The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe, after 1871, was an area called
The internal rivalries and jealousies made the Balkan states distrust and fear each other.
As the Balkans had become site for big power fights, the situation became even more serious.
The fights were among European powers who fought for trade and colonies and for naval and military powers.
Assertion: Ideas of national unity in early-nineteenth-century Europe were closely allied to the ideology of liberalism.
Reason: So in 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia.
a) The term liberalism comes from the Latin root liber which meant to be free.
In the political sense, liberalism stood for freedom for the individual and equality of all before the law. It emphasised on the end of aristocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament and the inviolability of private property, drawing its basic foundation from the French Revolution.
b) In 1834, a customs union or Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia. It was joined by most of the German States. The aim of Zollverein was to bind the Germans economically into a nation. It helped to awaken and raise national sentiment in German people through a fusion of individual and provincial interests.
Who were the ‘Junkers’?
Junkers was a common word to denote all the landed nobility who owned great estates. These estates were owned by small peasants who had few rights.
Which of the following did the European conservatives not believe in?
They realized that modernization could in fact strengthen traditional institutions like the monarchy.
A modern army, an efficient bureaucracy, a dynamic economy, the abolition of feudalism and serfdom could strengthen the autocratic monarchies in Europe.
Assertion: Conservatives believed that established, traditional institutions of state and society like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.
Reason: In 1815, representatives of the European powers - Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria drew up the Treaty of Vienna of 1815.
Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria- collectively defeated the Napoleon in 1815. Their representatives met at Vienna to draw up a settlement for Europe. They drew up the Treaty of Vienna in 1815. Its main objective was undoing most of the changes that had come about in Europe during the Napoleonic wars. Now, European governments were driven by a spirit of conservatism. Conservatives believed that traditional institutions of state and society like the monarchy, the Church, social hierarchies, property and the family should be preserved.
Which treaty recognised Greece as an independent nation?
Under this treaty, Greece recognized as an independent nation. The Treaty of Constantinople was part of the Constantinople Conference which began in 1832. The participation of this conference included France, Britain, and Russia (Great powers) and on the other side the Ottoman Empire.
Which of the following was not a part of Napoleon’s defeat?
In 1796, the French Army of Italy under Napoleon invaded Italy with the aims of forcing the First Coalition to abandon Sardinia and forcing Austria to withdraw from Italy. Within only two weeks, Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia was forced to sign an armistice.
Which of the following is not true with reference to Napoleon?
Napoleon was a good administrator and a dictator whose proficiency led to the smooth functioning of the administrative system. He introduced the Napoleonic code of 1804 which was considered as a main step in enforcing the rule of law.
1. The old royal and feudal laws which were very conflicting and confusing were reformed.
2. The Napoleonic code was transmitted to all the regions which were under the control of the French.
By which of the following treaties was the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed?
The United Kingdom of Britain was formed when Scotland and England made a treaty in 1707 to incorporate Scotland into England. However, this treaty imposed English language and English culture on Scotland. It was the start of the formation of United Kingdom. It is also known as the Act of Union of 1707.
Which of the following countries is considered as the ‘cradle of European civilization’?
Greece is the cradle of European civilisation. It gave birth to almost every aspect of our culture, from theatre and democracy to the Olympics and philosophy.
When “France sneezes, the rest of Europe catches a cold.” Who said these words?
If "France sneezes, rest of Europe catches cold" was said by Metternich, the Austrian Chancellor.
He opined that the political developments in France were stimulative to other countries of Europe like the French Revolution and the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Which of the following group of powers collectively defeated Napoleon?
Four Countries were responsible for Napoleon's Defeat:
► B= Britain
► R= Russia
► A= Austria
► P= Prussia
Which of the following did not play a role to develop nationalist sentiments?
Climate did not play a role in the development of national sentiments.
Which one of the following is true regarding how the new artists depicted liberty during the French Revolution?
As a female figure with a torch of enlightenment in one hand and the Charter of Rights of Man on the other hand.
Romanticism refers to a:
Romanticism was an artistic, intellectual and cultural movement that ran from the late eighteenth century through the nineteenth century.
Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century.