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# Test: Solid State Physics - 2

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Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 1

### A monoatomic. cubic material has lattice spacing of a. The sound velocity for longitudinal and transverse phonons is approximately equal. CT = CL = C, is isotropic. The debye frequency of the phonons will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 1

In debye model, the dispersion, related is approximated to be ω = ck and in 3-D case, the density of state is in the form of

where, V= L3 and the factor of 3 is due to the tact that there are one longitudinal and two transverse vibration modes for each k state.
If total number of states in solid is N. then

Since, there are three states associated with each atom (2 for transverse and one for longitudinal vibration)
So,

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 2

### Graphite lias a layered crystal structure in which the coupling between carbon atoms in different lasers is much weaker than the atoms in the same layer. Using Debye theory, the specific heat is proportional to (where T is the temperature)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 2

According to debye-model the density of states for a two dimension and lattice is

Hence, total energy.

For
⇒

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 3

### All X-ray beam of wavelength 1.7 Å is diffracted by a cubic KC1 ciystal of density 1.99 x 103 kg m-3. The interplance spacing for (200) planes and the glancing angle for the second order reflection from these planes will be (given that molecular weight of KC1 is 74.6 amu)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 3

For cubic crystal we have

n' = 4 because KC1 has fee structure
a = 6.29 x 10-10 m

From Bragg's law, 2d sin θ = nλ
n = 2

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 4

Elections of mass m are confined to one dimension. A weak periodic potential described by the fourier series

The energy gap (to first order) at  (between the first and second band is)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 4

In such problems, the energy bands will be essentially parabolic with gaps at every point of degeneracy. This degeneracy is removed by mixing the corresponding wavefunctions and perturbation potential.
Solve the matrix element,  Iii the neighbourhood of k  (for lower band) and or the upper band L is the length of sys te m ψ1 and ψ2 are calculated using extended zone
scheme

W lien we diagnolise the Hamiltonia matrix we get the energy gap,

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 5

All electron of mass m moves in a square lattice of lattice spacing a. Assume that the nearly free electron approximation holds good. If there are two electrons per site, then which of the following is correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 5

With two electrons per site, assuming that the constant energy lines are circles, we obtain

71
This value is larger than π/a. Therefore, we needs to consider the two bands. There will be two fermi surface. a
one in the upper band and other in the lower band. Each of the band is partially filled, with two electrons per site the NFE approximation leads to a metal.

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 6

A paramagnetic substance lias 1028 atoms/m3. The magnetic moment of each atom is 1.8x10-23 Am2. Wliat would be the dipole moment of a bar of this material 0.1 meter long and 1 cnr cross-section placed in a field of 8x 10Am-1?

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 6

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 7

A uniform silver wire has a resistivity of 1.54 x 10-8 Clm at room temperature and there are 5.8 x 1028 conduction electrons per m3. If an electric field of 1 volt cm is applied along the wire, the relaxation time of electron will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 7

Mobility,
Relaxation time τ is given by

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 8

Assuming that there are 1027 molecules /m3 in HCl vapour. The oiientation polarization at room temperature if the vapour is subjected to an electric field of 106 V/m will be (given that dipole moment of HCl molecule is 3.46x10-30 c-m)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 8

Orientation polarizability is given by

Hence, the orientational polarization will given by

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 9

Assume that the energy of the two particles in the field of each other is given by  where
α and β are cosntants and r is the distance between the centres of paiticles. In stable configuration, the ratio of energy of attraction to the energy of repulsion will be____________(Answer should be an integer)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 9

Force,
For stable configuration, F= 0 at r - r0
⇒
E1=Energy of attraction
E2 = Energy of repulsion

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 10

Sodium transforms frombcc to hep at about T = 23 K. Assumig that the density remains fixed and c/a ratio is
ideal. The hcp lattice spacing, a [given that the cubic lattice spacing a' = 4.23Å in the cubic phase] is_______Å (Answer should be upto two decimal places)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 10

Density of bcc structure is 2 atoms per a'3 density of hep structue is 2 atoms per the volume of primitive unit cell V0.
Volume of unit cell

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 11

Atoms are arranged in a one-dimensional chain with lattice spacing a. Each atom is represented by the potential V(x) = . The energy gaps between the bands, assuming that the nearly free electron approximation holds good, is

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 11

The energy gaps one determined by the fourier components of lattice potential. For the dirac-delta potentially. Tlie matrix elements are

Independent of n.
So, energy gap,

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 12

The effective mass tensor (Mij) for electrons in a simple cubic tight binding band at the centre (k = (0, 0,0) of the brillion zone will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 12

The electron energy in tight binding approximation is

Therefore, effective mass tensor,
At (0, 0, 0 )

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 13

Consider a two dimensional hexagonal lattice if lattice spacing a = 3 Å and sound velocity c = 103 m/sec. The debye frequency, wD is (provide a numerical value in sec-1)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 13

The debye wave-number. kD is defined such that the total number of states within a radius of kD equals the total number of states in the Biillion zone.
⇒
⇒

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 14

For a diatomic linear chain, the phonon dispersion relation ω (k) has two branches corresponding to + and - sign respectively

There are two atoms in the unit cell with masses and M2 and the force constant of nearest neighbour interaction is F and the effective mass is kept constant. The velocity of sound will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 14

Sound velocity,
Consider acquostic Branch, As q → 0, sin2
⇒

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 15

Consider a two dimensional square lattice with one atom of mass m per lattice point interacting with only nearest neighbours with force constant k. Take the phonon dispersion curve to be  At high temperature  the mean square displacement of an atom from its equilibrium position will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 15

Total internal energy of the lattice

If there are N atoms in lattice

At high temperature, average P.E. equals average K.E., hence half the total energy

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 16

For a hexagonal closed packed structure with periodic potential  (G being a reciprocal lattice G
vector). If G corrosponding to the first brillion zone face in the C direction C that is normal to the face is in the (001) direction), then the value of VG is

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 16

If there are n identical atoms in the unit cell with positions. d1,d2........dj...,dn
Periodic potential.

where R is the position of lattice point.

Where,  is the geomatric structure factor
Unit cell of hcp contains 2 atoms at (0,0,0) and

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 17

A type-II superconducting wire of radius R carries current uniformly through its cross-section. If die total current earned by the wire is I. the magnetic energy per unit length of the wire is I. the magnetic energy per unit length of the wire is

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 17

Magnetic energy,
Magnetic energy per unit length.

Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 18

The penetrating depth of mercury at 3.5 k is about 750 Å. The penetration depth at OK will be

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 18

From the formula for penetration depth

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 19

Consider two dimensional electrons subjected to a weak periodic potential coming from a square lattice of spacing a = 5Å. For k vectors for away from the bu llion zone boundaries, the wavefunctions can be well
described by plane waves. Assume we want to write the wavefunction in block form,. Consider a state of energy E and wavevector  The lowest energy at this wave number will be ________________eV (upto second decimal places)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 19

from schrodiner equation,

⇒
where, k* extends over entire space.
So, we can transform k* into first B.z. by translation

For lowest energy,
= 3.806x 0.5 x 0.5 = 3.806x 0.25

*Answer can only contain numeric values
Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 20

Assume that the E vs k relationship for electrons in the conduction band of a hypothetical tetravalent n-type semiconductor can be approximated by E = ak2 + constant. The cyclotron resonane for electrons in a field B = 0.1 Weber/m2 occurs at an angular frequency ωe = 1.8 x 1011 rad s-1The value of a is_______x 10-38(in the untis of Jm2)

Detailed Solution for Test: Solid State Physics - 2 - Question 20

Electron in conduction band behaves as if it had an effective mass m* given by

Cyclotron resonance frequency for the electron is

⇒

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