Test: Translation (NCERT)

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Match column with column II and select the correct option from the given codes.


What would happen, if in a gene encoding a polypeptide of 50 amino acids, 25th codon (UAU) is mutated to UAA?


UAA is a nonsense codon. It signals for polypeptide chain termination. Hence, only 24 amino acids chain will be formed.


During translation, activated amino acids get linked to (RNA). This process is commonly called as


During translation, a (RNA) is specifically linked to an amino acid, this process takes place under the direction of an enzyme, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase that is extremely specific, i.e., recognises only one amino acid. (RNA) complexed with amino acid is called as charged tRNA. The process is referred to a charging or aminoacylation of tRNA.


Which RNA carries the amino acids from the amino acid pool to mRNA during protein synthesis?


Translation is the process of polymerisation by which the triplet base sequence of a mRNA guides the linking of a specific sequence of amino acids to form a polypeptides (protein) on ribosomes. Each tRNA is specific to an amino acid, as tRNAs are added to the sequence, amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds, eventually forming a protein that is later released by the tRNA.


Choose the correct answer from the alternatives given :
Direction : Read the sequence of nucleotides in the given segment of mRNA and the respective amino acid sequence in the polypeptide chain.

Polypeptide  Met-Phe-Met-Pro-Val-Ser
Which codons respectively code for proline and valine amino acids in the given polypeptide chain, respectively?


 codon is a sequence of three nucleotides on an mRNA strand that encodes a specific amino acid. 
Sixty-four different three nucleotide combinations (codons) can be made using the four nucleotides in mRNA (43 = 64 combinations).
Following are the codons that represent Valine and proline respectively.
Valine: GUA, GUC, GUG, GUU
proline:  CCT, CCC, CCA, CCG


Refer to the diagram which shows the synthesis of a part of a protein molecule.
Which of the following is the first part of protein molecule that would be translated from mRNA2​?


In a mRNA molecule, untranslated regions (UTRs) are present at


mRNA has some additional sequences that are not translated and are referred as untranslated regions, (UTRs). The UTRs are present at both 5 end (before start codon) and at 3-end (after stop codon). They are required for efficient translation process.


Given below are the steps of protein synthesis. Arrange them in. correct sequence and select the correct option.
(i) Codon-anticodon reaction between mRNA and aminoacyl tRNA complex.
(ii) Attachment of mRNA and smaller sub-unit of ribosome.
(iii) Charging or aminoacylation of tRNA.
(iv) Attachment of larger sub unit of ribosome to the mRNA-tRNAMet complex.
(v) Linking of adjacent amino acids.
(vi) Formation of polypeptide chain.


Aminoacyl tRNA synthetase is an enzyme that attaches the appropriate amino acid onto its tRNA. This step  is called as the charging of the tRNA with appropriate amino acid to the anti-codon arm. The mRNA is hence attached to the tRNA and a small sub unit of the ribosome is assembled primarily which is the cellular factory that is responsible for the translation of mRNA to proteins.For initiation the ribosome binds to the mRNA at the start codon that is recognized by the initiator tRNA. The larger sub-unit of the ribosome has two sites for subsequent amino acids to bind and thus be close enough to each other to form a peptide bond. Hence, acting as a catalyst for the peptide bond formation. This linking is the process of the peptide bond formation between two successive amino acids and the formed polypeptide chains with multiple peptide bonds exits from the ribosome. 


UTRs are the untranslated regions present on


mRNA has some additional sequences that are not translated and are referred as untranslated regions (UTRs). The UTRs are present at both the 5'-end (before the start codon) and the 3'-end (after the stop codon). They are required for an efficient translation process.


The difference(s) between mRNA and tRNA is/are that:
(i) mRNA has more elaborate 3 - dimensional structure due to extensive base - pairing
(ii) tRNA has more elaborate 3 - dimensional structure due to extensive pairing
(iii) tRNA is usually smaller than mRNA
(iv) mRNA bears anticodon but tRNA has codons


RNA is a five-carbon sugar which is attached with a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. In RNA all nitrogenous bases are the same as DNA but instead of pyrimidine thymine; uracil is attached to the sugar. A DNA molecule has coding and non-coding regions. The coding regions are known as the exons and the non-coding regions are known as introns. RNA is transcribed from DNA. There are various types of RNA present in an organisms’ body that have different functions. The RNA strand that is transcribed only from the coding region of the DNA is known as messenger RNA (mRNA). Its primary function is to make proteins. Different types of RNA are formed from non-coding parts of the DNA. One example is transfer RNA (tRNA). Its main function is to help mRNA in translation. tRNA is a small molecule in comparison to mRNA. Since mRNA is formed from the coding regions of the DNA, it has a more elaborate 3D structure than tRNA. This is due to extensive base-pairing.

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