Test: Surface Tension, Capillarity, Vapour Pressure & Cavitation


10 Questions MCQ Test Fluid Mechanics | Test: Surface Tension, Capillarity, Vapour Pressure & Cavitation


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QUESTION: 1

Calculate the magnitude of capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 7mm diameter, when immersed in mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 25℃ and the values of surface tension of mercury at 25℃ is 0.51 N/m. The angle of contact for mercury is 130°.

Solution:

Explanation: Capillarity rise or fall
h=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*d
=4*cos130*0.51/13600*9.81*0.007
=140 mm.

QUESTION: 2

Determine the minimum size of glass tube that can be used to measure water level if the capillary rise in the tube is restricted to 5mm. Consider surface tension of water in contact with air as 0.073 N/m

Solution:

Explanation: d=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*h
=4*1*0.073/1000*9.81*0.005
=5.95mm.

QUESTION: 3

An oil of vicosity 7 poise is used for lubrication between shaft and sleeve. The diameter of shaft is 0.6 m and it rotates is 360 rpm. Calculate the power lost in oil for a sleeve length of 160mm. The thickness of oil film is 1.0mm

Solution:

Explanation: Power lost= torque * angular velocity
= force* radius* angular velocity
= shear stress * area* radius* angular velocity
Shear Stress = viscosity* velocity gradient
Power lost= 7916.8*3.142*0.3*0.3*0.3*2*3.142*60
= 25.31 kW.

QUESTION: 4

 Find the capillarity rise or fall if a capillary tube of diameter .03m is immersed in hypothetical fluid with specific gravity 6.5, surface tension 0.25 N/m and angle of contact 147°.

Solution:

Explanation: h=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*d
=4*cos147*0.25/6.5*1000*9.81*0.03
=-0.44 mm i.e 0.44 mm fall.

QUESTION: 5

Will capillary rise occur and if it occurs what will be capillary rise if glass capillarity tube is immersed in water and experiment is carried out by astronauts in space.

Solution:

Explanation: Capillary rise is given by
h=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*d
hence rise is inversely proportional to g
In space g is 0 m/s2
Hence, capillarity rise will occur finitely and will be the whole length of tube.

QUESTION: 6

The surface tension of fluid in contact with air at 25℃ is 0.51N/m. The pressure inside a droplet is to be 0.05 N/cm2 greater than outside pressure. Determine the diameter of the droplet of water.

Solution:

Explanation: P=4*σ/d
d= 4*.51/500
=4.08 mm.

QUESTION: 7

 If a fluid of certain surface tension and diameter is used to create a soap bubble and a liquid jet. Which of the two, bubble or liquid jet, will have greater pressure difference on the inside and outside.

Solution:

Explanation: For soap bubble,
P=8*σ/d
For liquid jet,
P=2*σ/d
Hence, soap bubble will be having more pressure difference.

QUESTION: 8

Capillarity fall is reduced if we take the appartus (capillary tube immersed in fluid having acute angle of contact) considerable distance inside the earth( i.e below the earth crust).

Solution:

Explanation: Capillary rise is given by
h=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*d
Inside the earth, g (acceleration due to gravity) decreases. Hence, capillary rise will increase compared to that on the earth’s surface.

QUESTION: 9

 For liquid fluids will capillarity rise (or fall) increase or decrease with rise in temperature.

Solution:

Explanation: Capillary rise is given by
h=4*cosθ*σ/ρ*g*d
As temperature increases, σ(surface tension) decreases. Therefore, correspondingly rise(or fall) will decrease as their is direct proportional relation between the two.

QUESTION: 10

Cavitation is more pronounced in rough pipes than smooth surfaced pipes.

Solution:

Explanation: Rough surfaced pipes have more friction with the fluid and hence possibility of cavitation is more pronounced.

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