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Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2


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30 Questions MCQ Test Botany for Class 11 - Notes and Tests | Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2

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Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 1

Roots developing from plant parts other than radicle are:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 1
  • Roots developing from plant parts other than radicle are adventitious roots because adventitious means coming from outside. That means they develop in places other than their natural position.
  • They may arise from stems, leaves etc. Example: oak trees

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 66 of topic “5.1 THE ROOT” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 2

Radish is an example of:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 2

Fusiform roots have tapering on both ends.Radish has tapering too on both sides hence they are fusiform roots.

► Napiform root: Turnip
► Conical root: Carrot
► Tuberous root: Sweet potato

Modifications of Root

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 67 of topic “5.1.2 Modifications of Root” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 3

Roots associated with nitrogen fixing bacteria are:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 3

Nodulated Roots: The roots  having  the irregular or the round mass or a lump called nodules within the cells are known as nodulated roots.The roots of leguminous plants possess these characteristic swelling nodules which are caused by colonies of nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium).
Hence, the correct option is C.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 4

The edible part of turnip is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 4

Turnip is a root vegetable. So we eat the root of turnip. Therefore the edible part of turnip is the root. Turnip, carrot has modified root and potato, turmeric, ginger has modified stem to store food.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 67 of topic “5.1.2 Modifications of Root” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 5

Which is a modification of root that does not store food?

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 5

Stilt roots arise from the first few nodes of the stem. These penetrate down into the soil and give support to the plant e.g., maize and sugarcane. Whereas tuberous, napiform and conical roots are the types of tap root and modified for food storage.

Hence, the correct option is D.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 67 of topic “5.1.2 Modifications of Root” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 6

Stem develops from ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 6

The stem is the ascending part of the axis bearing branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. It develops from the plumule of the embryo of a germinating seed. It bears nodes and internodes.
Plumule is the future shoot of a plant, as radicle is the future root of the plant.


Hence, the correct option is A.

NCERT Reference: Page no. 68 of topic “5.2 THE STEM” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 7

Water is absorbed by ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 7

Root hairs in plants have a large surface area and are surrounded by water, soil and nutrients and due to large surface area root hairs absorb water for the growth of plants.

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 67 of topic “5.1.1 Regions of the Root” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 8

Which is an offset?

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 8

The short lateral stem called the offset in some aquatic plants (such as Eichhornia) bears leaves and tufts of roots at the node and gives rise to new plants.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 9

Rhizome of ginger is a modification of stem because:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 9
  • The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes. Rhizome of ginger is a modification of stem because it bears nodes and internodes.
  • Rhizome is a modified stem of a plant that is usually found underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes.
  • Rhizomes are also called creeping root stalks. Rhizomes develop from axillary buds and are diageotropic or grow perpendicular to the force of gravity. The rhizome also retains the ability to allow new shoots to grow upwards.

Hence, the correct option is B.

NCERT Reference: Page no. 68 of topic “5.2.1 Modifications of Stem” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 10

Phylloclade is found in ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 10
  • Phylloclade is found in Opuntia and Cactus. Phylloclades and cladodes are modified branches. They are flattened structures that are photosynthetic and resemble leaf-like branches. 
  • They store water inside the tissue. The leaves are modified into spines. 

Hence, the correct option is D.

NCERT Reference: Page no. 68 of topic “5.2.1 Modifications of Stem” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 11

Broad part of leaf is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 11
  • The Blade, or lamina, is the broad, flat part of the leaf. Photosynthesis occurs in the blade, which has many green food-making cells.
  • The leaf is attached to the stem by the leaf base and may bear two lateral small leaf-like structures called stipules.
  • The petiole help hold the blade to light. Long thin flexible petioles allow leaf blades to flutter in wind, thereby cooling the leaf and bringing fresh air to leaf surface. 

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 70 of topic “5.3 THE LEAF” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 12

Nodulated roots occur in ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 12
  • Nodulated roots are found mainly on legume plants and they form a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria.
  • The pea plant, Pisum sativum, is a legume plant that has nodulated roots.
  • The pea belongs to the family Fabaceae or Leguminosae.

Hence, the correct option is A.

NCERT Reference: Page no. 78 of topic “5.9 DESCRIPTION OF SOME IMPORTANT FAMILIES” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 13

Pneumatophores occur in plants of ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 13

Pneumatophores are short, vertical and negatively geotropic roots that occur in mangrove plants. Plants having pneumatophores grow in salty marshes. They have lateral roots that grow upward into the air from horizontally secondary roots. These are called as halophytes.

Hence, the correct option is C.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 67 of topic “5.1.2 Modifications of Root” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 14

Thorns, spines and prickles are:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 14

Thorns, spines and prickles are modifications in plants that act as defensive organs and prevent them from attack from various insects.

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 71 of topic “5.3.4 Modifications of Leaves” and page no. 68 of topic “5.2.1 Modifications of Stem”of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 15

In onion the swollen underground structure is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 15
  • Bulbs are underground buds with the stem reduced to small discs on which short, fleshy storage leaves grow. These leaves are enclosed by thick scales.
  • Bulb scales morphologically are the continuous sheathing leaf bases.
  • Bulbs are produced by monocotyledon plants in which the usual structure is modified for storage and reproduction. The outer scales are dry and inner scales are generally fleshy and contain reserve food material.
    Example: Onion.
Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 16

A monocot can be distinguished from a dicot by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 16

Venation refers to the pattern of arrangement of veins in the leaflet. The monocots have their leaf veins arranged in a parallel manner with respect to each other whereas in case of dicots the leaf veins are reticulated or muzzled up.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 70 of topic “5.3.1 Venation” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 17

The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 17

The placenta is attached to the developing seed near the hilum.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 18

A plant with parallel venation is ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 18

Grass is the correct option because veins on the lamina run parallel to one another is called parallel venation. It is characteristically found in monocot plants and grass is a characteristic of monocot plant.

Hence, the correct option is B.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 70 of topic “5.3.1 Venation” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 19

Leaves are changed into spines in Xerophytic structure called:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 19
  • A modified stem that is flattened and capable of unlimited growth is called as phylloclade. It carries out photosynthesis. It is a xerophytic adaptation. Leaves are changed into spines in xerophytic structures called phylloclade.
    Examples include Opuntia.
  • Opuntia is a xerophytic plant, in which leaves are modified into spines to reduce the rate of respiration.
  • A modified stem capable of limited growth is called as cladode. It carries out photosynthesis. Examples include Ruscus, Asparagus species.
  • Phyllode is a petiole modified into a leaf-like structure.

Hence, the correct option is C.

NCERT Reference: Page no. 68 of topic “5.2.1 Modifications of Stem” of chapter 5

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 20

A dicot plant showing parallel venation is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 20

Reticulate venation is a characteristic of dicots and parallel venation is of monocots. But few exceptions are also seen in this generalization: parallel venation is also found in dicot plants.
Example: Calophyllum, corymbium , etc., and reticulate venation is also found in monocot plants such Alocasia, Smilax, etc. 

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 21

Verticillaster inflorescence occurs in:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 21

Verticillaster is a special type of inflorescence seen in Leucas. At each node of the stem two axillary opposite cymose inflorescences develop on either side. The cyme in the axil of each leaf starts as a dichasial cyme but subsequently becomes a monochasial scorpioid cyme. As a result, the cyme bends round the stem on either side and meets a similar cyme from the opposite side. Hence, at each node there is a cluster of flowers completely surrounding the stem. It is a characteristic of family Labiatae. 

► Cucurbitaceae family shows axillary solitary inflorescence. 
► Thyrse inflorescence is a characteristic of the Rubiaceae family. 
► Capitulum inflorescence is a characteristic of family Asteraceae. 

Hence, the correct option is D.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 22

In cyathium the ratio between female to male flower is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 22

Cyathium inflorescence consists of a single central female flower surrounded by many groups of male flowers. In each group the male flowers are borne in scorpiod manner and the inflorescence is surrounded by an involucre.
Example: Euphorbia.

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 23

Capitulum is a modification of ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 23

Capitulum (Head): It is a modified raceme in which the main axis is flattened, called receptacle.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 24

A biparous cyme ending  in a uniparous cyme constitutes ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 24
  • A biparous cyme ending in a uniparous cyme constitutes the verticillasterVerticillaster inflorescence is an inflorescence in which the flowers are arranged in a seeming whorl, consisting in fact of a pair of opposite axillary, usually sessile, cymes, as in many mints.
  • A verticillaster is a fascicle with the structure of a dichasium; it is common among the Lamiaceae. Many verticillasters with reduced bracts can form a spicate (spike-like) inflorescence that is commonly called as a spike.

Hence, the correct option is A.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 25

Flowers are sessile in ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 25

Flowers are sessile in spike. A spike is an unbranched, indeterminate inflorescence, similar to a raceme but bearing sessile flowers (sessile flowers are attached directly, without stalks). Examples occur on Malabar nut (Justicia adhatoda) and chaff flowers. 

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 26

The flowers in the raceme/racemose are arranged ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 26

It is acropetally arranged because since the plant continues to grow it's clockwise arrangements gives the maximum absorption of light for photosynthesis and help the plant to form buds for its upgrowth.

Hence, the correct option is A.
NCERT Reference: Page no. 72 of topic “5.4 THE INFLORESCENCE” of chapter 5.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 27

The most advanced type of Inflorescence is:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 27

Capitulum (Head): It is a characteristic of compositae (Asteraceae). Peduncle is flattened to form a receptacle that bears centripetally arranged small sessile flowers called florets surrounded by involucre of bracts.
Example: Marigold, Sunflower.

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 28

Three types of flowers occur in the Inflorescence of:

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 28
  • Hypanthodium has a flask-shaped fleshy receptacle which possesses a narrow canal and a terminal pore at one end. The pore is surrounded by a few scales while the canal is lined by downwardly pointed hairs.
  • Internally the receptacle bears male flowers towards the pore and female flowers towards the base. Sterile, neuter or gall flowers occur in between the two groups.
  • The inflorescence is formed by the condensation of three types of flower- bearing axes (cymose groups).
  • Hypanthodium is found in the genus Ficus of the family Moraceae, e.g., Peepal (Ficus religiosa), Banyan (Ficus bengalensis), and Fig (Ficus carica).

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 29

Axis of Inflorescence is ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 29
  • The peduncle is the main axis of an inflorescence or the axis bearing a flower or fruit.
  • Thalamus is the thickened part of a stem from which the flower organs grow in angiosperms.
  • The petiole is the cylindrical stalk that joins the leaf base with the leaf blade or lamina.
  • The pedicel is a stem that attaches a single flower to the inflorescence. 

Hence, the correct option is B.

Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 30

Pedicellate flowers arising from a single point form ______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Roots, Stems and Leaves - 2 - Question 30
  • Umbel in which the main axis is reduced very much and all flowers appear to be arising from the same point. At the base of flowers, clusters of bracts form an involucre. It is a type of racemose inflorescence. Example is hydrocotyle.
  • Cymose in which the main axis terminates into a flower and hence has a limited growth. In cymose inflorescence the flowers are borne in a basipetal order. Examples are begonia, oak and Solanum.
  • Capitulum or head bears many sessile and small florets. The main axis becomes flat and called receptacle. It is a type of racemose inflorescence. Example is sunflower.
  • Verticillaster is a cluster of sessile or subsessile flowers borne on a dichasial ending in monochasial cyme in the form of condensed whorl on either side of the node. Example is tulsi.

Hence, the correct option is A.

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