables, efficiency, transportation, and infrastructure—the clean economy grew by 8.3% from 2008 to 2009, even during the depths of the recession. Even though several technologies, such as solar power, are still not as cost-competitive as imported oil, expanding these clean-energy investments is good economics as they will help preserve and expand America's middle class, because energy investments are a particularly effective method of "insourcing" manufacturing jobs, which in turn spur jobs in invention, installation, and maintenance.

Q. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with

Solution:
QUESTION: 12

The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ. These perceptions are accompanied by a persuasive sense of their reality. Hallucinations are not to be confused with illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli. In other words, in the case of a hallucination, for a person hallucinating a sound for instance, the sound actually exists, but in reality it exists nowhere but in the person’s mind; however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world. Although hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others, they can occur in individuals devoid of any physical or mental disorder.

In order to understand why people hallucinate, some researchers have been studying people suffering from what is called the phantom limb syndrome, a condition in which people who have undergone amputation feel as though the missing body part were still very much present and attached to the body; for instance, it is not uncommon for a person who has lost a leg to unknowingly try to stand and walk without any external support after their surgery. One of the two main hypotheses behind the phantom limb syndrome offers an explanation that is possibly applicable to why people hallucinate in certain circumstances. As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part, the brain compensates for the lack of sensory input by triggering spontaneous nerve cell activity. Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action. 

Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference- EXCEPT question. Four out of the five given answer choices will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but they may not be explicitly stated in the passage; these answer choices are INCORRECT. Select the answer choice that is NOT bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Solitary confinement is a condition that it is not necessarily deemed out of the ordinary. 

Correct: Opposite

This piece of information is against the information given in the last sentence of the final paragraph. The author distinctly states that:

Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements;

Through this sentence the author presents a contrast.  In the first bolded statement, he/she indicates that the theory has limited applicability in conditions that are not deemed out of the ordinary, i.e. the theory has limited applicability in ordinary conditions. The author then presents the contrast – this theory is a step forward to understand hallucinations in solitary confinements.  Thus, by combing these two aspects of contract, one can infer that the author does not consider solitary confinement as an ordinary condition. 

Thus, this answer choice goes against the given information. 

B

An illusion follows an actual stimulus whereas a hallucination does not. 

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is given in the introductory paragraph. The author states that:

...is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ...however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world.

In the above extract, the author mentions that an illusion follows a real stimulus whereas a hallucination is in the absence of any external stimulus.

C

On detecting that a patient is experiencing hallucinations, a psychiatrist is likely to check the patient for schizophrenia.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the information given in the last sentence of the first paragraph. The author states that hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder. What this phrase means is that hallucinations are a symptom and are used to check for the mental disorder schizophrenia.

D

When a body part is amputated, the brain stops receiving some of the signals it usually does.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be inferred from the explanation proposed in the hypothesis discussed in the second paragraph. The author states that:
As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part,

E

The applicability of phantom limb syndrome is limited to some instances of hallucinations.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information can be derived from the following portion in the second paragraph:

Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action.

 

QUESTION: 13

The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ. These perceptions are accompanied by a persuasive sense of their reality. Hallucinations are not to be confused with illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli. In other words, in the case of a hallucination, for a person hallucinating a sound for instance, the sound actually exists, but in reality it exists nowhere but in the person’s mind; however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world. Although hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others, they can occur in individuals devoid of any physical or mental disorder.

In order to understand why people hallucinate, some researchers have been studying people suffering from what is called the phantom limb syndrome, a condition in which people who have undergone amputation feel as though the missing body part were still very much present and attached to the body; for instance, it is not uncommon for a person who has lost a leg to unknowingly try to stand and walk without any external support after their surgery. One of the two main hypotheses behind the phantom limb syndrome offers an explanation that is possibly applicable to why people hallucinate in certain circumstances. As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part, the brain compensates for the lack of sensory input by triggering spontaneous nerve cell activity. Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action. 

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope. 

Answer Choices

A

Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders and discussing the relevance of a theory.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does differentiate hallucinations from one phenomenon (illusions), but we are never told whether illusion is a form of disorder. Hence, this part of the choice cannot be justified: Differentiating hallucinations from other forms of disorders.

B

Discussing the relevance of a proposed hypothesis while defining hallucination and differentiating it from another phenomenon. 

Correct

This choice corrects the error noted in the above choice and is on the same lines as our pre-thought main point noted in the summary section.

C

Explaining why a theory does not provide full insight in to the circumstances leading upto hallucinations. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does mention that the theory has limited applicability, but he/she never delves in to why it doesn't provide full insight. Also, this choice completely ignored the relevance of the first paragraph in the passage.

D

Defining hallucination by citing a unanimously agreed upon definition and providing insight into why hallucinations take place in circumstances not regarded out of the ordinary. 

Incorrect: Inconsistent

First of all, this choice does not mention anything about the difference mentioned between hallucinations and illusions. Secondly, and more importantly, the author talks about how a particular theory explains hallucinations in specific circumstances that are not ordinary. This choice says the exact opposite.

E

Elaborating on a theory that deals with a phenomenon that is triggered by circumstances not dissimilar to hallucinations in certain conditions. 

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice covers the scope of only the second paragraph. There is no mention of the function of the paragraph in the passage.

 

 

QUESTION: 14

The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ. These perceptions are accompanied by a persuasive sense of their reality. Hallucinations are not to be confused with illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli. In other words, in the case of a hallucination, for a person hallucinating a sound for instance, the sound actually exists, but in reality it exists nowhere but in the person’s mind; however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world. Although hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others, they can occur in individuals devoid of any physical or mental disorder.

In order to understand why people hallucinate, some researchers have been studying people suffering from what is called the phantom limb syndrome, a condition in which people who have undergone amputation feel as though the missing body part were still very much present and attached to the body; for instance, it is not uncommon for a person who has lost a leg to unknowingly try to stand and walk without any external support after their surgery. One of the two main hypotheses behind the phantom limb syndrome offers an explanation that is possibly applicable to why people hallucinate in certain circumstances. As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part, the brain compensates for the lack of sensory input by triggering spontaneous nerve cell activity. Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action. 

Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. Keep crossing out answer choices that are not explicitly stated in the passage and choose the one for which you can directly refer to a portion in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

Hallucinations are caused by chemical imbalances in the brain, imbalances typical of people with mental disorders.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no mention of chemical imbalance anywhere in the passage. Also, the author mentions in the last sentence of the first paragraph that hallucinations can occur in people who DO NOT have any mental disorder.

B

Hallucinations cannot be experienced at the same time as illusions. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no information given regarding the possibility of experiencing the two phenomena at the same time. Hence, this choice has no relevant basis in the passage.

C

A person suffering from the phantom limb syndrome is likely to suffer from hallucination at some point during the condition. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not discuss the probability of experiencing hallucinations and phantom limb syndrome.

D

Auditory and visual hallucinations are the two most common types of hallucinations experienced by people in solitary confinement.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

These types of hallucinations are mentioned in the second paragraph for people in solitary confinements; however, nowhere does the author say that these are "two most common" types of hallucinations in such circumstances.

E

An illusion happens after there has been a real external trigger for the same.

Correct

This is stated in the first paragraph of the passage. The author says that ...illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli

QUESTION: 15

The generally agreed upon definition of hallucinations is that they are actually perceptions in the absence of an external stimulus of the relevant sensory organ. These perceptions are accompanied by a persuasive sense of their reality. Hallucinations are not to be confused with illusions, which are misinterpretations of actual external stimuli. In other words, in the case of a hallucination, for a person hallucinating a sound for instance, the sound actually exists, but in reality it exists nowhere but in the person’s mind; however, in the case of an illusion the stimulus that caused the illusion does exist in the real world. Although hallucinations are a key diagnostic feature of schizophrenia, a mental disorder that distorts the way a person thinks, acts, expresses emotions, perceives reality, and relates to others, they can occur in individuals devoid of any physical or mental disorder.

In order to understand why people hallucinate, some researchers have been studying people suffering from what is called the phantom limb syndrome, a condition in which people who have undergone amputation feel as though the missing body part were still very much present and attached to the body; for instance, it is not uncommon for a person who has lost a leg to unknowingly try to stand and walk without any external support after their surgery. One of the two main hypotheses behind the phantom limb syndrome offers an explanation that is possibly applicable to why people hallucinate in certain circumstances. As per this theory, the brain is programmed for a body where every body part is intact and in the appropriate place. Accordingly, when some signals go missing, because of the missing body part, the brain compensates for the lack of sensory input by triggering spontaneous nerve cell activity. Although this theory has limited applicability for understanding why patients such as those of schizophrenia hallucinate in conditions not deemed out of the ordinary, it is a step forward in understanding why people experience visual or auditory hallucinations when they are placed in solitary confinements; after all the different areas of the brain that were used to receiving signals through the senses start to stimulate themselves in to action. 

Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the first paragraph?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

 

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. The correct answer will cover the scope of the entire first paragraph and not just pieces of information from the same. As we discussed in the summary, in the first paragraph, the author defines hallucinations and differentiates them from illusions.  We need to find the answer that communicates this function.

Answer Choices

A

To elaborate a concept while differentiating it from other related concepts. 

Incorrect: Irrelevant

First of all, the author introduces the concept of hallucinations here and does not elaborate on one. Secondly, the only other concept, and not concepts, it is differentiated from is illusions.

B

To define a phenomenon while discarding a common misunderstanding about its central feature. 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

There is no "common misunderstanding" mentioned in the passage. The author merely advises that hallucinations are not to be mixed with illusions.

C

To explain a key difference between two concepts.

Incorrect: Partial scope

This choice does encapsulate the part in which the author differentiates between hallucinations and illusions. However, it misses a key element that the reason the author mentions this difference is to increase our understanding about the concept of hallucinations.

D

To introduce a phenomenon while differentiating it from another. 

Correct

This is indeed the function of the first paragraph. The author introduces the concept of hallucinations while differentiating it from illusions.

E

To initiate a discussion about a concept that is normally mistaken for another phenomenon. 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does start a discussion about hallucinations in this paragraph; however, this choice, like choice B, is incorrect as we do not know that hallucinations are mistaken for illusions normally.

QUESTION: 16

Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.

The author is primarily concerned with

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all the content of the passage without veering outside the scope.

Answer Choices

A

debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.

 

B

suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.

C

discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.

D

explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant

In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.

E

explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood 

Correct

This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.

QUESTION: 17

Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.

Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference question. The word "derived" indicates the correct answer will follow closely from what is directly stated in the passage, but it may not itself be explicitly stated in the passage. Select the answer choice that is most strongly bolstered by specific facts mentioned in the passage.

Answer Choices

A

People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content.  Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B

The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it. 

Correct

The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners.
This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.

C

The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way forus to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.

D

A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.

E

The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.

QUESTION: 18

Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.

Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?

Solution:

Pre-Thinking

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question. Ask yourself: how does this paragraph function within the larger context of the passage? Often the answer choices for this type of question are presented as verbs, so try to come up with your own answer in verb-form.

Answer Choices

A

To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study 

Correct

This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.

B

To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.

C

To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation 

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.

D

To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable

Incorrect: Out of Scope

The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.

E

To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music 

Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.

 

QUESTION: 19

Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.

Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference- except question. Your job in this question is to rule out every answer choice that deals with a piece of information mentioned that can be derived from the passage and choose the one that either goes against the given information or is unrelated to the contents of the passage

Answer Choices

A

Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score. 

Correct: Not given in the passage

There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B

The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions. 

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.

C

It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)

Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D

The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners. 

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.

E

Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.

 

 

QUESTION: 20

Inspired by earlier artists but developed as a genre in its own right in the last few decades of the twentieth century, installation art is now recognized by academic institutions. It has long been seen as an example of ‘anti-establishment’ artwork, since it is typically created in public spaces and involves the use of ‘everyday’ materials, unlike conventional artwork that, even though usually meant for public consumption, is created in a private space. Installation art in contemporary times also uses emerging forms of artistic representation such as videos, social networks and aspects of virtual reality. This form of art, like traditional art, can be either realistic or abstract in its representation of reality.

Straddling the boundaries between sculpture and painting, installation art gives more priority to the intention of the artist rather than the physical form or structure of the art: its purpose is often to relay a specific message through the medium chosen by the artist. Artists such as ‘Banksy’, known only by his pseudonym and famous for his street art that is meant as a caricature of political institutions, often use their art as a medium of socio-political activism. 

From the audience’s perspective, installation art also gives an unprecedented amount of importance to the viewer’s subjective perception of the artwork. The intention of the artist is therefore supplemented by the way in which viewers perceive the artwork. This vision of art overturns the traditional Platonic view of image theory, which gives the form and intention of the artwork far more predominance than external perspectives on the work. There are no ‘ideal’ forms in the creation and exhibition of installation art. This attribute is as it should be: art, after all, requires both an artist and an audience in order to flourish, and nowhere is this creator-viewer relationship more prominent than in the study and appreciation of installation art, which embraces the flawed and fragmented nature of reality. 

Which of the following CANNOT be inferred from the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is an Inference - EXCEPT question. Therefore, the correct answer will NOT be based on the information given in the passage. Since it’s an open ended inference question, we cannot pre-think on specific lines; however, we must keep in mind that the choices that can be inferred from the passage are INCORRECT. 

Answer Choices

A

Installation art as a separate genre of art is not more than a century old.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

This information can be derived from the first sentence of the passage (ref. below):

Inspired by earlier artists but developed as a genre in its own right in the last few decades of the twentieth century, installation art

B

Most artists from the genre of installation art use their art form as a medium of socio-political activism. 

Correct: Inconsistent

 

The talk about socio-political activism takes place with reference to certain artists of installation art who, like Banksy, use it convey socio-political messages. However, we are not told what proportion of the artists from this genre do so. Hence, the word “most” cannot be justified.

C

Installation art contains elements of both sculpture and painting.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

 

This statement can be derived from the second paragraph. The author describes IA as “straddling the boundaries between sculpture and painting...”.

D

It is unlikely that in the past, installation art was studied in school by students of art.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

 

The author says in the first sentence that “installation art is now recognized by academic institutions.” From this statement, we can infer that universities did not recognize IA in the past, and hence that it was unlikely that IA was a part of curriculums in the past. 

E

Installation art is a less rigid form of art, laying out no guidelines for how art is to be created or viewed.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred

 This choice captures much of the essence of final paragraph in which we are told that IA gives importance to the subjective opinions of viewers and how it does not have any “ideal” forms in terms of creation and exhibition of art. 

 

QUESTION: 21

Inspired by earlier artists but developed as a genre in its own right in the last few decades of the twentieth century, installation art is now recognized by academic institutions. It has long been seen as an example of ‘anti-establishment’ artwork, since it is typically created in public spaces and involves the use of ‘everyday’ materials, unlike conventional artwork that, even though usually meant for public consumption, is created in a private space. Installation art in contemporary times also uses emerging forms of artistic representation such as videos, social networks and aspects of virtual reality. This form of art, like traditional art, can be either realistic or abstract in its representation of reality.

Straddling the boundaries between sculpture and painting, installation art gives more priority to the intention of the artist rather than the physical form or structure of the art: its purpose is often to relay a specific message through the medium chosen by the artist. Artists such as ‘Banksy’, known only by his pseudonym and famous for his street art that is meant as a caricature of political institutions, often use their art as a medium of socio-political activism. 

From the audience’s perspective, installation art also gives an unprecedented amount of importance to the viewer’s subjective perception of the artwork. The intention of the artist is therefore supplemented by the way in which viewers perceive the artwork. This vision of art overturns the traditional Platonic view of image theory, which gives the form and intention of the artwork far more predominance than external perspectives on the work. There are no ‘ideal’ forms in the creation and exhibition of installation art. This attribute is as it should be: art, after all, requires both an artist and an audience in order to flourish, and nowhere is this creator-viewer relationship more prominent than in the study and appreciation of installation art, which embraces the flawed and fragmented nature of reality. 

The author’s reference to Banksy serves primarily to

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Function question.  Let’s review the pertinent portion of the portion to figure out why the author mentions ‘Banksy’:

installation art gives more priority to the intention of the artist rather than the physical form or structure of the art: its purpose is often to relay a specific message through the medium chosen by the artist. Artists such as ‘Banksy’, known only by his pseudonym and famous for his street art that is meant as a caricature of political institutions, often use their art as a medium of socio-political activism.

As we can see, the author uses the example of artists such as Banksy to elaborate on the earlier point about how IA is less concerned with the form of the art itself and instead concentrates on the specific message that the artists want to convey.

Answer Choices

A

give an example of contemporary artists who often use pseudonyms.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

 

We don’t know from the passage whether artists today often use pseudonyms. According to the passage, this is true only of Banksy.

B

establish that contemporary art often criticizes political organizations.

Incorrect: Out of Scope

Banksy is referred to in the context of some artists from the genre of IA — not of contemporary art in general.

C

prove that caricatures can also be categorized as legitimate art. 

Incorrect: Out of Scope

There is no discussion on whether caricatures count as 'legitimate' art.

D

illustrate how street art forms a well-known part of installation art.

Incorrect: Out of Context

 

The information given about street art is with reference to the form of art work produced by Banksy but it is not the reason that Banksy is mentioned. 

E

to exemplify the use of installation art to convey messages

Correct:

This choice is the closest to what we pre-thought. 

 

 

QUESTION: 22

Inspired by earlier artists but developed as a genre in its own right in the last few decades of the twentieth century, installation art is now recognized by academic institutions. It has long been seen as an example of ‘anti-establishment’ artwork, since it is typically created in public spaces and involves the use of ‘everyday’ materials, unlike conventional artwork that, even though usually meant for public consumption, is created in a private space. Installation art in contemporary times also uses emerging forms of artistic representation such as videos, social networks and aspects of virtual reality. This form of art, like traditional art, can be either realistic or abstract in its representation of reality.

Straddling the boundaries between sculpture and painting, installation art gives more priority to the intention of the artist rather than the physical form or structure of the art: its purpose is often to relay a specific message through the medium chosen by the artist. Artists such as ‘Banksy’, known only by his pseudonym and famous for his street art that is meant as a caricature of political institutions, often use their art as a medium of socio-political activism. 

From the audience’s perspective, installation art also gives an unprecedented amount of importance to the viewer’s subjective perception of the artwork. The intention of the artist is therefore supplemented by the way in which viewers perceive the artwork. This vision of art overturns the traditional Platonic view of image theory, which gives the form and intention of the artwork far more predominance than external perspectives on the work. There are no ‘ideal’ forms in the creation and exhibition of installation art. This attribute is as it should be: art, after all, requires both an artist and an audience in order to flourish, and nowhere is this creator-viewer relationship more prominent than in the study and appreciation of installation art, which embraces the flawed and fragmented nature of reality. 

According to the author, which of the following is a feature of installation art but not of traditional art?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Detail question. We need to look for a feature of installation art that it does not share with traditional art. We can tell from the phrase “according to the author” that the correct answer will closely follow information that is directly stated by the author.  

 

Answer Choices

A

sticks to ideal forms in the creation of art

Incorrect: Opposite

 This is not a feature of IA. The author states in the last paragraph that :

There are no ‘ideal’ forms in the creation and exhibition of installation art.

B

not created in a private space

Correct

 

This indeed is a feature of IA that it does not share with traditional art. The author states in paragraph 1 that IA is “typically created in public spaces” and is “unlike conventional artwork that…is created in a private space”.

C

follows the Platonic model of image theory

Incorrect: Opposite

 

This is not a feature of IA. The author states in the last paragraph that Platonic image theory is “traditional”, and that IA “overturns” this perspective.

D

can be either realistic or abstract

Incorrect: Opposite

 

This feature is stated at the end of the first paragraph as a similarity between IA and traditional art.

E

is used for social activism

Incorrect: Inconsistent

 

While the author does state in paragraph 2 that IA is used for social activism, the passage does not say that traditional art cannot be used for the same purpose.

QUESTION: 23

Inspired by earlier artists but developed as a genre in its own right in the last few decades of the twentieth century, installation art is now recognized by academic institutions. It has long been seen as an example of ‘anti-establishment’ artwork, since it is typically created in public spaces and involves the use of ‘everyday’ materials, unlike conventional artwork that, even though usually meant for public consumption, is created in a private space. Installation art in contemporary times also uses emerging forms of artistic representation such as videos, social networks and aspects of virtual reality. This form of art, like traditional art, can be either realistic or abstract in its representation of reality.

Straddling the boundaries between sculpture and painting, installation art gives more priority to the intention of the artist rather than the physical form or structure of the art: its purpose is often to relay a specific message through the medium chosen by the artist. Artists such as ‘Banksy’, known only by his pseudonym and famous for his street art that is meant as a caricature of political institutions, often use their art as a medium of socio-political activism. 

From the audience’s perspective, installation art also gives an unprecedented amount of importance to the viewer’s subjective perception of the artwork. The intention of the artist is therefore supplemented by the way in which viewers perceive the artwork. This vision of art overturns the traditional Platonic view of image theory, which gives the form and intention of the artwork far more predominance than external perspectives on the work. There are no ‘ideal’ forms in the creation and exhibition of installation art. This attribute is as it should be: art, after all, requires both an artist and an audience in order to flourish, and nowhere is this creator-viewer relationship more prominent than in the study and appreciation of installation art, which embraces the flawed and fragmented nature of reality. 

Which of the following is the primary purpose of the passage?

Solution:

Passage Analysis

Summary and Main Point

Pre-Thinking

This is a Main Idea question. The correct answer must be broad enough to encompass all of the paragraphs of the passage without veering outside the scope. Let’s revisit the summary and main point section to understand the author’s main purpose behind writing this passage.

As shown, in the first paragraph, the author gives the history and description of IA while comparing it with traditional art. In the second paragraph, the author states that the purpose of IA is usually to convey a message by the artist and in the last passage the author shows how IA departures from traditional art in ways that the author considers appropriate. Hence, we can conclude that the author’s main purpose in writing this passage is to analyze IA while comparing it with traditional form of art.

 

Answer Choices

A

To argue that a certain art genre, though different from traditional art, should get the same status as most other art forms

Incorrect:  Out of Scope

 

The author never argues for any kind of recognition that the author deems should be given to installation art.  

B

To analyze an art genre while differentiating it from conventional art

Correct

 

This answer choice is closest to our understanding of the passage and our analysis in the pre-thinking section.

C

To discuss the features of an art form that is by far the most unconventional of all art genres

Incorrect: Inconsistent

 

Yes, the author discusses the features of installation art, which is unlike traditional art in many ways, but we have no basis to conclude from the passage that it is the most unconventional art form. 

D

To trace the history of an art form that is a departure from traditional art 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

 

This choice rightly captures the essence of the first paragraph but fails to account for the scope of the other two paragraphs. 

E

To describe the relevance of the perspectives of the viewers of art who are given special importance by one art genre 

Incorrect: Partial Scope

 

This choice partially covers the scope of only the third paragraph.

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