Test: Socialism In Europe And The Russian Revolution - 4


25 Questions MCQ Test History(Prelims) by UPSC Toppers | Test: Socialism In Europe And The Russian Revolution - 4


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QUESTION: 1

Which among the following groups was against any kind of political or social change ?

Solution:

Conservatives were against the any type of political or social change because they do not want any change in society and they want to follow ancient rules that's why they are against any change in the society.

QUESTION: 2

Society in 18th century Europe was divided into

Solution:

The 18th century society was largely segregated into estates and orders  and it was the church and aristocracy who controlled social and economic power. The " estates of" the territory were  the expansive " orders of social hierarchy " adopted in Christian Europe from the medieval period to  early modern Europe.

QUESTION: 3

Which of the following statements is/are correct ?

Solution:

Russia faced a very tough situation during the First World War. The war on the eastern front' differed from that on the 'western front'.Defeats were shocking and demoralising. Russia's armies lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. By 1916, railway lines began to break down. 

The First World War badly hit the Russian industries. Russia's own industries were few in number and the country was cut off from other suppliers of industrial goods by German control of the Baltic sea.Industrial equipment disintegrated more rapidly in Russia than elsewhere in Europe. By 1916, railway lines began to break down. Able-bodied men were called up to the war. As a result, there were labour shortages and small workshops producing essentials were shut down.Large supplies of grain were sent to feed the army.

Hence, all the statements are correct.

QUESTION: 4

Karl Marx wanted workers to overthrow :

Solution:

Karl Marx wanted to overthrow Capitalism as he felt the system to be exploitative of the laborers, known as the proletariat. 

He felt that the capitalists were only interested in the expansion of business and in the increase of their profits. 

They were not concerned with the benefits of the people putting in their labour.

QUESTION: 5

To coordinate the efforts of socialists all over Europe, an international body was formed in Europe (in 1889) called the :

Solution:

The Second International (1889–1916), the original Socialist International, was an organization of socialist and labour parties formed in Paris on 14 July 1889. At the Paris meeting, delegations from twenty countries participated.The International continued the work of the dissolved First International, though excluding the still-powerful anarcho-syndicalist movement and unions and by 1922 April 2 at a major post-World War I conference it began to reorganize into the Labor and Socialist International.

QUESTION: 6

Which of these statements is/are correct about Europe after the French Revolution ?

Solution:

The correct option is D.
The French Revolution opened up the possibility of creating a dramatic change in the way in which society was structured.
(ii) Before the 18th century society was broadly divided into estates  and orders and it was the aristocracy and church which controlled  economic and social power.
(iii) Suddenly, after the revolution, it seemed possible to change this. In many parts of the world including Europe and Asia, new ideas  about individual rights and who controlled social power began to  be discussed.
(iv) In India, Raja Rammohan Roy and Derozio talked of the significance of the French Revolution and many others debated the ideas of post-revolutionary Europe.
(v) The developments in the colonies, in turn, reshaped these ideas of societal change.
 

QUESTION: 7

The majority religion of Russia was ___________ but the empire also included _________

Solution:

The majority of believers belong to the Orthodox Christian denomination.

Russia adopted Christianity under Prince Vladimir of Kiev in 988, in a ceremony patterned on Byzantine rites. Russia’s baptism laid the foundations for the rise of the Russian Orthodox Church.

QUESTION: 8

What distinguishes liberals from democrats ?

Solution:

Liberals were not ‘democrats’. They did not believe in universal adult franchise, that is, the right of every citizen to vote. They felt men of property mainly should have the vote. They also did not want the vote for women.

QUESTION: 9

Which of the following factors made autocracy unpopular in Russia ?

Solution:

The Russian autocracy  was  unpopular :-

1. Tsar was a dictator. Under him the condition of peasants and workers became miserable because he never paid attention to their interests.

so they always remained deprived .

2. Also, the defeat of russia in world war ignited the anger among people. particularly, tsars adviser - rasputin made autocracy more unpopular.

QUESTION: 10

Which of the statements given about the Socialist Revolutionary Party is not true ?

Solution:

Peasants were not a United group as they stood divided. some were poor and others rich; some worked as laborers while others were capitalists who employed workers.

QUESTION: 11

Which of the following statements is incorrect about the Socialists till 1914 ?

Solution:

Workers in England and Germany began forming associations to fight for better living and working conditions. They set up funds to help members in times of distress and demanded a reduction of working hours and the right to vote. In Germany, these associations worked closely with the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and helped it win parliamentary seats. By 1905, socialists and trade unionists formed a Labour Party in Britain and a Socialist Party in France. However, till 1914, socialists never succeeded in forming a government in Europe.

QUESTION: 12

Which of the following statement (s) is/are correct regarding what the ‘liberals’ wanted ?

Solution:

European states usually discriminated in favour of one religion or another. Britain favoured the Church of England, Austria and Spain favoured the Catholic Church. Liberals opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safeguard the rights of individuals against governments and argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, a well-trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials. They were not democrats and did not believe in the universal adult franchise. They felt that the men of property mainly should have the vote and did not want the vote for women.

QUESTION: 13

How can you say that the ‘liberals’ were not ‘democrats’ ?

Solution:

Liberals were not democratic because they didn't supported universal adult franchise i.e., the right to vote.

According to them only those should have right those who have property and are from well off family.

Also they didn't wanted that women should get right to vote.

And therefore their decision were not democratic.

QUESTION: 14

What were the ideas of ‘conservatives’ regarding social change in the 19th century ?

Solution:

Conservatives were opposed to radicals and liberals. After the French Revolution, however, even conservatives had opened their minds to the need for change. Earlier, in the eighteenth century, conservatives had been generally opposed to the idea of change. By the nineteenth century, they accepted that some change was inevitable but believed that the past had to be respected and change had to be brought about through a slow process.

QUESTION: 15

Who led the procession of workers to the event ‘Bloody Sunday’ in Russia ?

Solution:

When the procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace it was attacked by the police and the Cossacks. Over 100 workers were killed and about 300 wounded. The incident, known as Bloody Sunday, started a series of events that became known as the 1905 Revolution.

QUESTION: 16

What kind of developments took place as a result of new political trends in Europe ?

Solution:

To support the new political trends there was massive expansion creating more infrastructures and rising cities.

QUESTION: 17

In order to develop societies, liberals and radicals believed

Solution:

Both liberals and radicals firmly believed in value of individual effort, labour and enterprise. They were in favour of privileges based on merit not birth.

QUESTION: 18

Why did some liberals and radicals become revolutionaries in France, Italy, Russia etc.?

Solution:

The liberals were in favour of safeguarding the rights of individuals against governments and hence opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers,they also argued for a representative, elected parliamentary government, whereas radicals opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners and disliked the concentration of power in the hands of few but were not against the existence of private property. So, Both liberals and radicals become revolutionaries in France, Italy, Russia etc as wanted to overthrow the existing monarchs.

QUESTION: 19

By the mid-19th century in Europe, the idea which attracted widespread attention on the restructuring of society was

Solution:

By the mid-nineteenth century in Europe, socialism was a well-known body of ideas that attracted widespread attention.
Socialists were against private property and saw it as the root of all social evils of the time. rather then single individuals controlling property, they wanted that more attention would be paid to collective social interests.  

QUESTION: 20

Who conspired in Italy to bring about a revolution ?

Solution:

Giuseppe Mazzini, (born June 22, 1805, Genoa [Italy]-died March 10, 1872, Pisa, Italy), Genoese propagandist and revolutionary, founder of the secret revolutionary society Young Italy (1832), and a champion of the movement for Italian unity known as the Risorgimento. 

QUESTION: 21

After the year 1500, the rulers of Russia were called –           

Solution:

​The Russian honorific "tsar"—sometimes spelled "czar"—derives from none other than Julius Caesar, who predated theRussian empire by 1,500 years. Equivalent to a king or an emperor, the Tsar was the autocratic, all-powerful ruler of Russia, an institution that lasted from the mid-16th to the early 20th centuries.

QUESTION: 22

Under the system of ..........., the government owns all farms and industries.           

Solution:

Communism is a system of government where all the property is public and the government owns and controls the manufacturing and transportation industries. People share equally from the benefits of labor and they receive the things they need from the government. 

QUESTION: 23

The ................ was fought in 1917 because people in Russia were unhappy with the new government.           

Solution:

Lenin was unhappy with the results of the February Revolution because Russia was still fighting World War I and the provisional government was being supported by many Russians.

QUESTION: 24

The Russian people wanted peace, land and ...           

Solution:

The Second Revolution: 'Peace, bread and land'

Vladimir Lenin knew how unhappy the people of Russia were.

He promised them lots of things that they wanted - his slogan was peace, bread and land. This promise made him very popular.

Lenin was the leader of a group of revolutionaries called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks wanted to bring a new political system called communism to Russia.

QUESTION: 25

........... was the leader of Bolsheviks.           

Solution:

Vladimir Lenin was the architect of Russia's 1917 Bolshevik revolution and the first leader of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. A prominent Marxist, Lenin was born in 1870 in Russia with the last name Ulianov. He picked up his radical beliefs during college, where he earned a law degree. After college, he became a professional revolutionary and his activities got him exiled to Siberia for three years, from 1897 to 1900.