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QUESTION: 1

The bed of an alluvial channel along the flow will always be

Solution:

QUESTION: 2

The minimum size of sediment that may remain stable in an alluvial channel, carrying discharge intensity q, with hydraulic radius R and bottom slope S, is

Solution:

For stability

QUESTION: 3

The Garret’s diagrams are based on

Solution:

A lot of mathematical calculations are required in designing irrigation channels by the use of Kennedy’s method . To save mathematical calculations, graphical solution of Kennedy’s and Kutter’s equation, was evolved by Garret.

QUESTION: 4

The most important shape parameter in sediment analysis is

Solution:

QUESTION: 5

The wetted perimeter P of a stable channel is proportional to where, Q is the discharge

Solution:

The wetted perimeter P of a channel is given by,

P = 4.75√Q

QUESTION: 6

Lacey’s regime theory is not applicable to a channel in

Solution:

Lacey said that even a channel showing no silting no scouring may actually not be in regime. He differentiated between three regime conditions.

(i) True regime

(ii) Initial regime and

(iii) Final regime

According-to him, a channel which is under ‘initial’ regime is not a channel in regime, as there is no silting or scouring and hence regime theory is not applicable to such channels. His theory is therefore applicable only to; those channels, which are either in true regime or in final regime.

QUESTION: 7

Hydraulic depth is the ratio of

Solution:

QUESTION: 8

For a most economical trapezoidal channel section

Solution:

QUESTION: 9

Counter berms are provided in an irrigation canal

Solution:

If after providing sufficient section for bank embankment, the saturated gradient cuts the downstream end of the bank the saturation line is covered by atleast 0.5 metre with the help of counter berms at the outer side of the canal banks.

QUESTION: 10

Lacey assumed that the silt is kept in suspension because of normal components of eddies generated from

Solution:

Lacey states that silt is kept in suspension due to force of vertical eddies. According to him, the eddies are generated from bed and sides, both normal to surface of generation. Hence vertical component of eddies generated from sides will also support the silt.

### Open Channel Flow, Irrigation Engineering

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